* patient must rince his/her mouth and gargle with water to minimize contamination with mouth flora or syliva.
*The patient is instructed to take three or four slow, deep breaths (inhaling to full capacity and exhaling fully) then cough forcefully on the last breath, coughing up a sputum, into a sterile container.
*A minimum of three to five mL is typically required for most sputum coultures.
* this process is repeated until a sufficient amount of sputum is obtained. (page 446)