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the scientific study of disease


the study of the cause of disease


the growth of a microorganism in the body


an abnormal state in which part or all of the body is not properly adjusted or is incapable of performing normal functions; any change from a state of health


a disease-causing organism


a microorganism that does not ordinarily cause a disease but can become pathogenic under certain circumstances

normal flora

the microorganisms that colonize a host without causing disease
These are more or less permanent residents and do not produce disease under normal conditions. These microbes are known as normal flora or normal microbiota.


organisms (usually refers to humans) that harbor pathogens and transmit them to others

Explain how Candida albicans, E. coli, Pneumocystis can cause opportunistic infections

e-coli: common strains of Escherichia coli are harmless or beneficial in the large intestine. However, E. coli is a very common cause of urinary tract infections if it gains access to that area and septicemia. Candida albicans= yeast lives in skin GI tract and vagina. Can cause thrush, diaper rash, vaginitis, pneumonia
Pneumocytosis= Now considered a Fungus. Most common opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed individuals

Explain how an individual can be infected with an organism but not have a disease.

asymptomatic carriers of a pathogen.
typhoid fever for example. (Typhoid mary) these people are important to living reservoirs of infection. Play an important role in the spread of diseases such as: AIDS, diphtheria, typhoid fever, hepatitis, gonorrhea, and streptococcal infections

Indicate the places in the human body that are normally inhabited by microflora.

GI Tract- more microbes found in GI tract, mouth, SI, LI (Lactobacillus, streptococcus)
Skin- highest level of microbes in dark moist areas (arm pit, groin, feet) staph aureus, staph epidermitis
Upper respiratory- nose, throat, 92 degrees associated with ear and sinus infection.
Urogenital track- UTI more commonly found in women then men.

Differentiate and give examples of a non-communicable, communicable and contagious disease.

non-communicable- not spread directly from person to person- EAR INFECTIONS
Communicable- HARD TO GET
contagious- spread easily from person to person. Spread in an aerosol. Usually respiratory infections-

Distinguish between a localized and systemic infection.

localized infection- an infection in which pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
systemic infection- an infection throughout the body


constantly present in the population in low numbers- common cold, tb, syphilis, chicken pox


spike in the number of cases- influenza, poilio 1950s, rubella in 1960


worldwide epidemic- plague in 1347-1351, small pox in the Americas, 1918-19 Flu Pandemix, AIDS

Define nosocomial infections and explain their importance.

hospital acquired infection- HAI
an infection you dont have going into the hospital but got it while at hospital
important in causing these infections- staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Enterococci, VRE
E. coli, Pseudomonas, aeruginosa, Enterobacter, klebsiella pneumonia
Clostridium difficile,
other gram bacteria

Identify the most frequently found nosocomial infection

Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Enterococci, VRE

Define epidemiology and indicate the role of CDC in tracking epidemics.

subbranch of public health. Deals with the etiology and occurrences of infectious diseases
nationally notifiable diseases. Physicians are required by law to report certain infectious diseases to CDC
63 nationally notifiable diseases
CDC publishes a MMWR

differentiate the terms- etiology and pathogenesis

the study of the cause of disease, whereas pathogenesis is the manner in which the disease develops

differentiate the terms- infection and disease

infection refers to the colonization of the body by a microorganism. Disease is any change from a state of health. A disease may, but does not always, result from infection


symbiosis refers to different organisms living together.


one of the organisms benefits and the other is unaffected; corynebacteria living on the surface of the eye


both organisms benefit; E. coli recieves nutrients and a constant temperature in the large intestine and procedures vitamin K and certain B vitamins that are useful for the human host.


one organism benefits while the other is harmed; Salmonella enterica receives nutrients and warmth in the large intestine, and the human host experience gastroenteritis or typhoid fever

communicable disease and noncommunicable disease

a communicable disease is a disease that is spread from one host to another, whereas a noncommunicable disease is not transmitted from one host to another

indicate whether each of the following conditions is typical of subacute, chronic, or acute infections (the patient experiences a rapid onset of malaise; symptoms last 5 days)


the patient experiences cough and breathing difficulty for months


the patient has no apparent symptoms and is known as carrier


of all the hospital patients with infections, one-third do not enter the hospital with an infection. How do they acquire these infections? What is the method of transmission of these infections?What is the reservoir of infection?

HAI- hospital acquired infections. patients may be in a weakened condition and therefore predisposed to infection. Pathogenic microorganisms are generally transmitted to patients by contact and airborne transmission. The reservoir of infection is the hospital staff, staff and other patients.

Distinguish symptoms from signs as signals of disease

changes in body function that the patient feels are called symptoms. Symptoms such as weakness or pain are not measurable by a physician. Objective changes that the physician can observe and measure are called signs

how can a local infection become a systemic infection?

when microorganisms causing a local infection enter a blood or lymph vessel and are spread throughout the body, a systemic infection can result

put the following in the correct order to describe the pattern of disease; period of convalescence, prodromal period, period of decline, incubation period, period of illness

incubation period, prodromal period, period of illness, period of decline, period of convalescence.

the emergence of a new infectious disease is probably due to all of the following except:
a) the need of bacteria to cause disease
b) the ability of humans to travel by air
c) changing environments (flood, drought, pollution)
d) a pathogen crossing the species barrier
e) the increasing human population


all members of a group of ornithologists studying barn owls the wild have had salmonellosis (salmonella gastroenteritis). One birder is experiencing her third infection. What is the most likely source of their infections?
a) the ornithologist are eating the same food
b) they are contaminating their hands while handling the owl and nests
c) one of the workers is a salmonella carrier
d) their drinking water is contaminated


which of the following statements is not true?
a) E. coli never causes disease
b) E. coli provides vitamin K for its host
c) E. coli often exists in a mutualistic relationship with humans
d) E.coli gets nutrients from intestinal contents


name the method of transmission of each of the following diseases:
1) malaria
2) tuberculosis
3) nosocomial infections
4) salmonellosis
5) streptococcal pharyngitis

1)female mosquito bite through the air from one person to another
2) through the air from one person to another
3) patients, hospital personnel, or visitors
5) respiratory droplets or close contact

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