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Bio 166 Lab Study (Test 1)

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What cavity does the brain occupy?
The cranial cavity
What are the major regions of the brain?
Cerebrum, Dienchephalon, Mesencephalon, Pons, Medulla oblongata, Cerebellum
What regions of the brain make up the brain stem?
Medulla oblongata, mesencephalon, and pons
What are the meninges that cover the brain?
Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, and Pia mater
Describe the extensions of the dura mater:
These extensions help stabalize the brain. There is a midsagittal fold that forms the falx celebri and seperates the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum. Then folds again as the tentorium cerebelli and seperates the cerebellum from the the cerebrum.
What is the function of the cerebrum?
Conscious thought, intellectual reasoning, memory processing and storage.
Where is the thalamus and hypothalamus found?
In the diencephalon.
What is the function of the dienchephalon?
The thalamus maintains all sensory impulses except for smell and proprioception. The hypothalamus control eating reflexes for licking, chewing, sucking, and swallowing.
What is proprioception?
The sense of muscle, bone, and joint position.
What is another name for the mesencephalon?
Midbrain
What are the functions of the mesencephalon?
The superior colliculi functions as a visual reflex center for eyeball and head movement and to keep an object centered on the retina. The inferior colliculi function as an auditory reflex to move the head, to locate and follow sounds.
What is the function of the pons?
Functions as a relay station to direct sensory information to the thalamus and cerebellum.
What is the function of the medulla oblongata?
Functions as an autonomic center for visceral functions. Vital reflex centers for the regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive activites.
What is the function of the cerebellum?
Involved in the coordination of somatic motor functions (skeletal muscle contractions). Learned muscles patterns (serving tennis ball or playing guitar) are stored here.
What are the 12 cranial nerves?
Olfactory (I), Optic (II), Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), Trigeminal (V), Abducens (VI), Facial (VII), Vestibulocochlear (VIII), Glossopharyngeal (IX), Vagus (X), Accessory (XI), Hypoglossal (XII)
What are the branches and function of the Olfactory (I) nerve?
It is a special sensory and it passes through the olfactory foramina of the ethmoid and supplies the olfactory epithelium.
What are the branches and function of the Optic (II) nerve?
It is a special sensory and passes through the optic canal and supplies the retina of the eye.
What are the branches and function of the Oculomotor (III) nerve?
It has motor function and it passes through superior orbital fissure and supplies inferior, medial, superior rectus, inferior oblique, and levator palpebrae superioris muscles; intrinsic eye muscles.
What are the branches and function of the Trochlear (IV) nerve?
It has motor function and it passes through the superior orbital fissure and supplies the superior oblique muscle.
What are the branches and function of the Trigeminal (V) nerve?
It branches to the ophthalmic, maxillary , and mandibular and it is a mixed sensory. It passes through the superior orbital fissure, the foramen rotundum, and foramen ovale. Its asWhasociated with jaw, orbital structures, eyelid, parts of face, and muscles of mastication.
What are the branches and function of the Abducens (VI) nerve?
It passes through the superior orbital fissure and supplies the lateral rectus muscle. Its primary function is motor.
What are the branches and function of the Facial (VII) nerve?
It passes through the internal acoustic canal to facial canal; exits at stylomastoid foramen. It supplies taste receptors and muscles of facial expression, lacrimal, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands.
What are the branches and function of the Vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve?
It branches to the cochlear vestibular and it passes through the internal acoustic canal and supplies the cochlea and vestibule.
What are the branches and function of the Glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve?
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