Trace a molecule of Oxygen from the external nares to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs
Define pulmonary ventilation
• Mechanical flow of air into (inhalation) and out of (exhalation) of the lungs due to chest and lung volume changes which cause pressure changes.
• The flow of gases equalizes the pressure.
• The constant alteration between inspiration
Define external respiration
• Exchange of gases between the air spaces in the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
• The blood gains O2 and loses CO2
5. The rings of the trachea are incomplete posteriorly, what is the significance of that?
• To allow the esophagus to expand while swallowing
9. Define internal respiration
• Exchange of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells
• The blood loses O2 and gains CO2.
11. Define dead space.
• NO gas exchange between the air spaces in the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
12. Why oxygen moves from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries?
• High concentration or pressure in the lung to low concentration or pressure in the capillaries
13. The upper respiratory system structures are.
• Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx
14. The lower respiratory system structures are
• larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
15. List the paranasal sinuses and their functions.
• Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary
• Frontal, maxillary, and anterior and middle ethmoid drain into middle meatus
• Sphenoid and posterior ethmoid drain into superior meatus
• Make the skull lighter
• Produce mucus that moisten and clean the air
• Resonating chambers for sound
17. What is the function of the soft palate?
• To close the internal nareses and stop the food from entering the nasal cavity
20. Which primary bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical; the left or the right?
• The right.
25. List the three parts of the respiratory zone.
• Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sac, alveoli
26. The conducting zone includes
• Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles