APUSH Notecards 1-250

Barron's AP US History Notecards

Terms in this set (...)

Christopher Columbus
Italian-born navigator who founded fame when he landed in the Americans (October 12,1492)
Sat sail on behalf of Spain with three ships: the Nina, the Pinta, and his flagship, the Santa Maria
Originally, he had sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean to find a water route to Asia
Columbus was convinced that he had found the waterway that he sought and that the Americans were actually an extension of China
Returned from his expedition with gold, encouraging future exploration
Amerigo Vespucci
Italian member of a Portuguese expedition
Explored South American
Discovery suggested that the expedition had found a "New World"
After an account of Vespucci's 1497 expedition was published, a cartographer mistakenly thought that Vespucci had lad the expedition and had landed on the New World before Christopher Columbus; the cartographer named the continent America
Treaty of Tordesillas
Commitment between Spain and Portugal
Crated a papal line of Demarcation, which divided the New World: east of the line of it for Spain
Later, the Papal line affected colonization in Africa and Asia
New Spain
Spain's tightly controlled empire in the New World
To deal with labor shortages, the Spaniards developed a system of large manors (encomiendas) using Native American slaves under conquistadors
With the death of Native American slaves, Spaniards began importing African slaves to supply their labor needs
Prevailing economic philosophy of the 1600s that held that colonies existed to serve the mother country
Founded on the belief that the world's wealth was sharply limited and, therefore, one nation's gain was another nation's loss
Each nation's goal was to export more than it imported in a favorable balance of trade; the difference would be made up in their possession of gold and silver, witch would make the nation strong both economically and militarily
Mercantilists believed economic activity should be regulated by the government
Queen Elizabeth I
Protestant successor to Queen Mary (England)
Popular leader and the first woman to successfully hold the throne
Invested in English raids on the Spanish New World
Brought on a war response from Spain in the form of the Spanish Armada
Established Protestantism in England and encouraged English business
The Spanish Armada
Fleet assembled by King Philip II of Spain to invade England
The Armada was defeated by the skill of British military leaders and by rough seas during the assault
England's victory over Spanish forces established England as an emerging sea power; it was one of the great achievements of Queen Elizabeth I
Defeat helped bring about the decline of the Spanish empire
Types of Colonies in the New World
In a charter colony, colonists were essentially members of a corporation and, based on an agreed-upon charter, electors among the colonists would control the government
A royal colony had a governor selected by England's king; he would serve in the leadership role and choose additional, lesser officers
Proprietary colonies were owned by an individual with direct responsibility to the king; the proprietor selected a governor, who served as the authority figure for the property
English Puritanism
Movement by those who wished to reform the Church of England to be more in line with their ideology
Puritans were Calvinist in their religious beliefs; they believed in predestination and in the authority of Scripture over papal authority
Though Kind Henry VIII had set out to separate from papal authority in favor of his own Church of England, many Roman Catholic traditions and practices remained
Puritans rejected these Roman Catholic holdovers because of their Calvinist ideology; they sought to make the England Church "pure"
Puritanism would echo throughout American culture in the ideas of self-reliance, moral fortitude, and an emphasis on intellectualism
Dutch West India Company
The joint-stock company that ran the colonies in Fort Orange and in New Amsterdam, which later became New York
Carried on a profitable fur trade with the Native American Iroquois
Instituted the patron system, in which large estates were given to wealth men who transported at lease fifty families to New Netherland to tend the land; few took on the opportunity
Sir Walter Raleigh
Selected Roanoke Island as a site for the first English settlement
Returned to England to secure additional supplies; on his return, he found the colony deserted; it is not known what became of the Roanoke settles
After the failure at Roanoke, Raleigh abandoned his attempts to colonize Virginia
Held back by a lack of financial resources and the war with Spain, English interest in American colonization was submerged for fifteen years
St. Augustine, Florida
French Protestants (Huguenots) went to the New World to freely practice their religion; they formed a colony near modern-day St. Augustine, Florida
Spain, which oversaw Florida, reacted violently to the Huguenots because they were trespassers and because they were viewed as heretics by the Catholic church
Spain sent a force to the settlement and massacred the fort's inhabitants
The settlement at St. Augustine, Florida, is considered to be the first permanent European settlement in what would become the United States
Charter Colonies (Joint-Stock) and "Starving Time"
Charter colonies were associations that sought trade, exploration, and colonization overseas
Jamestown (1607) was the first charter colony
"Starving Time" describes a period in the 1600s during which many colonists died and others considered returning to England
Named for James I (1566-1625), Queen Elizabeth's successor in England
James I granted charters for charter colonies in the New World
In 1607, the Virginia Company of London settled Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement, swampy location led to disease & contaminated water sources
Despite location and hostile relations with Native Americans, John Smith's harsh, charismatic leadership of the colony kept it from collapsing
In 1619, African slaves arrived at Jamestown, becoming the first group of slaves to reach a British settlement
Indenture System
Poor workers, convicted criminals, and debtors received immigration passage and fees in return for a number of years at labor on behalf of a planter or company
Servants entered into their contracts voluntarily and kept come legal rights
However, servants had little control over the conditions of their work and living arrangements; system led to harsh and brutal treatment
John Rolfe
English colonist in Jamestown, Virginia, married Pocahontas
Created process for curing tobacco, ensuring economic success for Jamestown
House of Burgesses
Representative assembly in Virginia
Election to a seat was limited to voting members of that charter colony, which at first was all free men; later rules required that a man own at least fifty acres of land to vote
First representative house in America
Instituted private ownership of land; maintained rights of colonists
First Families of Virginia
Wealth and socially prominent families in Virginia who by 1776 had been in America for four to five generations
Included the Lees, Carters, and Fitzhughs
Headright System
System used by the Virginia Company to attract colonists; it promised them parcels of land (roughly fifty acres) to emigrate to America
Also gave nearly fifty acres for each servant that a colonist brought, allowing the wealthy to obtain large tracts of land
The Separatists and Plymouth
Separatists were Puritans who believed the Church of England was beyond saving and felt that they must separate from it
One group of Separatists suffering government harassment fled to Holland, then to America
Members of this group traveled on the Mayflower; they became known as the Pilgrims, a term used for voyagers seeking to fulfill a religious mission
The Mayflower set sail from Plymouth, England, in September 1620 and landed in Provincetown Harbor, setting in what became Plymouth, Massachusetts
Before landing in the New World, the Pilgrims formed the Mayflower Compact, which provided for a government guided by the majority
William Bradford (1590-1657) served as the Plymouth Colony's first governor
Massachusetts Bay Company
Joint-stock company chartered by a group of Puritans escaping King James I
Led by John Winthrop, who taught that the new colony should be a model Christian society
These Puritans carefully organized their venture and, upon arriving in Massachusetts, did not undergo the "starving time" that had often plagued other first-year colonies
The government of Massachusetts developed to include a governor and a representative assembly
Dutch patrons established the first settlement in Delaware
That settlement was destroyed by Native American attacks
The Dutch West India Company and Dutchmen, including Peter Minuit, began to trade and settle in Delaware during the mid-to-late 1630s
Between 1664 and 1674, Delaware switched between Dutch and English ownership, ending with English ownership in 1674
The Proprietors and Maryland
Proprietors owned colonies, with direct responsibility to the king
Proprietors were supposed to provide opportunity for Royal control and to decrease the practice of granting charters for charter colonies
In practice, proprietary colonies turned out much like the charter colonies because settlers insisted on self-government
In 1632, under George Calvert (Lord Baltimore), Maryland became the first proprietary colony as a refuge for English Catholics
To protect the catholic minority, Calvert's son encouraged religious toleration and established a representative assembly
Anne Hutchinson
Claimed to have special revelations from God that superseded the Bible, contrary to Puritan doctrine
The leadership of New England excused her of antinomian teachings; antinomianism is the belief that salvation is attained through faith and divine grace and not through strict adherence to rules or moral laws
Hutchinson was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony
With her followers, she founded Portsmouth in the Aquidneck region (1638); Aquidneck is now known as Rhode Island
Roger Williams and Rhode Island
Williams was a Puritan preacher who fled Massachusetts after his views on religious observance became too extreme for the colonists
Williams bought land from the Native Americans and founded Providence in 1636; it was soon populated by his many followers
Rhode Island formed as a combination of Providence, Portsmouth, and other settlements that had sprung up in the area
Through Roger Williams, the colony granted complete religious toleration
Tented to be populated by exiles and troublemakers and was sometimes called "Rogue's Island"
Suffered constant political turmoil
English Civil War
Conflict was based in the struggle between King Charles I (son of King James I) and the English Parliament
Charles claimed to rule by divine right; Parliament argued that its membership had rights that were separate from those granted to the king
Parliament's members were mostly Puritan and had the backing of the merchant class and lesser land owners
Wealthy nobles tended to support Charles I, who opposed Puritans on questions of religion
Led to outright conflict between Royalist military forces and forces opposing Charles I
Maryland Act of Toleration
Guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians in Maryland
Granted after Protestant became governor
Important precedent for later characterization of the United States and its Constitution
Thomas Hooker led a large group of Puritans to settle in the Connecticut River Valley; they had slight religious disagreements with the leadership of Massachusetts
The major colonies in the Connecticut River Valley agreed to unite as the Connecticut colony
In 1639, the colony formed a set of laws known as the Fundamental Orders; these laws provided for representative government by those who were permitted to vote
When the corporate colony was established and recognized by England, its charter was founded on the Fundament Orders
The Fundaments Orders are an important example of the growth of political democracy
The Carolinas
King Charles II rewarded loyal noblemen with these lands after the twenty-year Puritan revolution in England
In hopes of attracting settles, the proprietors planned for a hierarchical society
Experimented with silk manufacturing and with crops such as rice and indigo; this proved unworkable and the Carolinas grew slowly
Large groups of colonists in the Carolinas came from Barbados; the form of slavery that this group employed proved to be very harsh
New York and New Jersey
Last Dutch governor of New York was Peter Stuyvesant
After the British conquered the Dutch lands in America, English King Charles II gave the title to the lands to his brother, James, Duke of York
James was adamantly opposed to representative assemblies
Residents continued to call for self-government until James relented, only to break this promise when he became James II, King of England
Quakers believed human religious institutions were, for the most part, unnecessary
They believed they could receive revelation directly from God and placed little importance on the Bible
They were pacifists and declined to show customary deference to their alleged social superiors
Their aggressiveness in denouncing established institutions brought them trouble in Both Britain and America
They opposed slavery and favored decent treatment of Native Americans
Elements of this culture would play a role in shaping the characterization of a United States that valued independence and social equality
William Penn
Founded Pennsylvania as a refuge for his fellow Quakers
Penn advertised his colony widely in Europe and offered generous terms on land
Guaranteed a representative assembly and full religious freedom
Settlers flocked to Pennsylvania from all over Europe
Black Slaves in the 1600s
Because slaves were only a small percentage of the population, they began at almost slaves the same level of indentured servants
Later in the century, African-Americans came to see as lifelong slaves whose status would be inherited by their children
Increased importation and population of African-Americans in the southern colonies began
John Locke and Natural Law
Locke was a major English political philosopher of the Enlightenment
Isaac Newton theorized Natural Law in the realm of science; Locke followed him, trying to identify Natural Law in the human realm
Natural Law included the rights of life, liberty, and property
Locke's assertion of Natural Law changed the perspective of the social contract theory; he believed that if the above rights were not protected, governments could be overthrown justly
Prior to Locke, their existed a theory of social contract--- people accept certain restrictions on themselves for the benefit of their society; these restrictions are upheld by a sovereign power
Locke's ideas became the indirect theory of American political activity for leaders such as Benjamin Franklin
Triangular Trade (Atlantic Trade)
European merchants purchased African slaves with goods manufactured in Europe or imported from Asian colonies
These merchants sold slaves in the Caribbean for commodities (sugar, cotton, tobacco)
Caribbean commodities were later sold in Europe and North America
Useful for all parties because it was an exchange of goods, not money
Navigation Acts
Certain goods shipped from a New World port were to go only to Britain or to another New World port
Enumerated goods from the colonies like sugar, cotton, tobacco, were to be provided only to England
Served as the foundation of England's worldwide commercial system
Though for the benefit of all subjects of the British Empire, its provisions benefited some New World colonies at the expense of others
Intended as a weapon in England's ongoing struggle against its rival, Holland
Led to increased tension between Britain and the colonies
Effects of the Navigation Acts
Boosted the prosperity of New Englanders, who engaged in large-scale shipbuilding
Hurt the residents of the Chesapeake by driving down the price of tobacco
Transferred wealth from America to Britain by increasing the prices Americans had to pay for British goods and lowering the prices Americans received for the goods they produced
Mercantilism also helped bring on a series of wars between England and Holland in the late 1600s
Bacon's Rebellion
Virginia's Royal governor, William Berkeley, received strict instructions to un the colony for the benefit of Britain
Nathaniel Bacon was a leader of colonial frontiersmen in Virginia
Bacon objected to the rights granted to Virginia's wealthy inner circle and was angered by Governor Berkeley's inability to protect Virginia from attacks by the Native Americans
Bacon commanded two unauthorized raids on Native American tribes, increasing his popularity; Berkeley had him arrested
Soon after, Bacon gathered his forces, opposed the Royal governor, and set fire to Jamestown to defend his forces; position
With British military, Berkeley ended the rebellion
After bacon's rebellion, American colonies turned increasingly away from indentured servants and toward slave labor
New Hampshire
King Charles established it as a Royal colony
The colony remained economically dependent on Massachusetts; Britain continued to appoint a single person to rule both colonies until 1741
Weeks before the signing of the Declaration of Independence by the Second Continental Congress, New Hampshire established a temporary constitution for itself that proclaimed its independence from Britain
Glorious Revolution
Internal British struggle that replaced the Catholic King James II with his Protestant daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange
Inspired colonial uprisings in New York and Maryland against ruling Royal governors who pressed for more control
Led to the overthrow of the Dominion of New England, the control authority imposed by Britain of colonists
William and Mary's new government generally accepted these actions, permitting the growth of colonial institutions and culture
Half-Way Covenant
Decision by Puritan colony churches to allow the grandchildren of those who had the personal experience of conversion to participate in select church affairs
Previously, only the children of those who had experienced conversion could participate
Reflected the decline of piety New Englanders
Salem Witch Trials
Several young girls in Salem Village claimed to be tormented by the occult activities of certain neighbors
Some twenty persons were executed
Puritan ministers finally intervened to stop the executions
Writer Arthur Miller produced The Crucible (1953), a retelling of the Salem Witch Trials and a reflective commentary on the witch-hunts of Joseph McCarthy
Wool Act
All wool that was produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain
Act restricted Ireland in its wool manufacturing, resulting in many Irish immigrants moving to the American colonies
The Act was meant to protect Britain's own exports of wool at the expense of both the colonies and Ireland
The Enlightenment
Connects to the idea of Deism, in which the universe was created by God and then abandoned; no supernatural controls would be exerted and all things were explainable by reason
Enlightenment philosophy dictated that human reason was adequate o solve mankind's problems and correspondingly, much less faith was needed in the central role of God as an active force in the universe
Idea moved from Europe to become the New World's seed of culture, intellectualism, and society
Some important Enlightenment writers include John Locke (Principia Mathematica, 1687), Isaac Newton (Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1689), and Rene Descartes, whose basic tenet of philosophical theory existed in the phrase "I think, therefore, I am."
James Oglethorpe, and English philanthropist and soldier, chartered the colony
Settlers included those who paid their own way to receive the best land grants
Some settlers were financed by the colony's board of trustees, including bands of prisoners from British jails
After wars between the European empires began, the colony served as a bugger between South Carolina and Spanish-held Florida
Elaborate and detailed regulations resulted in relatively little settlement
John Peter Zenger
German American newspaper publisher and printer
His acquittal of libel charges in New York City (1735) established a legal precedent for freedom of the press
The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Warren reinvigorated free press rights; the case of New York Times v. Sullivan(1964) strengthened the protection of the press against libel cases brought by public figures
The First Great Awakening
A series of emotional religious revivals occurring throughout the colonies and prevalent in New England
Preachers proclaimed a message of personal repentance and faith to avoid hell
Suggested an equality between and authority (God) and a fixed standard (the Bible)
Helped lay the foundation for a written "contract," which would be important to the establishment of the future United States Constitution
George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards became the most dynamic preachers of the Great Awakening
Effects of the Great Awakening
American's religious community came to be divided between those who rejected the Great Awakening and those who accepted it
More denominations of Christianity were formed
While the Awakening created conflict among those who argued the points of religion, its ideas helped build connections between people living in different colonies
A number of colleges were founded by those who accepted the Great Awakening, including Princeton, Brown, and Rutgers
Jonathan Edwards
Preacher of the Great Wakening who emphasized personal religious experience, predestination, and dependence of man upon God and divine grace
One of his well-read sermons was "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
While Edwards is known for being one of the most prominent Calvinists, the Great Wakening was partially responsible for spreading the idea that salvation was possible without predestined election, and important Calvinist belief
Albany Plan
Delegates of seven colonies met in New York to discuss plans for collective defense
Pennsylvanian delegate, Benjamin Franklin, proposed a plan for an intercolonial government; the plan was later rejected by the colonial legislatures as demanding too great a surrender of power
While the other colonies showed no support for the idea, it was an important precedent for the concept of united in the face of a common enemy
French and Indian War
Rivalry between France, Britain, and various Native American tribes over land in the Ohio region
It was on of a series of wars fought between France and England throughout the world at the time
Battles continued on European and American fronts until Britain grained control of Canada
It was in these conflicts that George Washington first appeared as an able military leader
William Pitt
Britain's capable and energetic prime minister
After several humiliating defeats, he led Britain to virtually destroy the French empire in North American by focusing on the French headquarters in Canada
The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended hostilities
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Ended Seven Years War
From France, Britain took Canada and some of what would become the United States east of the Mississippi River
France last all of its North American holdings
Spain took the Louisiana Territory
Treaty marked the end of salutary neglect, a relationship in which the British Parliament had somewhat ignored the colonies, allowing them to develop their character without interference
George Grenville
British Prime Minister who set out to solve the large national debt incurred in recent English wars
Created a series of acts that raised taxes on American goods, leading to rebellious activities
Grenville's acts included the Proclamation of 1763, Sugar Act (1763), Stamp Act (1765), and Quartering Act (1765)
Benjamin Franklin
Was a colonial writer, scientist, diplomat, printer, and philosopher
Published the Pennsylvania Gazette and wrote Poor Richard's Almanac
Served in the Second Continental Congress and was a drafter and signer of the Declaration of Independence
Writs of Assistance
Court orders that authorized customs officials to conduct non-specific searches to stop colonial smuggling
Allowed for the searching of homes, warehouses, and shops
James Otis served as a prosecutor in a failed Massachusetts legal case; he argued that these searches were contrary to natural law
Later, the Fourth Amendment would protect citizens against "unreasonable searches and seizures"
Proclamation of 1763
Was a result of Pontiac's Rebellion, a Native American uprising against the British for their mistreatment
Forbade white settlement west of the Appalachians to reduce friction between Native Americans and the settlers
Stated that Native Americans owned the land on which they wee residing
Outraged colonists believed that the successful outcome of the French and Indian War should have allowed settlement in the Ohio Valley
Sugar Act
It taxed goods imported to America to raise revenue for England after it incurred debt during the French and Indian War
Strictly enforced, unlike the Molasses act of 1733
Taxed goods included imports such as wine, cloth, coffee, and silk
Quartering Act
Act that required the colonies in which British troops were stationed to provide soldiers with bedding and other basic needs
Colonists reacted negatively, fearing a standing army and disliking the additional costs
After the emergence of the United States Constitution, the Third Amendment protected citizens against the stationing of troops in their homes
Stamp Act
An internal tax, the sole purpose of which was to raise revenue
Required Americans to uses "stamped" paper for legal documents, newspapers, and playing cards, among other goods
Revenue from this tax was to be used solely for the support of the British soldiers protecting the colonies
Declaratory Act
Act giving Britain the power to tax and make laws for the Americans in all cases
Followed repeal of the Stamp Act
Colonists ignored the wording of the Declaratory Act
Samuel Adams
Revolutionary resistance leader in Massachusetts
Along with Paul Revere, headed the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts
Worked with the committees of correspondence, which provided communication about resistance among colonies
Attended both the First and Second Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence
Stamp Act Congress
Delegates of seven colonies met in New York to discuss plans for defense
Adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which stated that freeborn Englishmen could not be taxed without their consent
Townshend Acts
Created by British Prime Minister Charles Townshend (Grenville's replacement)
Formed a program of taxing items imported into the colonies, such as paper, lead, glass, and tea; it replaced the direct taxes of the Stamp Act
Led to boycotts by Boston merchants, a key contributor to the Boston Massacre
Virtual Representation
English principle stating that the members of parliament represented all of Britain and the British Empire, even though members were only elected by a small number of constituents
This ides was meant to be a response to the colonial claim of "no taxation without representation," meaning that parliament was itself a representation of those being taxed
Boston Massacre
Occurred when the British attempted to enforce the Townshend Acts
British soldiers killed five Bostonians, including Crispus Attucks, and American patriot and former slave
John Adams provided the legal defense of the soldiers
Though the British soldiers acted more or less in self-defense, anti-Royal leaders used the massacre to spur action in the colonies
Tea Act and Boston Tea Party
Concessions allowed the British East India Company to ship tea directly to America and sell it at a bargain; cheap tea undercut the local merchants
Colonist opposed these shipments; they turned back ships, left shipments to rot, and held ships in port
Led to the Boston Tea Part in December of 1773, where citizens, dressed as Native Americans, destroyed tea on the British ships
The Intolerable Acts and the Coercive Acts
Name given by colonist to the Quebec Act (1774) and to a series of acts by the British in response to the Boston Tea Party
Acts closed the Port of Boston to all trade until citizens paid for the last tea
Acts increased the power of Massachusetts' Royal governor at the expense of the legislature
Allowed Royal officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts to be tried elsewhere
Methods of Colonial Resistance
Americans reacted first with restrained and respectful petitions, suggesting "taxation without representation is tyranny"
Colonial merchants then boycotted British goods (non-importation)
Colonist of the Revolution finally turned to violence
Crowds took action against customs officials and against merchants who violated the boycotts
Some colonist continued to follow British command and became English "Loyalists"
First Continental Congress
Meeting in Philadelphia of colonial representatives to denounce the Intolerable Acts and to petition the British Parliament
A few radical members discussed breaking from England
Created Continental Associating and forbade the importation and use of British goods
Agreed to convene a Second Continental Congress in May 1775
Battles of Concord and Lexington
Concord—Site suspected by British General Gage of housing a stockpile of colonial weaponry
Paul Revere and William Dawes detected movement of British troops toward Concord and warned militia and gathered Minutemen at Lexington
Lexington—Militia and Royal infantry fought; the colonial troops withdrew
The Second Continental Congress
Colonial representative meeting in Philadelphia, presided over by John Hancock
Group torn between declaring independence and remaining under British power
Moderated forced the adoption of the Olive Branch Petition, a letter to King George III appealing one final time for a resolution to all disputes; the king refused to receive it
The Congress sent George Washington to command the army around Boston
American ports were opened in defiance of the Navigation Acts
Wrote the Declaration of Independence
Battle of Bunker Hill
Bunker Hill was an American post overlooking Boston; the stronghold allowed Americans to contain General Gage and his troops
The colonists twice turned back a British frontal assault; the held off the British until the Bunker Hill force ran out of ammunition and was overrun
America's strong defense led to strengthened morale
Common Sense
Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine that called for immediate independence from Britain
Sold largely and carried favor in the colonies
Weakened resistance in the Continental Congress toward independence
Lee's Resolution
Presented to Second Continental Congress by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia
Urged Congress to declare independence; accepted July 2, 1776
Said ,"That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States"
Declaration of Independence
Document restating political ideas justifying the separation from Britain
Thomas Jefferson and his committee had the duty of drafting for the Continental Congress
John Locke's influences served as a foundation for the document
The final product lacked provisions condemning the British slave trade and a denunciation of the British people that earlier drafts had contained
Articles of Confederation
Framework for an American national government; states has the most power
Empowered the federal government to make war, treaties, and create new states
No federal empowerment to levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce
Congressional revision of the articles created a weak national government
George Washington's Leadership in the American Revolution
Named commander-in-chief of continental forces in June 1775 by the second continental congress
Forced British to evacuate Boston in March 1776
Defeated British at Trenton, New Jersey, after crossing the Delaware on December 25,1776
Survived tough winter at Valley Forge (1777-1778); Washington strengthened his troops during the winter and gained respect
General Cornwallis surrendered to Washington on October 19, 1781
Battle of Saratoga
American Revolution battle fought in northern New York
The British planned to end the American Revolution by splitting the colonies along the Hudson River, but they failed to mobilize properly
Demonstrated the British could more easily hold the cities, but that they would have trouble subduing the country sides
Considered a turning point, as French aid began after this battle
John Paul Jones
Famous American naval leader
Carried on maritime raids against the British throughout revolution, debilitating their ability to receive supplies
Stated, "Surrender? I have not yet begun to fight."
Charles Cornwallis
British military and political leader
Was a member of Parliament and even opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution
Led British forces during the American Revolution
The British defeat culminated with Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown in 1781
Western Land Cessions
The original thirteen states ceded their western land claims to the new federal government
The states that lacked western land claims feared that states with claims could grow in size, skewing representation in the federal government
Before signing the United States Constitution, these states demanded that those with claims cede the land
Ordinances in 1784 and 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance (1787) organized the ceded areas in preparation for statehood
New states were organized and admitted to the Union
This policy strengthened the ties of the western farmers to the central government
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Peace settlement that ended the Revolutionary War
The United States was represented by Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay
Britain recognized the United States' independence and outlined its borders
The United States received all lands east of the Mississippi River, north of Florida, and south of the Great Lakes
The United States agreed that Loyalists to Britain were not to be persecuted
Land Ordinance of 1785; Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Land Ordinance—Act of Congress to assist in settlement of the West; the sale of land provided federal revenue
Land Ordinance—Organized distribution of land into townships, setting aside a section of each in support of public education
The Northwest Ordinance—Describe how the land north of the Ohio River could become sectioned into states; five states created
The Northwest Ordinance—States would be admitted to the Union when free inhabitants reached 60,000
The Northwest Ordinance—Slavery and involuntary servitude not allowed in these states
The Northwest Ordinance—Set a precedent of how states could join the Union
The ordinances were successful accomplishment by a federal government that before had seen as ineffective
John Jay
Member of First and Second Continental Congress
Negotiated Treaty of Paris and Jay's Treaty
First Chief Justice of Supreme Court
Wrote portions of The Federalist Papers
Shays' Rebellion
During a period of economic depression, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers to stop the courts from seizing a farmer's land and enacting debt collection
Citizens of Boston raised an army and suppressed the rebels
Americans felt pressure to strengthen the government and avoid future violence
Elastic Clause and the Tenth Amendment
The Tenth Amendment restricts the federal government to those powers delegated to it by the Constitution and gives all other powers to the states, or the people
Article I, Sect. 8 grants the federal government the power to make laws "which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers"
The conflict between these two ideas is the determination of which group, the federal government r the states and their people, has the right to exercise powers that have not been expressly delegated to the central government
The Constitution of the United States
Drafted at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787
Included a preamble and seven articles
Created a stronger federal government
Bill of Rights are the first ten amendments; the protect individual rights and freedoms
The Virginia Plan & The New Jersey Plan
Virginia Plan—Presented by Edmund Randolph and written by James Madison
Virginia Plan—Called for bicameral legislature based on population and both the chief executive and judiciary to be chosen by legislature
New Jersey Plan—Presented by William Patterson
New Jersey Plan—Called for unicameral legislature with equal representation
Plans were united in the Great Compromise; the plans form the basis of the modern American legislative structure
Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)
Called for a bicameral legislative system in which the House of Representatives would be based on population and the Senate would have equal representation in Congress
Combined pieces of the New Jersey Plan, the Virginia Plan, and other proposals
Included the Tree-Fifths Compromise, which counted slaves as three-fifths of a person for purposes of apportioning representation and called for direct taxation on the states
Federalist Party
Americans who advocated centralized power and constitutional ratification
Used The Federalist Papers to demonstrate how the Constitution of designed to prevent the abuse of power
Supporters of the Federalist platforms included Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, and northeastern business groups
Federalists believed that the government was given all powers that were not expressly denied to in by the Constitution; the had a loose interpretation of the Constitution
Anti-Federalist Party
Those against the adoption of the Constitution because of suspicion against centralized government ruling at a distance and limiting freedom
George Mason, Patrick Henry, and George Clinton were Anti-Federalists
Many of the Anti-Federalists would come to oppose the policies of Alexander Hamilton and the Federalist Party
The Jeffersonian Republican Party absorbed many of the Anti-Federalists after the Constitution was adopted
George Washington
First President
Was unanimously elected president
Served two terms
His leadership led to a standard of a strong presidency with control of foreign policy and the power to veto Congress's legislation
Declared Proclamation of Neutrality in April 1793, keeping the United States neutral in the European wars
His Farewell Address in 1796 warned against entangling alliances, suggested isolationism, and warned of political party factions
Judiciary Act of 1789
Provided for a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and five associates
Established office of Attorney General
Created federal district courts and circuit courts
Alexander Hamilton
First Secretary of Treasury
Proposed the federal assumption of state debts, the establishment of a national bank, and federal stimulation of industry through excise tax and tariffs
Opponents, including Jefferson, saw program as aiding a small, elite group at the expense of the average citizen
Hamilton died from wounds sustained in a piston duel with Aaron Burr, Jefferson's vice president
Jeffersonian Republicans (Democratic-Republicans)
Political party that absorbed members of the Anti-Federalist Party
Proponents included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
Favored sates' rights and power in the hands of commoners; supported by Southern agriculture and frontiersmen
Believed that the federal government was denied all powers that were not expressly given to it by the Constitution (a "strict interpretation" of the document)
Eli Whitney
Inventor and manufacturer
Invented the cotton gin in 1793, revolutionizing the cotton industry and increasing the need for slaves
Established first factory to assemble muskets with interchangeable, standardized parts
His innovations led to an "American system" of manufacture, where those laborers with less skill could use tools and templates to make identical parts; also, the manufacture and assembly of parts could be done separately
Jay's Treaty
Attempt at settling the conflict between the United States and England over commerce, navigation, and violations of the Treaty of Paris of 1783
Provided for eventual evacuation by the British of their posts in the Northwest, but it allowed them to continue their fur trade
Allowed for the establishment of commissions to settle United States-Canada border disputes and Unites States-Britain losses during the Revolutionary War
The generous terms to Britain upset Americans because these were promises that had been made and not fulfilled in the Treaty of Paris
Whiskey Rebellion
Western whiskey farmers refused to pay taxes on which Hamilton's revenue program was based
A group of farmers terrorized the tax collectors; Washington responded with a federalized militia
George Washington and Alexander Hamilton rode out to Pennsylvania themselves to emphasize their commitment
First test of federal authority
Established federal government's right to enforce laws
Pinckney Treaty
Signed by the United States and Spain
Free navigation of the Mississippi River was given to the United States
United States gained area north of Florida that had been dispute (present-day Mississippi and Alabama)
Gave western farmers the "right of deposit" in New Orleans, enabling them to use the port for their goods, making in easier for them to get heir goods to the East
The United States would later make the Louisiana Purchase, which would cement this right of deposit
Colonial Painting
Copied European styles, but featured portraits of important Americans
Famous artists included John Trumbull, Charles Peale, Benjamin West, and John Copley
Gilbert Stuart painted the portrait of George Washington that is now on the one-dollar bill
John Adams
Second President
First Vice-President
Diplomat and signer of the Declaration of Independence
Led the country through the XYZ affair, the Alien and Sedition Acts, and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Kept nation from war during tenure as president
XYZ Affair
The United States wanted an end to French harassment of American shipping
To settle the issue, French representatives demanded a bribe from the United States just to open negotiations with French Minister Talleyrand
The United States refused the bribe and suspended trade with the French
Led to the creation of the American Navy
Alien and Sedition Acts
Legislation enacted by the Federalists to reduce foreign influences and increase their power
New hurdles to citizenship were established
Broadened power to quiet print media critics
The legislation was used to silence Jeffersonian Republican critics of the Federalists and was indicative of the poisoned relations between the two parties
These Act tested the strength of the First Amendment and limited the freedom of the press
The Federalist Part gained a reputation as being a less democratic party, quickening its demise as a political organization
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Response by Jeffersonian republicans to the Alien and Sedition Acts
Included text written by Jefferson and by Madison
Suggested that states should have the power within their territory to nullify federal law
Stated that federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it
The resolutions represented a future argument that would be used when secession and Civil War threatened the country
Called into question the paradox of the Elastic Clause and the Tenth Amendment
The Napoleonic Wars
War between Napoleon's France and the other European powers, led by Britain
Both sides tried to prevent neutral powers, especially the United States, from trading with their enemy
American ships were seized by both sides and American sailors were "impressed," or forced, ino the British navy
The United States was angered by this violation of the "freedom of the seas" principle, which holds that outside its territorial waters, a state may not claim sovereignty over the seas
These violations would escalate and lead to the War of 1812
Judiciary Act of 1801
Created new judgeships to be filled by the president
John Adams filled the vacancies with part supporters ("Midnight Judges")
Led to bitter resentment by the incoming Jeffersonian Republican Party
Act would play a role in the case of Marbury v. Madison
Thomas Jefferson
Third President, Author of the Declaration of Independence
Before becoming president, he served as the first Secretary of State
First president to reside in Washington, D.C.
Jefferson's taking of office was called the "Revolution of 1800" as it was the first time American changed presidential political leadership (Federalist to Jeffersonian Republican)
His embodiment of the Jeffersonian Republican Party helped increase its strength, while weak leadership in the Federalist Party was a reason for its demise
His administration was responsible for the Embargo of 1807
He presided over the Louisiana Purchase
His politics were characterized by support of states' rights
John Marshall
Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1801-1835)
He was a Federalist installed by Adams
His decisions defined and strengthen the powers of the judicial branch and asserted the power of judicial review over federal legislation
His Court made determinations that cemented a static view of contracts
His Court's decisions advanced capitalism
Significant cases included Marbury v. Madison, Fletcher v. Peck, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden
Marbury v. Madison
William Marbury had been commissioned justice of the peace in D.C. by President John Adams
His commission was part of Adams' "midnight appointments" during his last days in office
Marbury's commission was not delivered, so he sued President Jefferson's Secretary of States, James Madison
Chief Justice John Marshall held that while Marbury was entitled to the commission, the statute which allowed Marbury's remedy was unconstitutional, as it granted the Supreme Court powers beyond what the Constitution permitted
This decision paved the way for judicial review, which gave courts the power to declare statutes unconstitutional
Louisiana Purchase
Purchased for $15 million from France
Jefferson was concerned about the constitutionality of purchasing land without having this authority granted by the Constitution; to make the purchase, he employed the presidential power of treaty-making
United States' territory was doubled
The purchase helped remove France from the western borders of the United States
Farmers could now send their goods (furs, grains, tobacco) down the Mississippi River and through New Orleans, facilitation transportation to Europe
Opened land to agrarian expansion, helping fulfill one of the tenets of Jefferson's social ideology
The expansion westward created more states with Jeffersonian Republican representation to the point that the Federalists became a marginalized party
Lewis and Clark Expedition (Corps of Discovery)
Expedition through the Louisiana Purchase and the West
Departed from St. Louis and explored areas including the Missouri River, the Yellowstone River, and the Rockies
Sacajawea, a Shoshone guide, helped them in their journey
Opened up new territories to America
Burr Conspiracy
Burr planned to take Mexico from Spain and establish a new nation in the West
Burr, a fugitive in politics after Alexander Hamilton's death, was arrested in Natchez and tried fro treason
Under John Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Burr was acquitted
Marshall determined that the charge of treason required more than just proof of conspiracy to commit treason; this helped narrow the legal definition of treason
Embargo Act of 1807
American declaration to keep its own ships from leaving port for any foreign destination
Jefferson hoped to avoid contact with vessels of either of the warring sides of the Napoleonic wars
The result was economic depression in the United States; this angered the Federalists, who were well-represented in Northeast commerce and were hit hard by the depression
James Madison
Fourth President
His work before becoming president led him to be considered the "Father of the Constitution"
Participated in the writing of The Federalist Papers
In Congress, he wrote the Virginia Plan
Was a Republican president in a Federalist-controlled Congress
Faced pressure from "War Hawks" like Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun to get involved in the Napoleonic Wars and end the damaging embargo
Led the United states into the War of 1812 and concluded the war in 1814
Non-Intercourse Act
Congress opened trade to all nations except France and Britain
Trade boycott appeared to have little effect on curbing French and British aggression stemming from the Napoleonic Wars
Though the Embargo Act was a protective measure, the Non-Intercourse Act re-engaged the United States in trade while continuing its stance against alliances with either France or Britain
The Non-Intercourse Act was repealed in 1810
Fletcher v. Peck
Marshall Court decision
The first time state law was voided on the grounds that it violated a principle of the United States Constitution
The Georgia legislature had issued extensive land grants in a corrupt deal
A legislative session repealed that action because of the corruption
The Supreme Court decided that the original contract was valid, regardless of the corruption
Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts
Expansion of Electorate, 1810-1828
Most states had already eliminated the property qualifications for voting
Blacks were still excluded from polls across the South and most of North
The political parties established national nomination conventions
Native American chief who was encouraged by British forces to fight against pressured removal from Western territories
William Henry Harrison destroyed the united Native American Confederacy at Tippecanoe
Causes of the War of 1812
British impressments of American sailors
American frontiersmen wanted more free land, as the West was held by Native Americans that the British
The United States suspected the British were encouraging Native American rebellion
"War Hawk" Congressional leaders, such as Henry Clay and John Calhoun, pressed fro intervention
War Hawks desired annexation of Canada and Florida
Despite the Embargo Act and Non-Intercourse Act, hostilities could not be cooled
The United States sided with France against Britain
War of 1812 Events
Early victories at sea by the United States, then overcome by British
The United States' Admiral Perry took Lake Erie with the navy
Opened the way for William Henry Harrison to invade Canada and defeat the British and Native American forces
Andrew Jackson led the American charge through the Southwest
Battle of New Orleans was a decisive conflict where Andrew Jackson defeated the British; battle fought after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent
Washington Burned
During the War of 1812, a British armada sailed up the Chesapeake Bay and burned the White House
Attack came in response to the American burning of Toronto
The armada proceeded toward Baltimore; America's Fort McHenry held firm through bombardment
Inspired Francis Scott Key's "Star Spangled Banner"
After the War of 1812
Increased American nationalism
High foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco
Turn from agrarian origins towards industrialization
Depression in 1819 due to influx of British goods; the Bank of the United States responded by tightening credit to slow inflation
Business slump
Rush-Bagot Agreement
The Treaty of Ghent, which ended hostilities after the War of 1812, set the groundwork for this agreement by encouraging both sides to continue to study boundary issues between the United States and Canada
Rush-Bagot was an agreement between Britain and the United States to stop maintaining armed fleets on the Great Lakes
Served as the first "disarmament" agreement and laid the foundation for future positive relations between Canada and the United States
James Monroe
Fifth President
Led during the "Era of Good Feelings," which was marked by the domination of his political party, the Democratic-Republicans, and the decline of the Federalist Party
National identity grew, most notably through the westward movement of the country and various public works projects
Monroe Doctrine—The United States would not allow foreign powers to lead new colonies in the western hemisphere or allow existing colonies to be influenced by outside powers
America feared international influence because of a period of world-wide revolutionary fervor after Napoleon's fall
The "era" saw the beginnings of North-South tensions over slavery
Convention of 1818
Provided for boundary between the United States and Canada at the forty-ninth parallel
Allowed joint occupancy of Oregon Territory by Americans and Canadians
Permitted American fisherman to fish in the waters of Newfoundland and Labrador
McCulloch v. Maryland
Marshall Court decision
Determined that no state can control an agency of the federal government
Maryland tried to levy a tax on a local branch of the United States Bank to protect its own state banks
Supreme Court determined such state action violated Congress's "implied powers" to operate a national bank
Use of judicial review over state law made this a division of powers case
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Marshall Court decision
Severely limited the power of state governments to control corporations, which were the emerging form of business
New Hampshire legislature tried to change Dartmouth from a private to a public institution by having its charter revoked
The Court ruled that the charter issued during colonial days still constituted a contract and could not be arbitrarily changed without the consent of both parties
Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts
Adams-Onis Treaty
Helped define the United States-Mexico border
The border that was under Spanish control had created conflict between the two countries
Spain sold its remaining Florida territory to the United States and drew the boundary of Mexico to the Pacific
United States ceded its claims to Texas, and Spain kept California and the New Mexico region
United States assumed $5 million in debts owed by Spain to American
Later, lands kept by Spain would become battlegrounds for American expansion
Cotton in the Early 1800s
The new invention of the cotton gin separated the seeds from the fibers
New states, such as Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, produced cotton
Led to a boom in the cotton market; its global effects crowned the staple as "King Cotton"
Need for cotton encouraged westward expansion in farming
Transportation Revolution
Innovations included new construction of roads, additions of canals, and the expansion of the railroads
Robert Fulton built the modern-day steamboat, transforming river transportation
The transportation revolution cheapened the marked for trade and encouraged population movement west of the Appalachian Mountains
Utopian Communities
Movement that copied early European efforts at utopianism
Attempt by cooperative communities to improve life in the face of increasing industrialism
Groups practiced social experiments that generally saw little success due to their radicalism
Included attempts at sexual equality, racial equality, and socialism
Two examples of these communities were Brook Farm and Oneida
Antebellum Reform
Explosion in the number of colleges; Oberlin College in Ohio became the first coed college
Expansion of state-supported elementary schools
Dorthea Dix led in the establishment of asylums for humane treatment of the insane
Prison reform
Oratory became the common form of entertainment and information
The Lowell System
A popular way of staffing New England factories
Young women were hired from the surrounding country side, brought to town, and housed in dorms in mill towns for a short period
The owners called these "factories in the garden" to spread the idea that these facilities would not replicate the dirty, corrupt mills in English towns
The rotating labor supply benefited owners, as no unions could be formed against them
The system depended on technology to increase production
Slave Codes
A series of laws that limited slave rights
Slave owners were given authority to impose harsh physical punishment and to control their slaves in any fashion they sought, without court intervention
Prohibited slaves from owning weapons, becoming educated, meeting with other African-Americans without permission, & testifying against whites in court
Severely limited the rights of slaves
Washington Irving
In his time, he was the best-known native writer in the United States and one of the first American writers to gain fame throughout Europe
His satire is considered some of the first great comic literature written by an American
Stories included Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (both in 1820)
His writings reflected an increasing American nationalism, as the stories were based in American settings
Movement to transcend the bounds on the intellect and to strive for emotional unity with God
Capable of unity without the help of the institutional church
Saw church as reactionary and stifling to self-expression
A belief in the innate goodness of man, nature, and traditional values, rooted in turn-of-the century Europe
Emphasized emotions and feelings over rationality
Reaction against the excesses of the Enlightenment led to a growing push for social reform
Missouri Compromise
Henry Clay's solution to deadlock over the issue of the acceptance of the proposed new state, Missouri
At the time, the Senate was evenly divided between slave and free states
A slave state of Missouri would tip the balance of power
John Tallmadge added an antislavery amendment meant to prohibit the growth of slavery into Missouri and to free slaves already in Missouri when they had reached a certain age
The Tallmadge Amendment caused the Senate to block the Missouri Compromise; it sparked heated debate about the future of slavery
To settle the dispute, northern Massachusetts became a new state (Maine)
The legislative section prohibiting slavery in Missouri was replaced by a clause stating that all land of the Louisiana Purchase north of thirty-six-thirty north latitude would prohibit slavery
Denmark Vesey
As a slave, he won enough money in a lottery to buy his own freedom
Gained wealth and influence in South Carolina
Accused of using church get-togethers to plan a violent slave revolt
Vesey and thirty-four other slaves were hanged
Some historians doubt the conspiracy was real
Gibbons v. Ogden
Marshall Court decision
Determined that only Congress may regulate interstate commerce, including navigation
Gibbons received a monopoly by New York to operate a steamboat between New York and New Jersey
Ogden received the same rights through Congress
Supreme Court decided that the state monopoly was void
Use of judicial review over state law made this a division of powers case
Hudson River School
Group of American landscape painters
Part of increasing American nationalism following the War of 1812
The influence of the European Romantic movement led many American artists to paint their homeland
Depicted important landscapes such as Niagara Falls, the Catskills, the Rocky Mountains, and the Hudson River Valley
Artists included Thomas Doughty, Thomas Cole, George Inness, and S.F.B. Morse
James Fennimore Cooper
American novelist born in Burlington, New Jersey
His writing was influenced by the American frontier and America's landscapes
His works include The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Water-Witch (1830), and The American Democrat (1838)
His work, along with that of writers like Washington Irving, helped form the foundation for distinctive American literature
John James Audubon
Romantic-era artist
Member of the Hudson River School, a group of landscape painters
Demonstrated the emotion of nature, especially birds and animals
In 1886, a nature organization took his name
"Corrupt Bargain" of 1824
Four presidential candidates—Henry Clay (Speaker of the House), John Quincy Adams (Secretary of State), Andrew Jackson (1812 war hero), and William Crawford (Secretary of the Treasury)
Jackson won the popular vote but did not win the majority of the electoral vote; as a result, the election went to the House of Representatives
Henry Clay, in the House of Representatives vote, threw his support to John Quincy Adams
In exchange for Adams winning the presidency over Jackson, Adams gave Clay the post of Secretary of State
Accusations of a "corrupt bargain" were made by Jackson, but are considered to be largely untrue
John Quincy Adams
Sixth President
Supporters called themselves National Republicans; Jackson supporters called themselves Democratic-Republicans
Led an active federal government in areas like internal improvements and Native American affairs
Policies proved unpopular amidst increasing in sectional interest and conflicts over states' rights
After his presidency, he served in the House of Representatives, where he forced debates against slavery and against the removal of certain Native American tribes, a Jacksonian policy
"Tariff of Abominations"
Tariff bill with higher import duties for many goods bought by Southern planters
John C. Calhoun, John Q. Adams' Vice President, anonymously protested his own leadership's bill, suggesting that a federal law harmful to an individual state could be declared void within that state
This suggestion of nullification would be utilized by other states and would escalate hostilities, leading to the Civil War
John Calhoun
Vice President to both John Q. Adams and to his political rival, Andrew Jackson, who defeated Adams in 1828
Champion of states' rights
Author of an essay, "The South Carolina Exposition and Protest," advocating nullification of Tariff of 1828 and asserting the rights of the states to nullify federal laws
Later, as a senator, he engaged Senator Daniel Webster in a debate over slavery and states' rights, digging deeply into the ideas that would dive the country to the Civil War
Andrew Jackson
Seventh President
After War of 1812, he invaded Spanish Florida to quell Native American rebellions
After the treaty for the War of 1812 had already been signed, he defeated a British force that had invaded New Orleans, safeguarding the Mississippi River
Popular president due to his image as the self-made Westerner
Implemented the Spoils System approach to civil service
Signed the Indian Removal Act, which provided for federal enforcement to remove Native American tribes west of the Mississippi
Was against the Bank of the United States
Jacksonian Politics
Called for a strong executive who liberally used the veto
Relied on the party system, emphasized states' rights
Politics came to rely on emotional appeals, with meetings in mass conventions to nominate national candidates for office
Spoils System
Andrew Jackson's method of exchanging government officials with new civil servants
"Rotation in office" was supposed to democratize government and lead to reform by allowing common folk to run the government
This system had been in place long before Jackson, but his name is tied to it because he endorsed its usage
In general, officials were replaced by those loyal to the new administration; the were not always the most qualified for the positions
Over the span of several presidential terms, the system led to corruption and inefficiency; it was ended with the passage of the Pendleton Act
Alexis de Tocqueville
French civil servant who traveled to and wrote about the United States
Wrote Democracy in America, reflecting his interest in the American democratic process
Assessed the American attempt to have both liberty and equality
Provided an outsider's objective view of the Age of Jackson
The Second Great Awakening and Protestant Revivalism
A wave of religious fervor spread through a series of camp meeting revivals
The "Burnt Over District" was an area in Upstate New York that was the center of the movement
Protestant Revivalism was a reaction to rationalism, emphasizing personal salvation, strong nationalism, and the improvement of society through social reform
Revivalism included participation by women and blacks, demonstrating the influence and growth of democracy
Created diversity in American religious sects and some anti-Catholic sentiment
Religion founded by Joseph Smith, Jr.
Smith claimed to have received sacred writings; he organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Smith described a vision from God in which God declared specific tenets of Christianity to be abominations
Because of these claims and unusual practices such as polygamy, Mormons were shunned
Eventually, formed the community near Great Salt Lake under Brigham Young
Settlement became the State of Utah
Webster-Hayne Debate
Debate in the Senate between Daniel Webster (MA) and Robert Hayne (SC) that focused on sectionalism and nullification
Came after the "Tariff of Abominations" incident
At issue was the source of constitutional authority - Was the Union derived from an agreement between states or from the people who had sought a guarantee of freedom?
Webster stated, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable"
Nat Turner
Slave who led insurrection in Southampton, Virginia, in 1831
Influential among local slaves as a preacher
Believed it was his destiny to lead slaves to freedom
Led approximately sixty in revolt, killing the family of his owner and running rampant through the nearby neighborhood, killing fifty-five whites
The revolt was put down and Turner, some of his conspirators, and several free blacks were executed
Led to stricter slave laws in the South and an end to the Southern organizations advocating abolition
Tariff of 1832 and the Order of Nullification
The tariff favored Northern interests at the expense of Southern ones
Calhoun led a state convention calling for the Order of Nullification, which declared the tariff laws void; South Carolina would resist by force any attempt to collect the tariffs
Jackson, though a supporter of states' rights, defended the Union above all, and asked Congress to issue a new bill to give him authority to collect tariffs by force
Jackson encouraged his allies to prepare a compromise bill so that the federal government would not lose its image of control and so that South Carolina could back down from nullification
Henry Clay presented this Compromise Tariff of 1833 and South Carolina withdrew the Order, but tensions between the federal government and state governments grew
Biddle's Banks
Andrew Jackson objected to the Bank of the United States created by Alexander Hamilton
Jackson felt that the Bank had great influence in national affairs but did not respond to the will of working and rural class people
Henry Clay wanted the Bank to be a political issue for the upcoming presidential election in 1832 against Andrew Jackson
Nicholas Biddle, chairman of the Bank, worked with Clay to re-charter the Bank four years earlier than it was due
Jackson vetoed the measure, increasing his popularity
Texas, Leading to the Battle of the Alamo
Mexico refused to sell Texas to the United States, which had given up its claims to Texas in the Adams-Onis treaty
Texas had been a state in the Republic of Mexico since 1822, following a revolution against Spain
Mexico offered land grants for immigration to this area; many Americans responded and came to Texas, increasing population and revenue
Southerners moved to Mexico with interest in becoming slave masters; the presence of slavery angered the Mexican government
When the population changed, Mexico's power began to erode
Stephen Austin worked to first make Texas a Mexican state and later independent of Mexico
Battle of the Alamo
During Texas's revolution against Mexico, Ft. Alamo was attacked by the Mexican Army and 187 members of the Texas garrison were killed
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, a Mexican military and political leader, was victorious
"Remember the Alamo" was the garrison's battle cry in its fight of independence
Sam Houston
Leader of Texas independence
Defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto and claimed independence
Houston requested both President Jackson and President Can Buren to recognize Texas as a state, which was denied out of the fear that a new slave state would be formed
Gag Rule
Forbade discussion of the slavery question in the House of Representatives
Stemmed from Southern members' fear of slave emancipation
Led to increased discussion by Southern conventions of ways to escape Northern economic and political hegemony
The Panic of 1837 and Specie Circular
Recession caused by President Jackson's drastic movement of federal bank deposits to state and local banks
Led to relaxed credit policies and inflation
Jackson demanded a Specie Circular, stating that land must be paid for in hard money, not paper or credit
Recession lasted into the 1840s
The Charles River Bridge Case
Demonstrated that a contract could be broken to benefit the general welfare
Jackson's chief justice, Roger Taney, suggested that a state could cancel grant money if the grant ceased to be in the interest of the community
Served as a reversal of Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Trail of Tears
Worcester v. Georgia was a response to Jackson's Indian Removal Act
Cherokees in Georgia claimed to be a sovereign political entity
Native Americans were supported by the Supreme Court; Andrew Jackson refused to enforce the court's decision
By this point, Cherokees had largely met the government's demands to assimilate into Western-style democratic institutions
Still, Cherokees were forced to give up lands to the east of the Mississippi and travel to an area in present-day Oklahoma
The migration's effects were devastating as hunger, disease, and exhaustion killed about 4,000 Cherokee
Horace Mann
American educator who was the first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, suggested reforms in education
Made available high-quality, no-cost, nondenominational public schooling; the public school system has lasted to present day
Mann has been called the father of the American public school
Whig Party
Group stemmed from the old Federalist Party, the old National Republican Party, and others who opposed Jackson's policies
Cultivated commercial and industrial development
Encouraged banks and corporations
Cautious approach to westward expansion
Support came largely from Northern business and manufacturing interests and from large Southern planters
Included Calhoun, Clay, and Webster
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Transcendental essayist and lecturer
Self-Reliance (1841), one of his essays, promoted independence
Through the themes in his writing and through the independent life he lieved, Emerson strongly influenced American thought and culture
Began with the idea of purchasing and transporting slaves to free African states, which had little success
Anti-slavery societies founded; some faced violent opposition
Movement split into two—radical followers and those who petitioned Congress
Entered politics through the Liberty Party, calling for non-expansion of slavery into new western territories
Liberty Party would combine with the larger Free Soil Party membership
William Lloyd Garrison
His newspaper, The Liberator, espoused his views that slaves should be immediately emancipated
Many other anti-slavery advocates of the 1830's and 1840's recommends a gradualist approach
Because of his inflexible position and the fiery language he used in his paper, opposition to his policy developed within abolitionist groups
Garrison also advocated an unpopular position in favor of equal rights for women
After the Civil War, he promoted free trade, suffrage for women and fair treatment for Native Americans
Frederick Douglass
An escaped slave and outspoken abolitionist
Escaped from his Maryland owner and published his own newspaper, the north Star
Favored the use of political methods of reform
IN the Civil War, he helped put together regiments of African-Americans from Massachusetts and urged others to join the Union army
Known as the father of American civil rights movement
Population Growth and Change, Early 1800s
Labor shortage meant more opportunity for work
Influx of immigration included German skilled labor and Irish Catholics, who faced discrimination
Growth of population in the West and in rural areas
Urbanization outgrew public services, leading to inadequate security and clean water for city-livers
Race riots, religious riots, and street crime became part of city society
Women in the Early 1800s
Women participated in limited political activity that was mostly religious and reform in nature, such as abolition
Employment was limited mostly to school-teaching
Still lived in a "cult of domesticity," in which a woman's role in marriage was to maintain the home for her husband and to raise the children
A woman's property became her husband's
In future years, the women's rights movement would rise to confront this "cult of domesticity"
Martin Van Buren
Eighth President
Democrat from New York who had served as Jackson's vice president after Calhoun left the position
Established independent treasury, a system maintaining government funds independently of the national banking systems; it existed in one form or another until 1921
Panic of 1837 hampered attempts to follow Jackson's policies, and he was unsuccessful in re-election
William Henry Harrison
Ninth President
A westerner who fought against Native Americans
Nicknamed "Old Tippecanoe"
Vice President was John Tyler
Harrison died of pneumonia a month after inauguration
John Tyler
Tenth President
President following the death of William Henry Harrison
States' righter, Southerner, and strict constitutionalist
Rejected the programs of the Whigs who had elected Harrison, which led them to turn against him
Settled Webster-Ashburton Treaty between the United States and Britain
Helped Texas achieve statehood in 1845
Dorothea Dix
Social reformer who worked to help the mentally ill
Northeastern jails housed both criminals and the mentally ill in the same facilities; Dix became determined to change this
Her memorandum to the Massachusetts state legislature in 1842 led to the establishment of state hospitals for the insane
U.S.-British Tension and Webster-Ashburton Treaty
American ship was burned by Canadian loyalists
Canada and the United States disputed the boundary of Maine
British ships sometimes topped American ships to suppress American slave smuggling
The treaty settled the boundary of Maine and the border disputes in the Great lakes
Created more cooperation between the United States and Britain in curbing the slave trade
Irish and German immigration
1840s saw dramatic increases in Irish immigration due to potato famine in Ireland
Poverty of the Irish immigration caused settlement in eastern cities and competition for jobs
1850s had increases in German immigration due to the failed revolution in 1848
Many Germans settled in Wisconsin because they had money and other resources; helped to cultivate the upper-Midwest portion of the united states
The five points neighborhood of New York City included Irish immigrants, African-American, and Anglo, Italian, and Jewish cultures; it encapsulated the melting-pot phenomenon in the United States
Manifest Destiny
Belief that American was destined to ex[and to the Pacific, and possibly into Canada and Mexico
John O'Sullivan, an American journalist, wrote an article pushing for the annexation of Texas and coined the phrase "Manifest Destiny"
Came out of post-1812 War nationalism, reform impulse of the 1830s, and the need for new resources
Those Whigs who supported Manifest Destiny favored more peaceful means; other Whigs fared American expansion, concerned about raising the slavery issue in new territories
Manifest Destin was an engine of both discovery and destruction; while American pushed westward, the ideas behind Manifest Destiny fueled the Mexican War and the displacement of Native Americans
Transportation in the 1840s and 1850s
Tremendous expansion of railroad lines, creating a national market for goods
Railroads linked the Midwest and the Northeast
Steamboats and clipper ships became more popular for travel
Four social classes in the South
Yeoman-Largest group; worked land independently, sometimes along with slaves, to produce their own food, like corn
Planters-Owned large farms and groups of slaves; exercised political and economic control with cotton exports
Poor Whites-Lived in squalor, often worse then the slaves
Slaves-worked land; three-fourths of whites in the south did not own slaves
Slave labor system-three categories
On large farms, white overseers directed clack drivers, who supervised groups in the fields as they performed gang labor
On smaller farms, a slave was assigned specific tasks, then given the remainder oh the day to himself
House servants were spared physical labor, but they enjoyed less privacy and had direct responsibility to the master
Slaves in Southern Urban areas
Slaves served as factory workers or in construction
Some purchased their freedom with their savings or disappeared into society
As sectional troubles rose, fewer slaves were able to buy freedom or work in urban areas
Elements of slavery
Slaves suffered varying degrees of repression, although most received adequate housing and diet
Slaves did commit some violent uprisings
Many slaves tried to run away into bordering free states
Injustice created quiet revolt as slaves sabotaged their facilities, found ways to become unproductive for their masters, and ridiculed their woners
Despite their repression, slaves created their own common culture
Southern Response to slavery
Defense of slavery shifted from an early view (1970) that slavery as a "necessary evil" to being a "positive good" (after 1840)
Used scientific arguments, biblical texts, and historical examples to justify slavery
Both this defensive position and abolitionist sentiment increased
Some Southerners, like George Fitzhugh, a Virginia lawyer, defended slavery by condemning Northern "wage slavery"; he used the idea of African-American inferiority to suggest that whites were protection slaves from a world of fierce competition in which, on their own, they would not survive
The underground railroad and Harriet Tubman
Method used to move slaves to free territory in the united states and Canada
Harriet Tubman was a slave smuggler and "conductor" if the Underground railroad.
A freed slave herself, Tubman led over 300 to free.
The underground led to tension between states
James K. Polk
Eleventh President
"Dark horse" Democratic candidate who became president
Introduced a new independent treasury system
Lowered the tariff with the walker tariff
Settled Oregon boundary dispute with the Oregon treaty (Treaty of Washington-1846) at forty-ninth parallel rather than fifty-forty
Big believer in manifest destiny
Acquired California
He led the United states into Mexican war
Edgar Allan Poe
Southern Romantic-era writer
Author of The Raven (1845) and many tales of terror and darkness
Explored the world of the spirit and the emotions
Causes of Mexican War
The new Mexican republic would not address grievances held by United Stated citizens, who claimed property losses and personal injuries resulting for conflicts during the Mexican revolution
Due to sentiment arising from the idea of manifest destiny, there was an increased American interest in Mexican-held western territory
The United States had aided Texas in its revolt against the Mexican government and there was growing momentum toward a united stated annexation of Texas
When the united states congress annexed Texas, Polk send John Slidell to negotiate a settlement for that land, for California, and for western Mexico territory
The Mexican government rejected slidell
Mexican War
John C. Fremont (united states) won attacks by land and sea California
Zachary Taylor defeated large forced in Mexico
Mexican refused to negotiate, so President Polk ordered forces led by Winfield Scott into Mexico city.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 ended the war, giving the United states land originally sought by Slidell (new Mexico, Arizona, California, Texas, and parts of Colorado, Utah, and Nevada)
Border set at Rio Grande River
Raised question of slavery in the new territory
Henry David Thoreau and a young Whig, Abraham Lincoln, opposed the war
Wilmot Proviso
Amendment to a Mexican War appropriation bill
Proposed that slavery could not exist in and territory to be acquired from Mexico
The amendment was defeated several times in Congress
Represented the looming question of slavery's future, which would be decided in the civil war
Popular Sovereignty
Doctrine under which the status of slavery in the territories was to be determined by the settlers themselves
Doctrine was first put forward by General Lewis Cass, promoted by Stephen A. Douglas
Meant as a resolution to the looming crisis of the slavery question
Free Soil Party
Party created by those Democratic-Republicans opposed to slavery; included anti-slavery Whigs and former Liberty Party members
Opposed extension of slavery into new territories; supported national improvement programs and small tariffs to raise revenue
Zachary Taylor defeated free soil candidate Martin Van Buren president in 1848
Mexican Cession and Slavery
Argument existed about slavery in the newly-acquired Mexican Cession
States-righters believed that the territory was the property of all states and that the federal government had no right to prohibit property ownership in territories
Many anti-slavery and federal government supporters contended that Congress had the power to make laws for the territories
Argument in favor of federal power has based on the Northwest Ordinance of 1784 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820
Gold Rush
Miners who rushed to California after the discovery of gold were called "forty Niners"
Over 80,000 prospectors "rushed" to San Francisco
Increased population led to California joining the Union as a free state
Connected to the idea of Manifest Destiny
Zachary Taylor
Twelfth President
Famous general in Mexican War
Whig President
Opposed the spread of slavery
Encouraged territories to organize and seek admission directly as states to avoid the issue of slavery
Died suddenly in 1850; replaced by Millard Fillmore
Industry by 1850
Mostly located in the North
Industry's value surpassed agriculture
United states technology exceeded Europe in such areas as rubber, coal power, mass production, and the telegraph
Cheap immigrant labor threatened the established workers' jobs
Agriculture by 1850
Agricultural technology increased harvest sizes, saved on labor, and made selling farm goods to international markets possible
Demand for agricultural land grew
Railroads was used to help transport goods
John Deere, an American manufacturer, pioneered the steel-plow industry
Cyrus McCormack invented the mechanical reaper
Northern Blacks, 1850
Organized churches and groups
200,000 free blacks lived in North and "West, although their lives were restricted by prejudicial laws
Immigration and new sources of labor for employers threatened the economic security of northern blacks
The North, 1850
Wages were increasing and the economy was growing
Railroads competition began to harm the canal business
Large numbers of Irish and Germans immigrated to the united states
Urbanization increased as the population grew, bringing problems such as slums, impure water, rats, and foul sewage
The South, 1850
Plantation system: cash crops grown by slave labor
Agrarian slave labor was more profitable than using slaves in factories
Capital funds were tied up in land and slaves, so little was left investing the new growth or industry
Value system put emphasis on leisure and elegance
Unlike the north, the south remained agrarian and its population was less dense
Due to the rise of cotton, the influence of the Gulf states in the south grew
Cotton became the largest export of the united states
Slave importation continued through the 1850s into southwestern states, despite the federal outlaw
Stephen Douglas
Senator from Illinois dubbed the "little Giant"
Was an expansionist and a supporter of the Mexican war
Broke the compromise of 1850 in smal3ler, more acceptable pieces of legislation and pushed it through using various allies in congress
During a senate campaign, participated in debates against Abraham Lincoln (dubbed the Lincoln-Douglas debates)
He believed popular sovereignty was the appropriate ways to handle the slavery question
Introduced the Kansa-Nebraska act in 1854
Compromise of 1850 (omnibus Bill)
Proposed by Henry Clay and handled by Stephan Douglas to assure passage by both Northerners and Southerners
Douglas broke the legislation into various pieces, which helped assure that each of its parts would pass
The compromise led to sectional harmony for several years
California admitted as a free state; New Mexico and Utah territories would be decided by popular sovereignty
Slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia
Tough Fugitive slave act passed
Federal payment to Texas ( $10 million) for lost New Mexico territory
Fugitive Slave Act
Part of the Compromise of 1850
This new Act reinvigorated enforcement of some guideline that had already been established in the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which had been mostly ignored by Northern states
Created federal commissioners who pursue fugitive slaves in any state; paid $10 per returned slave
Blacks living in the North and claimed by slave catchers were denied portion of legal due process
Some Northern states passed personal-liberty laws that contradicted the Act
Led to small riots in the North and increased the rift between the North and South
Millard Fillmore
Thirteenth President
Became president after Zachary Taylor
As a congressman, he revealed his opposition to both the expansion of slavery and various abolitionist activities, driving away supporters.
Supported the Compromise of 1850
Failed to obtain a nomination in 1852, but was nominated by both the Whigs and the Know-Nothing Movement in 1856
Know-Nothing Party (Nativists) (1840s-1850s) was anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Worked with the Grimke sisters, Elizabeth Stanton, and other leaders to pursue activist goals
Early activist in the feminist movement and author of Uncle Tom's Cabin(1851) a novel about slavery
Uncle Tom's Cabin was denounced in the South and praised in the North; it turned many toward active opposition to slavery and helped bolster sympathy for abolition by Europeans who had read it.
Franklin Pierce
Fourteenth President
Democratic president for New Hampshire
Supported Manifest Destiny despite Northern concerns that it would lead to the spread of slavery
Signed the Kansas- Nebraska Act
Sent Commodore Matthew Perry into Japan to open the country to diplomacy and commerce( Treaty of Kanagawa)
Opened Canada to greater trade
Pierce's diplomats failed in their attempts to purchase Cuba from Spain, leading to the drafting of the Ostend Manifesto
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendental writer
His Walden (1854) repudiated the repression of society and preached non-violent civil disobedience
He protested unjust laws, slavery, and Mexican War
To demonstrate against these issues, Thoreau refused to pay his poll tax and was forced to spend one night in jail
Thoreau's ideology was reflected in future advocates like Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.
Ostend Manifesto
Drafted by James Buchanan, John Mason, and Pierre Soule after Soule failed to purchase Cuba from Spain
Suggested that the United States should take Cuba from Spain by force if Spain refused to sell it
Abolitionists saw Ostend as a p;ot to extend slavery
Southerners supported the manifesto, as they had feared Cuba would be a free "black republic"
Evolution of the Major Political Parties to pre-Civil War
Key Moment: Debate over the adoption of a federal constitution
Parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalist-who disagreed about the power and influence of the central government.
Evolutionary Point: after the Constitution was adopted, the Jeffersonian Republicans absorbed the Anti-Federalist Party and by 1800 the Federalist Party declined
Key Moment: Disagreement over John Q. Adams' defeat of Andrew Jackson
Parties: Whig Party and Democratic-Republicans-Whigs were a combination of those who opposed President Jackson's policies and those who had supported John Q. Adams.
Evolutionary Point: After death of Whig President William Henry Harrison, issues became more about sectional unrest.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Legislation introduced by Stephan Douglas to organize the area west of Missouri and Iowa
One goal was to facilitate the building of a transcontinental railroad that ran west from Chicago.
Walled for two territories to be created (Kansas and Nebraska) and the issue of slavery to be decided by popular sovereignty.
Nebraska became a free territory
Kansas' status was impacted by fighting between pro- and anti- slavery groups who moved to the area; the conflict was termed "Bleeding Kansas"
Creation of Lincoln's Republican Party
The Democratic Party divided along North-South lines
The Whig Party disintegrated, with its members either joining the Know-Nothings or the newly-created Republican Party
The Republican Party's unifying principle was that slavery would be banned from all the nation's territories and not permitted to spread any further to establish states.
Walt Whitman
Northern Romantic era poet
Wrote a volume of poems, Leaves of Grass (1855)
Celebrated the importance of individualism and is considered the poet of American democracy.
James Buchanan
Fifteenth President
Presided over the country when the Dred Scott decision was announced.
Backed the Lecompton Constitution to appease the South
Buchanan., still acting as president after Lincoln's election, denied the legal right of states to secede but believed that the federal government could not legally prevent them
Before leaving office, Buchanan appointed Northerners to federal posts and helped to prepare Fort Sumter with reinforcements
Causes of the Panic of 1857
Failure of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Co. in New York
Overspeculation in railroads and lands
Decreased in flow of European capital for United States investments because of Europe's own war.
Surplus of wheat hurt Northern farmers
Panic spread to Europe, South America, and the Far East
The Panic fueled sectional tensions as Northerners blamed it on the low tariff policies of the Southern-dominated Congress
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Supreme Court case involving a slave, Scott, who was taken by his master from Missouri, a slave state, to Illinois, a free state.
After Scott had been returned to Missouri, he sued for freedom for himself and his family, stating that by residing in a free state he had ended his slavery
President Buchanan meant for the case's decision to serve as the basis for the slavery issue
Pro-Southern Judge Taney ruled that Scott did not have the right of citizenship, which he could need to be able to bring forth a suit
Ruled further that the Missouri Compromise itself was unconstitutional because Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories, as slaves were property
The Scott decision would apply to all African-Americans, who were regarded as inferior and , therefore without rights.
Lecompton Constitution
Document submitted by pro-slavery leaders in territorial Kansas that put no restrictions on slavery
Free-soilers boycotted the constitutional convention in Lecompton because the document would not leave Kansas a free territory
Though President Buchanan supported the constitution as the basis for Kansas' statehood, Congress voted against it.
The constitution was turned down and Kansas remained a territory.
Lincoln Douglas Debates
Came out of the Illinois senatorial campaign between Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln
Slavery was a major issue in the debates, as Douglas maintained that popular sovereignty was supported by the basic elements of democracy
Douglas' "Freeport Doctrine"-despite the Dred Scott case, slavery could be prevented by the refusal of the people living in a territory to pass laws favorable to slavery
Lincoln had a moral opposition to slavery's spread and demanded constitutional protection where it existed
Lincoln lost the Senate election to Douglas, but he stepped into the national limelight
John Brown
Brown and his sons killed five pro-slavery settlers in Kansas in an incident known as the "Pottawatamie Creek Massacre"
He was supported by some Northern abolitionists to start a countrywide revolution
He led followers to seize a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, hoping to start the rebellion (1859)
Brown was arrested and hanged
Brown was often referred to as "God's Angry Man"
Transportation from 1860-1900
Railroad transportation provided opportunities for movement of goods and people to the West and raw materials to the East
Affected population movements
Made Chicago one of the most populous cities in the nation by 1900
Election of 1960
Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln
Major plank of his campaign-containment of slavery and encouragement of transcontinental rail
The Democratic vote was split between Douglas and several other strong candidates
Lincoln won the election, and after his inauguration, the Sough seceded.
Abraham Lincoln
Sixteenth President
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates won him high national regard and, eventually, the Republican nomination for president
Produced and led a Northern army to defend the Union against the secessionists
Suspended habeas corpus during the Civil War, which was upheld by Congress
Issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves whitin the Confederacy
Developed the "10% Plan" for Reconstruction
Gave the Gettysburg Address on November 19, 1863, which began "Four score and seven years ago..."
Assassinated while attending a play at Ford's Theatre in Washington; the assassin, John Wilkes Booth, believed he was assisting the Southern cause.
Response to the election of Abraham Lincoln, who sought to contain slavery
South Carolina voted to secede on December 20, 1860
Over the next two months Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas seceded
These states declared themselves the Confederate State of America and elected Jefferson Davis as president, adopting a constitution that permitted slavery rights and the sovereignty of states
Civil War Conscription
Congress passed a federal conscription law in 1863
Rioting in the North took place, notably in New York City, when drafted individuals were permitted to avoid service by hiring a substitute or paying $300
The Confederacy's short supply of manpower meant an earlier draft, beginning in 1862
Southerners could also hire substitutes or purchase an exemption
Civil War Advantages for the South
Only needed to resist being conquered
Vast in land size
Troops would fight in their familiar home territory
Highly qualified senior officers including Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, Albert Sidney Johnston and Stonewall Jackson
Inspired to protect their familiar institution and culture
Civil War Advantages for the North
Greater population, More wealth
Better railroad lines and more established trade routes than the South
Were able to use the moral issue of fighting slavery as motivation
Anaconda Plan
Civil War strategy by Northern General Winfield Scott to crush the Southern rebellion
Called for a naval blockage to shut out Europeans supplies and exports. A campaign to take Mississippi River and , thereby, split the South, and a targeting of Southern cities in hopes that pro-Unionists would rise up in the South and over throw the secession
Both the blockade and the taking of Mississippi were successful
The Homestead Act
Granted 160 acres of government land to any person who would farm it for at least five years
The government helped to settle the West with the provision
This "free soil" proposal became law when the Southern Democrats were not part of Congress
Battle of Antietam
General George McClellan attempted to defeat Lee and shorten the war, but failed
McClellan had discovered detailed plans for Lee's entire operation but ignored the opportunity because the over cautiousness
Lee's army was forced to retreat to Virginia after a bloody battle at Antietam
McClellan's Failure to pursue Lee led Lincoln to remove him from command
Because the C.S.A. didn't win a decisive victory, they failed to win the support of foreign governments to their "cause"
Emancipation Proclamation
Declared all slaves to be free in areas under rebel control, thus exempting conquered areas of the South
Lincoln was criticized for not abolishing slavery everywhere
Led to slaves in the South leaving their plantations
Increased morale in the North
Partly designed to keep England from joining the war on the side of the South
Changed perception of the war from a conflict to preserve the Union to a war to end slavery
Battle of Gettysburg
Lee invaded Pennsylvania from Virginia, pursued by Northern General Meade
Lee was defeated and retreated to Virginia
The bloodiest, most decisive battle of the Civil War
Farthest northern advance of the Confederacy
Civil War Ships
Ironclads were Civil War ships protected from cannon fire by iron plates bolted over the sloping wooden sides
Confederates outfitted an old wooden warship, the Merrimack, with iron railroad rails and renamed it the Virginia; it achieved devastating results
The Union's Monitor fought the Merrimack to a standstill
Lincoln's "10% Plan"
Lincoln believed that seceded states should be restored to the Union quickly and easily, with "malice toward none, which charity for all."
Lincoln's "10% Plan" allowed Southerners, excluding high-ranking confederate officers and military leaders, to take an oath promising future loyalty to the Union and an end to slavery
When 10 percent of those registered to vote in 1860 took the oath, a loyal state government could be formed
This plan was not accepted by Congress
Sherman's March to the Sea
General William Tecumseh Sherman led Union troops through Georgia
Sherman and Union Commander, Ulysses S. Grant, believed in a "total war" that would break the South's psychological capacity to fight; Sherman's army sought to eliminate civilian support to Southern troops
Sherman captured and burned Atlanta in September of 1864
The purpose of destroying Georgia was to lower Southern morale and diminish supplies
Sherman led troops to Savannah, then on to South and North Carolina
Northern Election of 1864
Lincoln ran against General McClellan, who claimed that he war was a failure and called for a peace settlement
Lincoln ran on the ticket of national unity with Andrew Johnson, a loyalist from Tennessee
Sherman's taking of Atlanta helped Lincoln win the election
Those sympathetic to the Southern cause were labeled "Copperheads"
Wade-Davis Bill
A proposal to reunite the country by Senators Wade and Davis
Required that 50 percent of a state's white male voters take a loyalty oath to be readmitted to the Union
Demanded stronger efforts on behalf of states to emancipate slaves
Lincoln "pocket-vetoed" the bill in favor of his "10% Plan"
Conclusion of the Civil War
With his forces surrounded, General Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia
Lee's surrender caused the remaining Confederate soldiers to lay down their arms
By the end of the conflict, the country had sustained over 600,000 casualties
Freedman's Bureau
Congressional support agency providing food, clothing, and education for freed slaves
Ex-slave states were divided into districts that were managed by assistant commissioners
Despite its benefits, the Bureau failed to establish the freed slaves as landowners
It organized the African-American vote for the Republican Party, creating great animosity toward the Bureau in the South
Radical Republicans
Faction of the Republican Party that believed the Civil War was meant to stop slavery and emancipate all slaves
Believed Congress should control Reconstruction and not the president
Rejected the reentry of Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana into the Union, despite their qualification under the "10% Plan"
They wanted the rebellious South to be dealt with in a harsher manner
Ben Wade and Thad Stevens were among their members
Civil War Amendments
Thirteenth Amendment (1865)-abolished slavery in the United States
Fourteenth Amendment (1868)-African-Americans became citizens and no state could deny life, liberty, or property without due process of the law
Fifteenth Amendment (1870)-No state could deny the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Black Codes
Restrictions by Southern states on former slaves
Designed to replicate the conditions of slavery in the post-Civil War South
Various codes prohibited meetings without a white present, while others established segregated public facilities
Led to Radical Republican opposition and exclusion of Southern representation in Congress
Jim Crow Laws
Laws separating whites and African-Americans in public facilities and restricting their legal guarantees, such as the right to vote
Often part of state statutes
Support for these laws was provided in the Plessy v. Ferguson case, demonstrating the limits of the Fourteenth Amendment
Name of the laws are said to be derived from a character in a minstrel song
Booker T. Washington
The son of a slave and a white man
Taught at Hampton Institute and in 1881, helped organize a school for African-Americans in Tuskegee, Alabama
The Tuskegee Institute emphasized industrial training to help African-Americans gather wealth and become influential in society
Claimed that it was a mistake for blacks to push for social equality before they had become economically equal
His ideas were denounced by some leaders in the African-American community
Lectured throughout the United States and Europe and wrote various pieces, including his autobiography, Up From Slavery
Andrew Johnson
Seventeenth President
Vice President who took over presidency after Lincoln's assassination
He initially followed Lincoln's policies but gradually became more conservative, giving amnesty to former Confederate officials and opposing legislation that dealt with former slaves
His veto of the Civil Rights Act was overridden by Congress, which decreased his political sway
Johnson's opposition to the Radical Republicans and his violation of the Tenure of Office Act led to his impeachment by the House
The Senate was organized as a court to hear the impeachment charges, but it came one vote short of the constitutional two-thirds required for removal
"Seward's Folly"
Derisive title of Secretary of State William Seward's decision to purchase Alaska for $7.2 million from Russia
Congress agreed to the purchase, as Russia had been pro-North during the Civil War
Most members thought the purchase to be foolhardy since the land was in such a remote location
Russia was willing to sell Alaska because Russia was overextended abroad and feared the loss of Alaska in a future war
Derogatory Southern name for Northerners who came to the South to participate in Reconstruction governments
Name came from the cloth bags of possessions many of them used to travel South
Response by some violent Southern whites led to organization of the Ku Klux Klan
Derogatory name for Southerners working for or supporting the federal government during Reconstruction
Some of these Southerners had opposed the war from the beginning, while others helped Reconstruction for financial gains
Became a target of the Ku Klux Klan
Ulysses S. Grant
Eighteenth President
Fought in the Mexican War, captured Vicksburg as a Union general, and accepted General Lee's surrender
Appointed Secretary of War by Andrew Johnson in 1867; disagreed with Johnson's policies and won election through support of Radical Republicans
Despite his personal honesty and honor, his administration was marred ny scandals such as Credit Mobilier and the Whiskey Ring.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
Stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad created a dummy company, Credit Mobilier
The company was supposed to complete the transcontinental railroad, but instead it stole millions of dollars from the government
Blame for the scandal fell on Grant and his cabinet