Anatomically, the________of the stomach most closely resemble the_________of the small intestine.
gastric pits, intestinal crypts
True or False.The sphincter of oddi regulates the flow of bile and pancreatic secretions into the intestine.
True (both a and b are true)
LES-->pyloric sphincter-->duodenum-->ileocecal valve-->rectum is the pathway of the__________ _________.
A thick ring of smooth muscle that regulates the passage of chyme into the duodenum.
What prevents stomach contents from regurgitating into the esophagus, thus protecting the esophageal mucosa from the erosive effect of stomach acid?
What helps to retain food in the mouth until one is ready to swallow. (also known as the tip of the soft palate)
Projections of the mucosa of the small intestine that increase surface area for absorption and digestion.
The acidity of the stomach halts the action of__________but promotes the action of __________, both of which are salivary enzymes.
Nervous stimulation of gastrointestinal activity is mediated mainly through the parasympathetic fibers of the _________nerves.
Food in the stomach causes G cells to secrete__________, which in turn stimulates the secretion of HCl and pepsinogen.
The brush border enzyme that finishes the job of starch digestion, producing glucose, is called__________. Its substrate is ___________.
This hormone stimulates chief cells and parietal cells to secrete pepsinogen and HCl and is secreted by enteroendocrine cells.
The uptake of nutrient molecules into the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and then into the blood or lymph.
___________is autocatalytic and converts the zymogens trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidase. Its primary role is to digest dietary protein.
Digests dietary proteins to shorter peptide chains. Hydrochloric acid removes some of its amino acids to convert them into this enzyme.
These cells activate pepsin and lingual lipase which help liquify food and reduce dietary iron to its usable form. They also secrete hydrocholoric acid and destroy ingested pathogens.
Radiating sheets of cuboidal cells that are found surrounding the central veins of the liver. Responsible for absorption, degradation, and secretion.
_________is formed in the beta cells of the pancreas, promotes the storage of glucose and the uptake of amino acids, and increases protein and lipid synthesis.
Secretin, ___________and the enterogastric reflex inhibit gastric secretion and motility while the duodenum processes the chyme already in it.
Chyme stimulates duodenal enteroendocrine cells to release______________and cholecystokinin (CCK).
The largest folds of the intestinal wall are transverse spiral ridges called________ _________ which cause the chyme to flow on a spiral path. (involve only mucosa and submucosa)
The numerous depressions in the mucous membrane lining the stomach into which the gastric glands discharge their secretions.
The __________ __________ protrudes into the cecum and regulates the passage of food residue into the large intestine.
The principal circulating sugar in the blood and the major energy source of the body. (stored as glycogen)(monosaccharide). It is absorbed into the small intestine by symports (SGLT) and also leaks through tight junctions.
A monosaccharide commonly occurring in lactose. Absorbed into the small intestine through symports (SGLT).
A simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in honey, many fruits, and some vegetables. It is absorbed into the small intestine by facilitated diffusion.
The amphiphilic nature of _________ allows them to form structures such as vesicles, liposomes, or membranes in the body. (digested by lipases)
The muscle tone of the taeniae coli contracts the colon lengthwise and causes its wall to bulge, forming pouches called____________. (absent on anus and rectum)
Cuplike fatty pouches of peritoneum of unknown function found on the serosa of the transverse and sigmoid colon.
A movement in which stationary ringlike constrictions appear at several places along the intestine and then relax as new constrictions form elsewhere.
_______________droplets are acted upon by pancreatic lipase, which hydrolyzes the first and third fatty acids from triglycerides.
If the duodenum becomes overfilled, it inhibits_________________and postpones receiving more chyme.
Strong_________ _________ contractions occur one to three times a day, last about fifteen minutes and are often triggered by the gastrocolic and duodenocolic reflexes.
Chylomicrons are released from the basal cell membrane by _____________ and enter the lacteal of the villus.
The absorptive cells of infants can take up intact proteins by_________________and release them to the blood by exocytosis.
E. coli, streptococcus, staphylococcus, and H.pylori are all found in the__________ body but not in large enough quantities to cause harm.
Most fat digestion occurs in the small intestine through the action of ___________ _____________.
Intestinal cells absorb lipids from micelles, resynthesize trigylcerides, and package triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids into protein-coated _______________.
_____________ travel through the __________ to join lymph from other parts of the body, and enter the blood circulation via the thoracic duct.
The bile reaches the __________ through the common bile duct where ___________ of fat can emulsify.
When fat globules reach the duodenum, it triggers a hormone called__________________that tells the gallbladder that bile is needed.
Most ulcers involve the acid-resistant bacterium,______________, that invades the mucosa of the stomach and duodenum.
____________ is first digested in the mouth where salivary amylase hydrolyzes it into oligosaccharides.