Connects to the idea of Deism, in which the universe was created by God and then abandoned; no supernatural controls would be exerted and all things were explainable by reason
Enlightenment philosophy dictated that human reason was adequate o solve mankind's problems and correspondingly, much less faith was needed in the central role of God as an active force in the universe
Idea moved from Europe to become the New World's seed of culture, intellectualism, and society
Some important Enlightenment writers include John Locke (Principia Mathematica, 1687), Isaac Newton (Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1689), and Rene Descartes, whose basic tenet of philosophical theory existed in the phrase "I think, therefore, I am."
John C. Fremont (united states) won attacks by land and sea California
Zachary Taylor defeated large forced in Mexico
Mexican refused to negotiate, so President Polk ordered forces led by Winfield Scott into Mexico city.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 ended the war, giving the United states land originally sought by Slidell (new Mexico, Arizona, California, Texas, and parts of Colorado, Utah, and Nevada)
Border set at Rio Grande River
Raised question of slavery in the new territory
Henry David Thoreau and a young Whig, Abraham Lincoln, opposed the war
Supreme Court case involving a slave, Scott, who was taken by his master from Missouri, a slave state, to Illinois, a free state.
After Scott had been returned to Missouri, he sued for freedom for himself and his family, stating that by residing in a free state he had ended his slavery
President Buchanan meant for the case's decision to serve as the basis for the slavery issue
Pro-Southern Judge Taney ruled that Scott did not have the right of citizenship, which he could need to be able to bring forth a suit
Ruled further that the Missouri Compromise itself was unconstitutional because Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories, as slaves were property
The Scott decision would apply to all African-Americans, who were regarded as inferior and , therefore without rights.