APUSH Notecards 251-500

Barron's AP US History Notecards
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First Transcontinental Railroad
Completed with Golden Spike at Promontory Point, Utah
Marked the meeting of the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads
During construction, the Union Pacific used Irish labor, while the Central Pacific used Chinese labor
The connection of the railroads opened national markets and met growing economic needs
Knights of Labor
Militant organization seeking solutions to labor problems
Allowed skilled and unskilled workers (along with women and blacks) to join
Wanted an eight-hour work day, termination of child labor, equal pay for equal work, and the elimination of private banks
Under Terrence Powderly's leadership, the Knights reached membership of over 700,000
Downfall caused by emergence of the AFL, mismanagement, and financial losses from unsuccessful strikes
Panic of 1873
Economic depression during Grant's second term
Over expansive, unregulated business during the post-Civil War years, the failure of American investment banking firms, and economic downturns in Europe all contributed to the panic
Led to the retirement of greenbacks and return to the gold standard
Whiskey Ring Fraud
To aid in the cost of the Civil War, liquor taxes were increased
Distillers and treasury officials conspired to defraud the government by giving our cheap tax stamps, robbing the government of millions in excise tax
One of the scandals of Grant's administration.
Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens)
American novelist who grew up in Hannibal, Missouri
Early jobs as both a printer's apprentice and a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River
His novels included The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), Huckleberry Finn (1885), and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889)
Twain's writings portray the essence of life and speech during the era; his use of a distinctly American vernacular influenced future fiction writers
Rutherford B. Hayes
Nineteenth President
Former Ohio governor who was the Republican presidential nominee in 1876
Won election through the Compromise of 1877
During his term, he removed federal troops from the South
Dealt with railroad strike in 1877
Compromise of 1877
Compromise came after the disputed presidential election of 1876 between Hayes and Tilden
Tilden won the popular vote but neither candidate won the electoral vote; three states' electoral votes were in dispute
The Democrats agreed to give Hayes the presidency
Hayes promised to show consideration for Southern interests, end Reconstruction, aid Southern industrialization, and withdraw remaining forces from the South
This settlement left the freed Southern blacks without support from the Republican Party
Railroad Strike
Pay cuts caused labor strikes to spread through the country
Workers of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad went on strike over a second pay cut
President Hayes used federal troops to restore order after workers were killed
Half-Breeds, Stalwarts, and Mugwumps
Factions of the Republican Party in the 1880's
Half-Breeds—supported civil service reform and merit appointments to government
Stalwarts—Opposed civil service reform and supported the protective tariff
Mugwumps—Group that left Republican Party to become Democrats; this group heavily favored civil service reform and mistrusted James Blaine as the presidential nominee, as the group suspected his involvement in past corruption
Election of 1880 united Garfield, a Half-Breed, and Vice President Chester Arthur, a Stalwart
Gilded Age
Period of the new industrial era
Phrase coined by Mark Twain
America emerged as the world's leading industrial and agricultural producer
Profits became increasingly centralized in the hands of fewer people.
Social Darwinism
Theory that wealth was based on the survival of the fittest; associated with Charles Darwin's work
Wealthy industrial leaders used the doctrines to justify vast differences in classes
Supporters included Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner
Captains of Industry or Robber Barons
Leaders of large, efficient corporations
Often gained wealth through questionable business means
Monopolies by these large companies led to demands by small businessmen and laborers for government regulation
John D. Rockefeller
Founder of Standard Oil Company
Used such business practices as horizontal integration, trusts, and rebates to grow Standard Oil
Also invested in banks, railroads, and timber
Focused on Philanthropy toward the end of his life, including the Rockefeller Foundation and the University of Chicago.
Andrew Carnegie
After making money through investments in a sleeping car company and oil, Andrew Carnegie moved on to work in the War Department
He went to work in the iron business and then moved into steel after learning of the Bessemer Process, which formed steel from pig iron
Grew Carnegie Steel Company through acquisitions
Wrote the article, " Gospel of Wealth," for the North American Review, which offered the belief that the wealth were just trustees of their money and that they must use their efforts to benefits society
His philanthropic ventures included Carnegie Hall and public libraries
J.P Morgan
Wall Street banker whose company financed railroads, banks, and insurance companies
Bought out Carnegie for $400 million
Philanthropist
William Randolph Hearst
Inherited the San Francisco Chronicle
Built media empire, including newspapers, magazines, radio stations, and movie studios
His "Yellow Journalism," writing that dealt with sensational news, helped lead the United States into Spanish-American War
James Garfield
Twentieth President
Former Ohio Congressman and Union General
Charles Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker, shot and killed Garfield
His assassination spurred the passage of the Pendleton Act
Chester Arthur
Twenty- first President
Assumed presidency when Garfield was assassinated by Charles Guiteau
Worked to outlaw polygamy Utah and to Strength the Navy
Supported the Pendleton Act, which established open competitive exams for civil service jobs and officially ended the Spoils System, which had been popular under Andrew Jackson
Chinese Exclusion Act
Only legislation passed to limit immigration of any one group of people
Passed in response to the Chinese who settled in California after building the railroads
Modern Navy
Construction new steel ships led the United States to take the lead in the world naval rankings
United States Naval War College was established on October 6, 1884
Alfred Thayer Mahan(1840-1914) was U.S naval officer, President of Newport War College, and author who pushed for imperialism and growth of the U.S Navy
Repair and coaling station helped expand the Navy's effectiveness
Grover Cleveland
Twenty-second and twenty-fourth President
The first Democrat elected after the Civil War
He was the only president elected to two non-consecutive terms
He vetoed many private pension bills to Civil War veterans who submitted fraudulent claims
Signed the Interstate Commerce Act
Sent in federal troops to enforce an injunction against striking railroad workers in Chicago
Wabash Case
Case challenged legislation made the State of Illinois against railroads; the state was trying to appease the demands of farmers for lower railroad rates
The Supreme Court determined that states had no power to regulate interstate commerce
Case undid an earlier victory for states established in the Munn vs. Illinois case (1877), which had allowed for regulation
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Combination of national craft unions representing labor interests in wages, hours, and safety
Individuals were members of their local unions, which in turn, were members of the AFL
Rather then revolutionary changes, they sought a better working life; their philosophy was "pure and simple unionism"
First president was Samuel Gompers
Haymarket Square Riot
Large rally in Haymarket Square in Chicago shortly after striking began at McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.
Police attempted to disperse the crowd, which was followed by a bomb explosion
Eleven were killed and over 100 were injured
Eight anarchists were put on trail and four were executed
Incident was used to discredit the Knights of Labor
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the Interstate Commerce Commission in part to monitor discrimination within the railroad industry
Prohibited rebates and pools and required railroads to publish their rates
Also prohibited unfair discrimination against shippers and prohibited the practice of changing more for short hauls than long hauls
In general, the Act opened competition, the goal of which was to preserve equality and spur innovation
Dawes Severalty Act
Legislation encouraging the breakup of Native American tribes in hopes of assimilating them into American society
Distributed Native American reservation lands among individual members of the tribe to form a system of agriculture more similar to the white man's
Gave each head of a Native American family 160 acres of farmland or 320 acres of grazing land
Effect was to nearly destroy the reservation system, as the remaining tribal lands were opened up for whites
Jane Addams
American social reformer
Provided the service of the Hull House in Chicago (1889) to help poor immigrants settle
Member of the "Social Gospel" movement, which applied lessons from the Bible to help solve problems of immigration and urbanization
Won 1931 Nobel Peace Prize
Benjamin Harrison
Twenty-third President, former senator and Lawyer
He was nominated for the presidency on the eighth ballot at the 1888 Republican Convention
Defeated Grover Cleveland, Despite receiving fewer popular voted
Submitted to the Senate a treaty to annex Hawaii, although President Cleveland later withdrew it
Signed many appropriations bills for naval improvement and internal improvements
Battle of Wounded Knee
Sioux natives wished to practice a dance that they believed would free their lands, rid them of whites, and lead to prosperity; this frightened white settlers
The federal army believed Chief Sitting Bull was planning a rebellion; acting on the settlers' fear and their suspicions, the army captured the chief
In a sudden exchange of gun fire between the tribe and the army, Chief Sitting Bull and others were killed; the remainder of the tribe fled to a camp near Wounded Knee Creek
When the army reached this camp, a shop was fired, and in reaction, the army killed two hundred men, women, and children in what is considered the last battle of the Indian Wars
Progressivism
Social, political, and economic reform that came as an American response to problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration
Democratic reforms were made throughout states and the national government
Reforms helped develop the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and Nineteenth Amendments
Sherman Antitrust Act
Based on Congress's power to regulate interstate commerce
Declared every contract, combination, or conspiracy in restraint of interstate trade to be illegal
Corporate monopolies were exposed to federal prosecution if found to conspire in restraining trade
The Supreme Court applied the act to both labor unions and corporations
Populist Party
Consisted mostly of farmers
Members who met in Nebraska wrote their "Omaha Platform"
The demands of the platform included free and unlimited coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, and government ownership of the telephone, telegraph, and railroad industries
Homestead Strike
Iron and steel worker' strike against Carnegie Steel Company in Pittsburgh to protest salary reductions
Henry Cay Frick hired Pinkerton security guards to protect Carnegie's plant, but fighting began and several deaths resulted on both sides
Pennsylvania state militia was brought in to take control
Eugene V. Debs
Became president of American Railway Union in 1893
Led successful strikes against the Great Northern Railway and against the Pullman Palace Car Company
Was a founder of the Social Democratic Party
Ran for president as a Socialist candidate five times between 1900 and 1920
Hawaii
American sugar planters worked in Hawaii and expanded American-Hawaiian sugar trade
Queen Liliuokalani opposed foreigners, alienating Americans
Revolution against the queen came about in 1893 and was encouraged by American leaders
Feeling that most islanders did not support this revolution, Grover Cleveland unsuccessfully attempted to restore Queen Liliuokaliani
Sandford Dole, son of American missionaries in Hawaii, shepherded the annexation process
Dole became Hawaii's first governor when the United States annexed it on July 7, 1898
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Created the basis for the scientific management of business in a quest for efficiency
Used shops and large plants as models and succeeded in spreading his ideas on efficiency to several industries
Wrote books on the subject of scientific management
The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783
Written by Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914), a naval officer and historian
Further encouraged those in favor of American imperialism and seaward expansion
Themes in the book were used as partial justification for the United States' taking of the Philippines
Plessy v. Ferguson
Homer Plessy refused to leave a railroad car restricted only to whites
The Supreme Court upheld the Louisiana state law that required "separate but equal" facilities
The majority stated that the Fourteenth Amendment protected only political equality, not social equality
Justice Harlan's dissent argued that ". . .all citizens are equal before the law," laying the foundation for Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, which overturned :separate but equal"
W.E.B. DuBois
Civil rights leader and author
Called for full equality of African-Americans, which included social, civil, political, and economic equality
Opposed Booker T. Washington's "gradual approach" to equality
Through higher education, DuBois wanted to develop leaders from the most able 10 percent of African-Americans ("The Talented Tenth")
Co-founded the Niagara Movement, which became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Cross of Gold Speech
Address given by William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic presidential nominee, during the national convention of the Democratic Party
The speech criticized the gold standard and supported the coinage of silver
Bryan's beliefs were popular with debt-ridden farmers
The last words of his speech, and the most famous, were "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold"
William McKinley
Twenty-fifth President
Former Republican congressman from Ohio
Businesses rallied to his support against William Jennings Bryan
While Bryan toured the country, McKinley stayed at home and hosted important visitors, building an honest, "presidential" image
Defeated William Jennings Bryan for office in 1896
McKinley's election over Bryan influenced future political races by setting up interest groups and alliances that lasted for over a decade
McKinley re-elected in 1900; Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist, assassinated McKinley one year into his second term
Marcus Alonzo Hanna
American capitalist dealing in coal, shipping, shipbuilding, banking, and newspapers
He was active in the Ohio Republican Party, having William McKinley elected governor in 1891 and 1893
As Chairman of the Republican National Committee, he helped McKinley win the Presidential election of 1896
Teller Amendment
The Amendment promised that when the United States overthrew Spanish rule in Cuba, the United States would give Cubans their independence
Later, the Platt Amendment overrode the Teller Amendment as Cuba would come under United States control after the Spanish-American War
Spanish-American War
Cuba resented Spain's control, which led to rebellion
Spain responded with the dispatch of General Valeriano Weyler, who confined civilians to brutal camps
The U.S. "yellow press" labeled him "Butcher Weyler," increasing American support against Spain
The United States sent the battleship Maine to Havana to protect American interests; it was blown up
The United States fought Spain in the Philippines and in Cuba
Treaty of Paris allowed for Cuban independence; United States gained Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines while Spain received $20 million from the United States for the Philippines
Puerto Rico and the United States
In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act, which gave Puerto Rico limited popular government
In 1917, American citizenship was granted to Puerto Ricans.
Platt Amendment
Rider attached to Army appropriations bill
In was written into the condition of Cuba by the United States and, in effect, made Cuba a United States protectorate
The United States could intervene to preserve Cuba's "independence"; in reality, the United States could act to protect ins own interests
The United States kept land for naval bases on Cuba; Guantanamo Bay would play a part in later Cuba-United States conflicts.
Theodore Roosevelt
Twenty-sixth President
Roosevelt had to deal with ill health and became an advocate for similarly disadvantaged people
Roosevelt was part of the Rough Rider Regiment during the Spanish-American conflict, where he became a war hero
As President, he became a "trust buster"; he used the Sherman Antitrust Act to dissolve trusts that restrained interstate and foreign trade
Won the antitrust case against the Northern Securities Company
Style of diplomacy was to "speak softly and carry a big stick"; protected United States interests by ensuring the construction of the Panama Canal and United States authority in Latin America
Served as a middleman in conflicts between Russia and Japan; forged Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907
Supported conservation (not preservation) of national resources.
Muckrakers
American journalists, novelists, and critics who exposed corruption, especially in business and politics
President Theodore Roosevelt is said to have given the muckrakers their name
Famous muckrakers included Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, and Samuel Hopkins Adams
Led to increase support for the progressive movement
Insular Cases
A series of court cases held to determine if the "Constitution followed the flag"
At stake- whether people in areas controlled by the United States were given rights as citizens
Upton Sinclair
Novelist and socialist
Used his writings to expose issues in the United States society, such as the need for food inspection laws, and the oppressive effect of capitalism on education and culture.
His book, The Jungle (1906), a graphic novel about the Chicago stockyards, led to food inspection reforms and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906
Lost bid to become governor of California in 1914
Won Pulitzer Prize in 1942
Muller v. Oregon
Oregon established a law that limited women to ten hours of work in factories and laundries
Muller, a laundry owner, challenged the legality of the law, arguing that it violated the "liberty to contract"
Louis Brandeis, one of the attorneys arguing the case, used extensive sociological evidence in his brief (the Brandeis Brief), which served as a model for later social reformers
The Supreme Court held that the law was constitutional
Henry Ford
His Model-T, introduced in 1908, was the first inexpensive, mass-produced automobile
Use of the moving assembly line strongly influenced American manufacturing
William Howard Taft
Twenty-seventh President
After serving as Secretary of War under Theodore Roosevelt, he was elected over William Jennings Bryan
Prosecuted trusts under the Sherman Antitrust Act
His policy of "Dollar Diplomacy" called for acting in foreign affairs to achieve a financial result on behalf of one's country
His administration created the Department of Labor and established the parcel-post system
President Theodore Roosevelt's relationship with Taft deteriorated, leading to Roosevelt's opposition of Taft's re-election
Became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court after serving as president
Ashcan School (New York Realists)
Group of artists who painted realistic scenes
Focused on subjects of everyday life; titles such as The Wrestlers and Sixth Avenue
Members included George Luke, George Bellows, John Sloan, Robert Henri, Everett Shinn, and Arthur B. Davies
Radio
First human voice was broadcast in 1906 and first musical broadcast was in 1910
Woodrow Wilson was the first president to broadcast
KDKA was first radio station in the United States (Pittsburgh), commencing broadcast in 1920
Broke down regionalism and provided news and entertainment
The Great Migration
The movement of African-Americans from the South to the industrial centers of the Northeast and the Midwest
Causes for the migration included decreased cotton prices, the lack of immigrant workers in the North, increased manufacturing as a result of the war, and a growth of the KKK
The African-American population in such cities as Detroit, Chicago, and New York grew during this period
The migration led to higher wages, more educational opportunities, and better standards of life for many African-Americans
Seventeenth Amendment
A progressive initiative that allowed for each state to elect two senators for six-year terms by popular vote
Restated the 1st paragraph of the Article 1, Sec. 3 of the Constitution by replacing "chosen by Legislature thereof" with "elected by the people thereof"
Allowed citizens to have a more active participation in government
Woodrow Wilson
Twenty-eighth President
Before presidency and political work, he served as an academic and President of Princeton University
His legislation lowered tariffs, created a graduated federal income tax, and established the Federal Trade Commission to control unfair business practices
Initiated progressive reform that prohibited child labor and limited railroad workers to an eight-hour day
Led the United States into World War 1
His "Fourteen Points" outlined the settlement of World War 1
He was a noted racist who segregated the federal government and praised Birth of a Nation, a controversial movie negatively depicting African-Americans
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
Response to the Panic of 1907 and concerns of business
Need for a stable currency supply that could grow and shrink with business demands
Several measures competed for designing this central reserve, each offering control to a different group
President Wilson world diligently to create and secure passage of the act
Divided the nation into separate region with federal reserve banks in each that would serve as "banker's banks"
The Federal Reserve Board oversaw the system and regulated it by raising or lowering the interest rates that each federal reserve bank would charge
Watchful Waiting
Policy by Woodrow Wilson of rejecting alliances with leaders who took control through force until a determination of their interests could be made
Wilson implemented this policy by refusing to accept the leadership of Victoriano Huerta when he took control of Mexico through violent revolution
Policy ended when the United States sent forces to retaliate against Mexico, which had arrested American sailors in its borders
Clayton Antitrust Act
Further outlined regulation against monopolies and other unfair business practiced.
Meant as update for the Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
Price discrimination that was destructive to competition was declared illegal
Declared interlocking board of directors of direct competitors illegal
Established Federal Trade Commission to investigate and prosecute instances of unfair competition
Served as the grounds for many suits against big corporations
Exempted labor unions engaged in legal activities
World War 1 Causes and Major Players
Cause- Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist
Cause- Nationalism in Austria-Hungary and France
Cause- Colonial expansion in Africa and China
Cause- Military buildup
Major Player- Allies(Triple Entente): Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Belgium, Japan, and the United States
Major Players- Central Powers (Triple Alliance): Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria
Lusitania and Neutrality
AT the outset of World War 1, Germany began the use of submarines and announced a blockade of the Allied forces
The Lusitania was a British passenger liner attacked by German submarines
While unarmed, the Lusitania did carry munitions for the Allies
United Stated citizens traveling aboard the Lusitania were killed
Wilson protested but remained neutral, in line with 1914 Proclamation of Neutrality
One other liner with Americans, the Sussex, was sunk, and then the Germans gave a pledge to stop attacks on unarmed vessels
Labor Acts, 1915-1916
La Follette Seamen's Act (1915)- Requires safety and sanitation measures for commercial ships, as well as regulated wages, food, and hours of sailors
Adamson Act (1916)- Employees of railroads who were engaged in interstate commerce were given an eight-hour work day and overtime payoff time-and-a-half
Keating- Owen Child Labor Act
Forbade shipment of products whose production had involved child labor
Power of enforcement derived from interstate commerce, so the federal government could regulate it rather than states
Declared unconstitutional because it interfered with the power of states
Louis Brandeis
Nominated by Woodrow Wilson to the Supreme Court
Considered an advocate of social justice
First Jewish
Prior to his place on the Supreme Court, he was known for his "Brandeis Brief" in the Muller v. Oregon
Zimmermann Telegram
Telegram from German Foreign Secretary Zimmerman to German minister in Mexico that was intercepted by the British
Proposed that Mexico attack the United States in the event that America entered World War 1
Germany would return lost territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona to Mexico in victory
Telegram released publicly and ensured American support for was against Germany
Unlimited Submarine Warfare
Proclamation by Germany that it would sink all shops, without warning, that entered a large war zone off the coasts of Allied Nations
Germany realized that it might draw the United States into World War 1
Germany believed that cutting Allied supplies would allow Germany to win the war before a sizeable response by America
America broke diplomatic relations with Germany
Reasons for the Unites States' Entry into WWI
Zimmerman telegram showed Germany was untrustworthy and would come after the Unites States
Armed neutrality could not protect shipping
After Russia's revolution, a democratic Russian government made it an acceptable ally
America could hasten end of the war and ensure a role in designing peace
Sinking of the Lusitania and other ships by German submarines
The Unites States was already backing the Allies with supplies
In his war message to Congress, Wilson said that, "the world must be made safe for democracy"
Committee on public information
Formed by President Wilson
Established voluntary censorship of the press and created a propaganda campaign for the country's support of World War I
Portrayed Germans as barbaric and urged all citizens to spy on neighbors with foreign names
Encouraged reporting of suspicious activities to the Justice Department
Headed by George Creel
Fostered "100% American" jingoism
American Protective League
Volunteer organization that claimed approval of the Justice Department for pressuring support of war
Humiliated those accused of not buying war bonds
Persecuted those of German descent
Encouraged the banning of German culture in everything from product names to consumption, including "pretzels" and "German Measles"
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Fines and imprisonment for persons who made false statements which aided the enemy, hindered the draft, or incited military rebellion
Forbade criticism of the government, flag, or uniform
Led to imprisonment of major figures
The Supreme Court upheld the acts, allowing the government to limit free speech when words represented clear and present danger, especially during times of war
Hammer v. Dagenhart
Struck down the Keating-Owen Act of 1916, which excluded products produced by child labor from interstate commerce
Dagenhart sued, as he wanted his two sons to work and bring income in for the family
The Supreme Court held that Congress, with the Keating-Owen Act, had overstepped its bounds
Led to "dual federalism", the belief that Congress could not take powers that had been reserved to the states by the Tenth Amendment
Women and Minorities in WWI
Women served as clerks or in medical units
400,000 black men drafted or enlisted
Blacks were kept in segregated units and generally used in labor battalions or in support activities, though some units saw combat
Unites States Home Front During WWI
Wilson controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations to ensure supplies for war
Appointed Herbert Hoover as head of food administration
Wilson oversaw the use of fuel, railroads, and maritime shipping
Wilson resolved labor disputes through offers of employee benefits
Fourteen points
Specific peace plan presented by Wilson in an address to Congress
Called for open (rather than secret) peace treaties
Called for free trade, transportation along the seas, and arms reduction
Espoused a general association of nations to preserve the peace
Reactions in Europe were mixed; some countries had a desire to punish Germany
U.S. citizens feared further entanglement & growing isolationist sentiment would later slow the United States' decision to enter World War I
Provisions of Paris Peace Conference
The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty which resulted from the conference
Formed the League of Nations to protect territorial integrity and political independence of all members
Germany was held responsible for war (war guilt clause), required to pay heavily for damages (reparations), and limited to a small defensive force
New nations' boundaries were drawn, including Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, and Poland
German colonies were made mandates of the League and under trusteeship of the Allies
Wilson's Treaty and Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican Senator Lodge led opposition against Paris Peace Treaty because of war entanglement with other members (Article X)
On national speaking tour to push for League of Nations, Wilson collapsed after a speech
Wilson returned to D.C. and suffered a severe stroke
Wilson never fully recovered, but he wrote to Democrats to oppose treaty changes by Lodge
By not compromising, the treaty was defeated and the United States did not join the League; a joint resolution enacted peace instead
Results of WWI
America emerged as the political and economic leader of world
European states went into decline
Germany was devastated (Treaty of Versailles: B.R.A.T.)
U.S v. Schenck
During World War 1, Charles Schenck created a pamphlet opposing the military draft; he was convicted of attempting to obstruct the military under the Espionage Act
The Supreme Court determined that speech may be suppressed if it creates a clear and present danger (one cannot yell "fire" in a crowded theater)
In the following years, the "clear and present danger" test was limited to violent action rather than the support of these ideas
Major Strikes After WW1
Boston police force attempted to unionize, and Governor Calvin Coolidge fired them to recruit a new force
Seattle had a general strike in 1919
AFL attempted to organize steel industry, but it was broken after violence and the use of federal troops
United Mine Workers struck and gained minor wage increases
Prohibition
Temperance movements began to grow in the early 1800s
Carry Nation, a member of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, used rocks, hammers, and hatchets to destroy liquor stores and saloons
Eighteenth Amendment to Constitution prohibited manufacture, sale, transport, or import of liquor
Volstead Act defined alcoholic beverages and imposed criminal penalties for violations of the Eighteenth Amendment
Prohibition led to bootlegging( illegal production or distribution of intoxicating beverages), corruption of government officials, and speakeasies( secret bars operated by bootleggers)
Red Scare and the Palmer Raids
United States workers strikes seemed to be harbinger of revolution to many in the country
Fear of revolution fed by anti-German hysteria and the success of the Bolshevik Revolution
Bombs sent anonymously through the mail to prominent American leaders encouraged fear
Attorney General Palmer was a target of failed mail bomb
Four thousand arrested as "Communist" and illegal aliens, but only 556 shown to be in those categories
Palmer announced threat of large Communist riots on May Day of 1920, but none materialized
Palmer was discredited and the Red Scare passed
Post- WW1 Economy
High wages during World War 1 and European demand continued after conflict
Demand led to inflation and a good economy
Increase in prices prompted major strikes by workers
Women's Suffrage
The Nineteenth Amendment provided for women's suffrage, which had been defeated earlier by the Senate
Ratified by states in 1920
Feminists who supported suffrage since the 1860s included Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Carrie Chapman Catt
Sacco and Vanzettti
Two gunmen robbed a factory and killed two men in Massachusetts
Sacco and Vanzetti, Italian immigrants and anarchists, were tried for the murders
Judge Thayer favored prosecution and pushed for execution
Despite years of protesting that they had not received a fair trial, the men were executed in 1927, reflecting anti-immigrant sentiments in the United States
Industrial Changed in 1920s and Effects
Change from steam to electric power allowed more intricate designs, replacing human workers
Scientific management strategies were employed, leading to more efficient uses of workers
Major research and development projects reduced production costs and products
Expanding industries included automobile, electricity, chemicals, film, radio, commercial aviation, and printing
Led to overproduction by the late 1920s
Harlem Renaissance
Term used to describe the growth of African-American literature and arts
The center of this movement was Harlem, New York, where many African-Americans moved to during the early 1900s
Southern African-Americans brought jazz to Harlem and influenced the music scene; at the same time, writing, sculpting, and photography grew as art form
Writers from the period included Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and Claude McKay
Musicians from this time included Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith, and Louis Armstrong.
The Great Depression led the decline of the renaissance
Automobile: Economic and Social Effects
Stimulated steel, rubber, glass, gasoline, and highway construction industries
Created a nation of paved roads
The new need for paved roads led to employment for many
Led to increased freedom for young people and the loss of some parental control
Tourism increased and rural areas became less isolated
Rise in the Standard of Living during the 1920's
Advances like indoor plumbing, hot water, central heating, home appliances, and fresher foods emerged
Many did not have the money to benefit from these advances
Availability of credit rose to allow for payments by installment periods
Sales grew out of advertising through new media, such as radio
Marcus Garvey
Native of Jamaica
Advocated black racial pride and separatism rather than integration
Pushed for a return to Africa
Developed a following and sold stock in a steamship line to take migrants to Africa
Convicted of fraud after the line went bankrupt
Shift in Popular Culture, 1920's
Change from entertainment through home and small social groups to commercial, profit-making activities
Movies attracted audiences, and Hollywood became the movie center of America
Professional athletics grew in participation and popularity, especially baseball, boxing, and football.
Tabloids grew in popularity, including the New York Daily News and Reader's Digest
Ku Klux Klan in the Early 1900's
Main purpose was to intimidate blacks, who experienced an apparent rise in status due to WWI
Also opposed Catholics, Jews, and foreign-born
Klan hired advertising experts to expand the organization
Charged initiation fees and sold memorabilia
The KKK had membership of five million in 1925, which soon began to decline
Emergency Quota Act
One of a series of acts by Congress that limited immigration
Immigration limited by nationality to three percent of the number of foreign-born persons from that nation that lived in the United States in 1910
Designation restricted only certain nationalities and religious groups
In effect, restricted Italians, Greeks, Poles, and Eastern European Jews
Warren G. Harding
Twenty-ninth President
Nominated by the Republican Party as a dark horse candidate
Represented opposition to the League of Nations, low taxes, high tariffs, immigration restriction, and aid to farmers
Harding won the election, repudiating Wilson's domestic policies toward civil rights
Promised return to normalcy
Pardoned Eugene V. Debs
Gave United States steel workers the eight-hour day
Died suddenly during cross-country tour and was succeeded by Calvin Coolidge
Teapot Dome Scandal
Bribery scandal involving President Harding's Secretary of the Interior, Albert Fall
Fall secured naval oil reserves in his jurisdiction
Leased reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, to two major business owners in exchange for cash payouts
The businessmen were acquitted, but Fall was imprisoned for bribery, making him the first cabinet member to go to jail
Fordney-McCumber Tariff
Increased tariff schedules
Tariffs were raised on farm produce to equalize American and foreign production
Gave the president the power to reduce or increase tariffs by fifty percent based on advise from the Tariff Commission
Five Power Treaty
Committed the United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy to restrict construction of new battleship class ships
Pact gave Japan naval supremacy in the Pacific
Dawes Plan
Dept restructuring plan for Germany after WWI
American banks made loans to Germany, Germany paid reparations to Allies, and Allies paid back the United States government
Cycle based on loans from American banks
The plan would play a part in the development of the Great Depression
Calvin Coolidge
Thirtieth President
Republican candidate who came to office first after Harding's death and then after a landslide victory
Avoided responsibility for most of Harding's cabinet scandals
Reputation for honesty
Believed in leading through inactivity
Stated, "The chief business of the American people is business"
Creationism and the Scopes Trial
Fundamentalist Protestants supported Creationism as a way to prohibit the teaching of evolution in schools
Hoped to protect belief in the literal understanding of the Bible
Scopes, a young biology teacher, broke the law by teaching Darwinism and served as a test case for the ACLU
Darwinism was a concept of evolution created by Charles Robert Darwin and written about in Origin of the Species
Clarence Darrow defended Scopes, and William Jennings Bryan defended t he State of Tennessee
Judge refused to allow expert witness testimony
Scopes was convicted and fined $100, which was later dropped
Some states passed anti-evolution laws
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Also known as the Pact of Paris
Fifteen-nation pact agreed that all conflicts should be settled by peaceful means and that war was to be renounced
The United States Congress demanded right of self-defense and that America should not have to act against countries that broke the treaty
The pact lacked effectiveness as a failed to provide enforcement measures
Herbert Hoover
Thirty-first President
Coolidge did not seek nomination in 1928, leaving Hoover to run against Alfred E. Smith, Governor of New York, a Catholic anti-prohibitionist
Became multimillionaire in mining industry
Hoover had served as Secretary of Commerce and head of the Food Administration
Conservative economic philosophy and continuation of Prohibition won the election for Hoover
Used the phrase "rugged individualism," which called for people to succeed on their own with minimal help from the government
Hoover became the scapegoat for the Depression and was soundly defeated by FDR in 1932
Stock Market Crash of 1929
During late October of 1929 investors began to panic, sending the New York stock market toward tremendous losses
On October 24, 1929 (Black Thursday), the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped fifty percent and over thirteen million shares of stock were traded
On October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday), over sixteen million shares of stock were traded
The crash led to the Great Depression
Foreign Economies and the Great Depression
Within months of Hoover's election, the stock market crashed, leading the nation into the Great Depression
Decline in American economy meant less money spend on loans and products
Foreign powers were not able to pay debts back to the United States
American exports dropped and the Depression spread
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Chartered by Congress and Hoover to loan money to railroads and financial institutions
Meant to keep basic institution in business
Accused of being an assistance to the wealthy
"Hoovervilles"
Term used to describe makeshift shacks that housed groups of homeless people
Used in open areas near cities during the Depression
This term was used to mock Herbert Hoover
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Brought tariff to the highest level in its history
In retaliation, foreign countries set tariffs on American goods, creating a decline in exports and further deepening the economic depression
This was another expression of isolationism
Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
Henry L. Stimson, secretary of state under Hoover, sent identical notes to China and Japan, which became known as the Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
The notes were a reaction to Japan's movement into Manchuria
They stated that the Untied states would not recognize any treaty or agreement that would impair China's territory, United States; rights in China, the political situation in China, or the open-door policy
The Bonus Army
A group of 14,000 unemployed veterans that marched on Washington
They sought payment of money through Congress
Hoover has the Senate kill the bill providing additional payment, and half of the veterans took the offer of transportation home
The remaining vets subsisted in shacks near the Anacostia River to draw attention to their cause
Hoover called in the Army and has the remainder of the vets removed from Washington
Created the impression that Hoover did not care about the plight of the poor
Dust Bowl
Areas of American prairie states that experienced ecological damage due to huge clouds of soil
Mismanagement of grazing land and severe winds swept unprotected soil into dust storms
Led to both economic and health hardships for many
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Thirty-second President
With the slogan "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself," encouraged new hope for emerging from the Great Depression
At age 39, he contracted poliomyelitis; he regained use of his legs through a vigorous exercise program
Led Congress through the "Hundred Days"
Focused on economic and agricultural recovery and support for the unemployed and elderly
Attempted to enlarge the Supreme Court and put in place justices that would support his legislation, but he failed
Mobilized the United States for entry into WWII
The Hundred Days
President Roosevelt called a special session of Congress to deal with the weak American banking system
Congress passed an emergency act on banking and continues the session to deal with unemployment and falling farm prices
This special session became known as the "Hundred Days"
This session launched the First New Deal: 3Rs (Relief, Recovery, Reform)
FDR's Banking Acts, the Gold Standard, and the SEC
The Emergency Banking Relief Act was the first act of FDR's Hundred Days; it provided funds to open some banks and it combined and liquidated others provided funds to open some banks and it combined and liquidated others
Glass-Steagall Banking Act insured deposits in commercial banks, created FDIC, and separated commercial and investment banking to reduce risk
FDR removed gold from circulation; resulting devaluation of the dollar helped raise prices and assisted United States exports
The Securities and Exchange Commission was created as a watchdog for the stock exchange and securities
National Industrial Recovery Act
NIRA law was passed on the last day of the "Hundred Days" as a pillar of Roosevelt's assistance program
Goal of NIRA was to help business self-regulate, aiding employment
NIRA created the National Recovery Administration (NRA), which oversaw the creation of fair competition codes
NRA codes abolished child labor, created minimum wages, and capped hours for workers
In Schechter v. United States (1935), the Supreme Court overturned the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), holding that it granted the president too much leeway and that these powers should be in the hands of the states
Eleanor Roosevelt
Wife of FDR
Strong supported of civil rights, women's rights, and world peace
Resigned from Daughters of the American Revolution after they refused to allow Marian Anderson, and African-American, to sing at Independence Hall
Served as delegated to the United Nations from 1945-1953
Fireside Chats
Franklin D. Roosevelt's method of addressing the nation through radio
Created assurance among the public in the strength of the banks he was opening
Led to people deposition money again
Banking Failures
Banks were unable to collect on loans because of the Great Depression
Banks would not return money to depositors, leading to bank closures
On March 5, 1933, FDR reacted by closing all banks and instituting the Emergency Banking Act, which gave him the power to reorganize insolvent national banks
FDR's Good Neighbor Policy
Foreign policy doctrine adopted by FDR for the United States
Withdrew marines from Haiti, the Dominican Republic and other areas
America stayed out of the Cuban revolution
America settled the Mexico on American properties in that country
First New Deal
First phase of FDR's domestic reform program
Aimed to provide recovery and relief through public works, business and agricultural regulation, and stabilizing prices
Organization such as the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Civilian Conservation Crops, and National Recovery Administration were founded
Economy improved to a degree as unemployment decreased
Criticized by conservatives for going too far in the use deficit spending and for spending on relief
Attacked by liberals for being in favor of business
First New Deal Creation
Civilian Conservation Corp (1933)- Provided work for young men through projects such as road construction and flood control
National Industrial Recovery Act (1933)- Created National Recovery Administration, which prepared codes for fair competition
Public Works Administration (1933)- Constructed roads, school, dams, bridges and other project to aid the economy though increasing jobs
Agricultural Adjustment Act(1933)- Encouraged farmers to decrease their production, thereby increasing their profits
Muscle Schoals and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Muscle Shoals was the location of a dam and two nitrate plants built by the government during World War 1
President Coolidge vetoed Senate's plan to lease the property to private sector
Facility became the center of the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1933 , giving FDR a chance to do his first large- scale experiment in regional planning
TVA built a series of dams to provide electricity and flood control
Dams gave economic and environmental boots to an area in need of rehabilitation
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Led by commissioner John Collier
Returned ownership of certain lands to tribes, established tribal governments, and provided economic relief
Created a program of work projects for reservations
Indian Reorganization Act
Reversed Dawes Severalty Act
Attempted to restore the tribal basis of Native American life
Tribal life was to be recognized as "normal"
Share Our Wealth Society
Group founded by Louisiana Senator Huey " Kingfish" Long
Long, a populist, criticized FDR for not doing more to help those on the lower
Proposed radical taxation plans on wealthy to make "every man a king"
When Long was assassinated, the society lost its drive
Second New Deal
Like the First New Deal, it offered sweeping economic changes to aid in relief and recovery
While the First New Deal emphasized central planning, the Second New Deal pushed programs to aid particular groups, such as labor organizations
The United States tax structure was finessed through various revenue acts
Some New Deal acts were declared unconstitutional in 1935
Second New Deal Creations
The Works Progress Administration(WPA) provided jobs and income for the unemployed
WPA- Many projects were in construction and community development and were labor- intensive to cut equipment costs
The Wagner Act/ National Labor Relations Act clarified the rights of workers and created a board of oversight on relations between management and labor, workers were permitted to bargain collectively
The Social Security Act was created to protect older workers; funds came from tax on money earned by employees and paid equally by the employer; these monies supported unemployment programs and offered states matching funds for social services
Isolationism and the Neutrality Act of 1935
America became isolationist after World War 1, mainly because its citizens had felt the harsh effects of the war
Isolationist acts include the rejection of the Treaty of Versailles and higher tariffs
Neutrality Acts- In the event of war, American exports of military components were to be stalled for six months; this was to ships leaving the United States form transporting arms to combatants
Charles Evens Hughes
Eleventh chief justice of the supreme court
Had also served as associate justice of the supreme court (1910-1916) and United States secretary of states (1921-1925)
As chief justice, he often voted to uphold FDR's new deal legislation, although he wrote the opinion in Schechter v. U.S. (1935) finding the National Recovery Administration unconstitutional
Father Charles E. Coughlin
A catholic priest who headed the National Union for Social Justice, which denounced FDR's New Deal policies
Held a weekly radio show and discussed politics finance
Proposed to his many listeners an ambiguous currency program, but found popularity mostly though anti-Semitic rhetoric
FDR's Court Packing Scheme
Bill proposed by Roosevelt allowing the president to appoint a new federal judge for those who did not retire by a certain age
Proposed by Roosevelt's after he received overwhelming support by the voting public
Served Roosevelt's reaction to the supreme court, which had declared much of the New Deal unconstitutional
Huge reaction by both Democrats and Republican against this show of force
Roosevelt lost the bill and some influence over congress
Later FDR proposals. Like social Security, were upheld by the Supreme Court
Congress Of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
Association of laborers from industries including steel and auto
Organized in reaction to the AFL, which represented primarily craft unions
Headed by John L. Lewis
United with the AFL in 1955
Fair Labor Standards Act
Minimum wage law
Established rising minimum wage and reduction of work week
Provided time-and-a-half for work over that period of time
Hitler and Germany's Actions Leading to WWII
Hitler's rise to power in 1933 led to the persecution of German Jews
Germany and Austria became unified
Germany and Britain signed to Munich pact, authorizing Germany to force the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia
Germany took over the rest of Czechoslovakia
The Nazis systematically eliminated the civil and human rights of Jews and other "undesirables" under their control
Germany signed a non-aggression pact with Russia, agreeing to divide Poland
Germany invaded Poland
Britain and France declared war
The Nazis built death camps to attain "the final solution of the Jewish question," resulting in the murder of six million Jews than five million others
Charles Lindbergh
American pilot who made the first non-stop solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean
Flew his plane, The Spirit of St. Louis, from New York to Paris
Most famous speaker of the America First Committee (1930s), Which opposed American intervention in the European was (world War II)
Was a noted Nazi sympathizer
Selective service and Training Act (1940)
United States' first peacetime draft
Men between ages twenty-one and thirty-five were signed into service, and a group of them was chosen for a year of training in the military
Franklin D. Roosevelt's Election to a Third Term
Broke the precedent set by Washington
Agreed to accept the nomination
When faced by his opponent with charges of war-mongering, told voters that he would not enter the war
Lost many supporters because of his choice to run again, but he won by a narrow margin over Wendell Willkie
Lend-Lease Act
American proposal to aid the British, who had little cash for supplies
Offered to give the British American supplies in exchanged for payment after the war
Payment could be made in material goods and services
Put the United States on the side of the Allies
United States also allowed for cash and carry, in which British and French ships could come into United States' ports and buy anything that they could carry
Economic Measures Against Japan
Japan used the Vichy government to expand into French Indochina
Japan wanted to build in the area
America responded by holding Japanese funds and creating embargos
Led to failed negotiations between the United States and Japan over Japan's presence in China
Pearl Harbor
Hawaiian base for the American ships, meeting little defense the Japanese
Carried-based aircraft attacked American ships, meeting little defense
The Japanese's destroyed all United States aircraft, major battleships, and naval crafts at the base, and killed 2,323 military personnel
FDR asked Congress to declare war on Japan, calling the attack "a date that will live in infamy"
United States Domestic Measures for WWII
War production board regulated raw materials
Prices and wages were frozen
Income tax was extended to more people
The united States sold Liberty Bonds
The government had the power to take over businesses closed by strikes
American Women During WWII
216,000 women served in the armed forces in non-combat duties
WAACS(army), WAVES(Navy), and SPARS(Coast Guard) were forced made up of women
Women also served as defense plant workers
The women who worked in the manufacturing plants during the World War II were symbolized by the icon "Rosie the Riveter", a feminist image that represented that represented the growth of women's economic power
Braceros
An agreement between the United Stated and Mexico brought thousands of Mexican agricultural workers, or braceros, to the United States
Braceros were prevalent in the South and the West
Braceros became part of the American agricultural economy after World War II
Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway
Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)- American carriers sent planes against the Japanese's troops, forcing them to turn back from an invasion of Australia
Battle of Midway (June 1942)- American planes destroyed Japanese's carriers as they moved toward the American-owned Midway Islands, becoming a defining moment in the Pacific front
Japanese-American Internment Camps
FDR authorized the evacuation of all Japanese from the West Coast into relocation centers
The government interned around 120,000 Japanese sabotage following Pearl Harbor, and in some part, due to racial discrimination
In 1988, congress voted to pay compensation to each surviving internee
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
Congress was concerned about the loss of production due to labor strikes
The act authorized the federal government to seize and operate industries stopped by strikes
Teheran Conference
Meeting of the Big Three: Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
Agreement that Russia would attack Germany from the east as the Allies would attack from the west
First time Roosevelt had met Stalin
G.I. Bill
Signed by FDR and passed to give educational benefits to those who had served in the armed forces during WWII
Bill was created to help members of the Armed Forces adjust to civilian life, afford a higher education, and restore lost educational opportunities
The D.I. Bill also promoted volunteerism for the Armed Forces and led to a better educated population
Korematsu v. US
Korematsu was arrested and convicted after failing to comply with military order to move to a Japanese relocation center
The Supreme Court upheld his conviction based on war powers; the government's need to protect against espionage outweighed Korematsu's rights
Justice Frank Murphy, in his dissent, stated the decision was the "legislation of racism"
D-Day
Eisenhower, Commander-in-chief of Allied forces, ordered an invasion at Normandy, France
The operation involved over 4,500 vessels
American troops commanded by George S. Patton weakened the German troops in France
Battle of the Bulge
German counterattack that pushed the Allies back into Belgium
Last stand of Hitler's armies
Eventually the Allies returned to Germany, leading to surrender on May 7, 1945
Yalta Conference
Meeting of the Big Three (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin) to talk about post-World War II plans
Germany was to be divided into American, British, French and Soviet zones
Poland's boundaries would be revised, and free elections would be established
Russia would help by attacking Japan three months after Germany's collapse in exchange for the Sakhalin and Kurile Islands.
Agreed to hold conference in San Francisco to form peacekeeping organization (United Nations)
Harry S. Truman
Thirty-third President
Became president in 1945 after FDR died
Decided to drop atomic bombs on Japan
Banned racial discrimination in federal hiring and armed forces
The Truman Doctrine instituted policy of "containment" against Communism
Re-elected against Thomas Dewey in 1948
Potsdam Conference
Attended by Truman, Stalin, Churchill, and Churchill's replacement, Clement Atlee
Agreed upon a policy for the occupation of both Germany and Japan
Decided German reparations
Declaration made to Japan to surrender or be destroyed
Manhattan Project, Enola Gay, and Hiroshima/Nagasaki
The Manhattan Project described operations by Army engineers to design an atomic bomb
J. Robert Oppenheimer directed the group at Los Alamos, New Mexico
Enola Gay was the plane that carried the atomic bomb into Hiroshima, Japan, on August 9, 1945
The second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945
The decision to drop the bombs was controversial, as some argued that the Japanese were essentially beaten and were willing to surrender, but that the United States insisted on an unconditional surrender
V-E Day and V-J Day
V-E Day, or Victory in Europe Day, was the day the Allies announced Germany's surrender to Europe
V-J Day, or Victory in Japan Day, was the day the Allies announced Japan's surrender to end WWII
Richard Wright
African-American author who wrote about racial oppression
His novels included Uncle Tom's Children (1938), Native Son (1940), and Black Boy (1945)
He joined the Communist Party for a brief time in the early 1930's
United Nations
Created at the San Francisco conference
Representative body of nations that wished to resolve global issues
Composed of a general assembly and security council
All members sit on General assembly and form policy
Security council has eleven members, five permanent and six additional that rotate
Permanent members are the United States, Britain, France, Russia and China
Cold War
War of words caused by differences in economic and political belief's between the United States and U.S.S.R.
No actual fighting took place
Churchill commented that an "Iron Curtain" had been dropped between Western Europe and the Soviet's Eastern Europe.
The Cold War lasted from the late 1940s to the early 1990s
Taft-Hartley Act
Purpose was to reduce management-labor disputes and to reduce unfair labor practices
Passed over Truman's veto
Required sixty-day notice be given by employers to terminate a contract
Federal government could take legal action to delay any strike that threatened the public's health or safety (for eighty days)
Provided cooling-off period for unions and management
Act slowed unionization throughout the country, especially in the South
Part of the anti-Communist crusade
Truman Doctrine
Proposal that the United States must bolster the deeds of free people resisting Communism
$400 million appropriated for aid to Greece and Turkey to fight Communism's spread
Supported "containment" as a response to the Cold War
National Security Act
Created the Central intelligence Agency
Created the National Security Council
Created the Department of Defense
Reorganized the military under one department of defense head
Growth of the Suburbs
After World War II, people began to move away from cities, leading to suburban growth
Causes of this migration included the mass production of automobiles, the growth of the road system, and better living conditions
As African-Americans began to move to northern cities, whites began to move to the suburbs ("white flight")
Suburban developments included Levittown, a planned community which offered inexpensive houses built by Levitt & Sons
Jackie Robinson
Baseball player who became a symbol of civil rights when be broke the major league's color barrier in 1947
Recruited from the Kansas City Monarchs, a team in the Negro Leagues, to play with the Brooklyn Dodgers
Marshall Plan
Recovery program paid by America and Allies to rebuild Europe
Helped support a strong European economy and stable politics to resist Communism
Defined by Secretary of State George Marshall and signed by President Truman
American provided over $15 billion in aid to Europe
Fair Deal
Proposal by Truman to extend the New Deal for the new era
Increased the minimum wage to $0.75/hour
Social Security was enlarged to cover more people
Called for low-cost housing projects and slum cleanup
Russian Spies in the United States
Alger Hiss-Former State Department official who was convicted of supplying information to the Soviets
Alger Hiss-Implicated by Whittaker Chambers during testimony before the House Committee on Un-American Activities
Alger Hiss-Richard Nixon gained national exposure during his investigation into Hiss
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg-Couple executed for giving atomic information to the Russians
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg-Some argued that the Rosenberg's could not receive a fair trial because of the political sentiments of the time.
Berlin Airlift
Allies designated Western Germany to be free from Communism
Soviets blocked both land and water access to West Berlin in the hopes that the Allies would abandon West Berlin
The Untied States lifted supplies for more than ten months into the city, forcing the Soviets to remove the blockade in 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Original members included the United States, Britain, France, Italy, and Portugal
Allowed for collective self-defense against the Soviet threat in the North Atlantic region
Has influenced economic and social cooperation between member nations
The fall of the Soviet Union has led to NATO expanding membership and moving toward peacekeeping throughout the world
Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium
Korean War
Korea was taken from Japan at the end of WWII and divided at the thirty-eighth parallel; the northern half controlled by the Soviet Union and the southern half occupied by the United States
North Korea invaded south Korea and the U.N. sent in troops
General MacArthur led forces and pushed the North Koreans back across the thirty-eighth parallel
China, recently Communist, sent in troops to fight the U.N. in Korea
Truman disagreed with both MacArthur's desire to start an all-our war against China and with his foreign policy statements; Truman removed him
Cease-fire called and armistice signed in July 1953
Joseph McCarthy
Republican senator from Wisconsin who claimed to have detailed information on Communists within the State Department (1950)
Was never able to prove Communists were within the State Department or any other government agency
In 1954, the Army accused McCarthy of attempting to gain preferential treatment for a McCarthy consultant, and McCarthy accused the Army of keeping him from finding more Communists
A televised Army-McCarthy hearing was established, and McCarthy came off in a negative light, leading to Congress condemning his conduct
Rock and Roll
Music genre that originated in the United States
Combined rhythm and blues, gospel, jazz, and country and western music
Alan Freed, a Cleveland disc jockey, coined the phrase "rock and roll" and produced the first rock and roll concert
Early artists included Elvis Presley, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Chuck Berry, and Buddy Holly
Beat Generation
Group of artists and writers who rejected traditional artistic and social forms
Influences included psychedelic drugs and Eastern beliefs, such as Zen Buddhism
Members rejected regular work and preferred communal living
Many members were located around San Francisco
Writers of the generation included Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and Lawrence Feringhetti
Dwight Eisenhower
Thirty-fourth President
Became Allied military commander during the World Was 2 and led forced in North Africa, Italy, and England
Became Republican president after defeating Adlai Stevenson
Singed the truce in 1953 to end Korean War
Completed integration of military forces
Sent troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, to ensure desegregation
Gave momentum to the desegregation movement
Geneva Accords
The foreign minister of nineteen nations, including the United States, decided to divide Vietnam at seventeen north latitude
North would be Nationalist led by Ho Chi Minh, while the South would be a Western-influenced republic
Provided for free elections within two years to reunite the two Vietnams
Vietnam War - Causes
Vietnam was divided into the Communist North, led by Ho Chi Minh, and the South, supported by the United States
The Viet Cong ( Communist guerillas) attempted to overthrow Saigon, South Vietnam's capital
South Vietnam asked President Kennedy for aid to fend off the Communists
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
Created to oppose the spread of Communism in Southeast Asia after France's withdrawal from Indochina
Original members included the United States, Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, and the Philippines
The organization was meant to justify an American presence in Vietnam, though some member did not support America in this effort
Dismantled in 1977
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Supreme Court case which challenged "separate but equal" ruling established in Plessy v. Ferguson
The Court, led by Chief Justice Earl Waren, held that separate was inherently unequal and instructed states to integrate
Massive Southern resistance slowed the advance of integration
Federal troops were used to help nine black students attend an all- white school in Little Rock, despite mobs and the Arkansas National Guard
Rosa Parks
African- American woman who refused to give up her seat to a white man in Alabama (1955)
Parks was arrested, drawing the support of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Dr. King organized a bus boycott in Birmingham, Alabama, leading to desegregation in the United States and strengthening support for the civil rights movement
Suez Canal Crisis
International waterway through the Isthmus of Suez
Egypt has been receiving aid from the Soviets, leading Eisenhower to promise money to Egypt to curtail the Soviets
Eisenhower withdrew his offer and Egypt attempted to nationalize the Canal
Britain, France, and Israel invaded to gain back control of the Canal
Eisenhower forced France, Britain, and Israel to withdraw
Interstate Highway act (federal-aid highway act of 1956)
Under the act, the interstates highway system was expanded to 41,000 miles
Signed by president Eisenhower
Federal government would pay ninety percent of the cost of the expansion
$25 billion was authorized from 1957-1969; $114 billion was eventually expended over thirty-five years
Besides allowing motorists to travel easily throughout the country, the expanded highway system also allowed for troop movement and evacuation routes
Martin Luther King, Jr
Civil rights leader and chairman of Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Believed in non-violent civil disobedience
Key member of the 1963 March on Washington, a response to a civil rights bill by President Kennedy being stalled in congress
At the March on Washington, King delivered his "I Have A Dream" speech
Assassinated by James Earle Ray in 1968
Civil Rights Act of 1957
First civil right act since Reconstruction
Stimulated by Brown v. Board of Topeka and civil rights activism
Created a panel to ensure that voting rights of African-Americans were not violated
Civil Rights Movement Incidents
Emmett Till, a teenage African-American, was killed by two whites after supposedly whistling at one of their wives; the men were acquitted
In 1960, four African0American students in Greensboro, North Carolina, sat at the Woolworth's "White's Only" lunch counter and refused to leave until they were served, sparking sit-ins throughout the South
An explosion at the Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, killed four African0American girls (1963)
During a voter registration drive in Mississippi, two white college students and a local African-American were murdered; civil rights legislation resulted
In 1965, a group marched from Selma, Alabama, to Birmingham, Alabama, for voting rights; the 1965 Voting Rights Act was signed soon thereafter
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Formed in 1910 by a group of whites and blacks, including William E. B. DuBois, to stop racial discrimination
Supported sit-ins as a form of protest against segregation as well as other forms of non-violent protest
Disapproved of the more radical groups such as SNCC and the Black Panthers
Because of its mission, methods, and organization, the NACCP remains a force in social issues and political affairs
Civil rights organizations
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)- founded by James Farmer in Chicago and advocated non-violence
CORE-sponsored the 1961 Freedom Rides in the South, breaking segregation rules on buses and eventually changing those rules
Student Non-violent Coordination Committee (SNCC)- founded in 1961 to support sit-ins
Stokely Carmichael, a leader of the SNCC and the Black Panther Party, called for "Black Power", which urged blacks to be independent and prideful, separating himself from the civil rights movement
Sputnik
Russian satellite launched into space
First unmanned spacecraft to escape Earth's gravity
Caused concern in the United States because Americans realized they were not as technologically advanced as the Russians
Led to an increased emphasis on science education in the United States
Eisenhower Doctrine
Created as a partial reaction to the Suez Canal crisis
The doctrine committed forces and economic aid to the Middle East to stop Communist threats
Some nations, including Egypt and Syria, denounced the doctrine
Established U.S. intention to use atomic weapons to defend against the expansion of communism if deemed necessary
Television
Invented in the 1930's
FDR was the first president to appear on TV; he gave a speech in 1939 at the New York World's Fair, where television was being officially introduced to the mass public
Seminal shows during the 1950's and 1960's included the Honeymooners, I Love Lucy, and Ed Sullivan Show
By 1960, over forty million homes had televisions
Fidel Castro
Communist-friendly leader of Cuba
Took power in Cuba after overthrowing Fulgencio Batista in 1959
Signed agreements with Soviets for trade
The United States broke diplomatic and trade relations with Cuba
Election of 1960
Richard Nixon, Eisenhower's former vice president, was nominated by the Republicans
Senator John F. Kennedy was nominated by the Democrats
Kennedy's Catholicism was a campaign issue because of the fears that Catholic leaders would influence him
The four presidential debates were televised and watched by approximately 75 million Americans
Nixon's negative appearance on television affected voters' perception of him
U-2 Spy Plane
Russians shot down a US U-2 reconnaissance plane over Soviet airspace
Eisenhower eventually admitted spying on the Soviets
The pilot, Francis Gary Powers, survived and served eighteen months in a Russian jail
John F. Kennedy
Thirty-fifth President
Democrat and first Catholic president
Domestic program (New Frontier) included tax reforms, educational aid, and emphasis on the space program
Raised minimum wage
Approved the Bay of Pigs invasion
Established the Peace Corps in 1961 as an agency to send American volunteers to developing countries
Successfully led American through the Cuban Missile Crisis
Assassinated in Dallas on November 22, 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald
Bay of Pigs
Attempted invasion of Cuba by CIA-trained Cuban refugees
Goal was to overthrow Fidel Castro, Cuba's Communist-friendly leader
The invasion failed after Kennedy refused air support
JFK assumed responsibility for the invasion
Berlin Wall
Barrier erected by the East German government to separate East and West Berlin
East Berlin was under Communist control, while West Berlin remained under Western control (American, British, and French)
Meant to stop defections and travel of East Berliners
Alliance for Progress
The Alliance was a "Marshall Plan" for Latin America
Its purpose was to provide economic aid to half the region resist Communism
The results of the Alliance were disappointing to those who supported it
Cuban Missile Crisis
American spy plane discovered Russian Missile sites being placed in Cuba
In response, President Kennedy blockaded Cuba and demanded that the Soviets removed the missile bases and all long-range weapons
Kennedy declared that any missile attack on the United States would result in retaliation against the U.S.S.R.
Khrushchev removed the missile sites; the US lifted the blockade and removed its intermediate-range ballistic missiles from Turkey
Led to Nuclear Test Ban (1963), in which the United States, Britain, and U.S.S.R. agreed not to perform nuclear tests in the atmosphere or underwater
James Meredith
James Meredith obtained a federal court order to allow him to enroll at the University of Mississippi in 1962
On several occasions, he was barred from enrolling
Federal marshals were called in to accompany him to enroll and attend classes
Engel v. Vitale
Supreme Court held that a prayer created by the New York State Board of Regents was unconstitutional
Even though this prayer was "non-denominational", the Court held that state-sponsored prayer of any type went against the First Amendment's establishment of religion
Baker v. Carr
Tennessee had failed to reapportion its state legislature for sixty years despite growth and population movement
Charles Baker, a Tennessee voter, brought suit against the state, arguing a violation of equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
Baker claimed that his vote had been diluted
The Supreme Court held that the political question would be heard, opening the way for numerous voting suits
Rachel Carson
American writer and marine biologist
Wrote Silent Spring (1962) a study on dangerous insecticides
Helped initiate the environmental movement
Lyndon Johnson
Thirty-sixth President, Elected in 1964
Became president after JFK's assassination
Previously served as a Democratic senator from Texas, where he was both the whip and floor leader
Promoted Kennedy's agenda through Congress, including a tax cut and the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Called for war against poverty and promoted social and economic welfare legislation (his Great Society program)
Gideon v. Wainwright, Escobedo v. Illinois, and Miranda v. Arizona
Gideon-Supreme Court held that all persons charged with a felony (later expanded to other charges) must be provided legal counsel
Escobedo- Supreme Court held that the police must honor a person's request to have an attorney present during interrogation
Miranda-The Supreme Court provided an arrested person with the right to remain silent, the right to be told that whatever he said could be used against him, the right to be represented by an attorney, the right to have a lawyer even if he could not afford one, and the right to one phone call to obtain a lawyer
Women's Movement
Spurred by increasing employment and increasing numbers of educated women
The Movement questioned "traditional" definitions of women's roles
There became increased opportunities for women in work, education, and business
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination by employers of the basis of gender
National Organization for Women (NOW) was founded in 1966 to create equality between the sexes
Betty Friedan
Author and activist
Published the Feminine Mystique in 1963, which attacked the belief that a woman's sole satisfaction comes through homemaking
Friedan was one of the founders of the National Organization of Women (NOW) to advance women's rights and causes
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Passed by Lyndon Johnson, who followed Kennedy's political agenda
The March on Washington in 1963 aided passage of the Act
The Act strengthened voting rights protection
Prohibited discrimination in places of public accommodations (stores, restaurants, and hotels)
Required the federal government to withdraw support from any state or program that discriminated
Established Equal Employment Commission to watch hiring practices
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US
A motel operator refused to serve an African-American consumer
The Supreme Court upheld the Civil Rights Act on 1964, which outlawed discrimination in schools, places of work, voting sites, public accommodations, and public areas
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
North Vietnamese supposedly fired on American ships in the Gulf of Tonkin
Congress passed resolution allowing President Johnson to use military action in Vietnam
Johnson retaliated against the Vietcong with bombing attacks in the North followed by ground troops
Ralph Nader
Political activist and advocate for consumers
His book, Unsafe at Any Speed (1965), shed light on poor safety standards for automobiles, leading Congress to pass auto safety measures
Unsuccessfully ran as a third-party candidate for the US presidency in 1996, 2000, and 2004
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Signed into law by Lyndon Johnson
Resulted after demonstrations against the measures used to prevent African-Americans from voting; these measures included violence
Voters could no longer be forced to take literacy tests
Provided federal registration of African-American voters in areas that had less than fifty percent of eligible voters registered
Watts Riots
Six-day riots in Watts, a depressed African-American section section of Los Angeles
Causes included a drunk- driving arrest of a young African- American and claims of police brutality
Thirty-four deaths and over $200 million worth of property damage resulted
Sparked other riots throughout the country
Malcolm X
African-American advocate and leader who moved away from Martin Luther King's non-violent methods of civil disobedience
While in prison, he became a Black Muslim and later a minister in the Nation of Islam
The leader of the Black Muslims, Elijah Muhammad, suspended Malcolm X when he made derogatory remarks about President Kennedy's assassination
Malcolm X formed a new organization, the Muslim Mosque
After a pilgrimage to Mecca, he converted to Orthodox Islam and began publicly accepting the idea of cooperation between blacks and whites
Assassinated in New York City during a speech; assailants ere said to be with Black Muslim group, but this has never been confirmed
Black Panthers
Founded in 1996 by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in California
Called African- American to become liberated through violence
Provided free lunches to African-American children
Have been involved in various violent confrontation over the years
Robert F. Kennedy
Brother of President John F. Kennedy
Served as Attorney General under President Kennedy
Elected as senator from New York in 1964
Pushed for desegregation and election regulation
Presidential candidate in 1968
Assassinated in California by Sirhan Sirhan in June 1968
Cesar Chavez
Migrant farmer who founded the National Farm Worker Association
His goal was to defeat persecution throughout the migrant worker system
Used strikes, picketing, and marches to help protect workers
Counterculture Movement
Began at Berkeley with free speech movement
Beliefs included women's liberation, anti- materialism, and opposition of the was in Vietnam
Experimented with drug and sex
Young people who favored the counterculture were called "hippies"
The Woodstock Music and Art Festival in New York State (1969) marked the culmination of the counterculture movement
Tet Offensive
North Vietnam violated a truce during Tet (New Year), attacking cities throughout South Vietnam
The attack surprised the United States
Despite initiating the fighting, the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong were defeated, suffering heavy casualties
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Supported Native American civil rights and recognition of past treaties with in the United States
Militants associated with the organization staged an occupation of the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota, arguing that treaties had been ignored
Moon Landing
Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Earth's moon
Armstrong made the famous statement, "That's one small step for man .... One giant leap for mankind"
Armstrong's fellow astronauts were Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins
Richard M. Nixon
Thirty- seventh President
Prior to becoming president in 1969, Nixon served as United States representative, senator and vice president
Nixon oversaw "Vietnamization" which called for the training of South Vietnamese troops to assume responsibility for military actions
He began to remove United States troops in phase from South Vietnam
Ended the draft
Opened China for trade
Reduced tension with U.S.S.R with the SALT agreements
Resigned following Watergate scandal, becoming the first president to do so
Pentagon Papers
Defense Department paper that discussed America's involvement in Southeast Asia
Discussed how the government had mis-portrayed its intentions during the Vietnam War in the 1960's
The New York Times received the papers from Daniel Ellsberg, who had studied defense policies; the Times began publishing articles about the study in June 1971
The United States tried to stop the Times by arguing national security, but the Supreme Court allowed publication based on freedom of the press
Set a precedent for future conflicts in the press over security versus liberty
Kent State University
Site of a university protest against the Vietnam War and the Cambodian conflict
Ohio National Guard killed four students during the event and wounded many others
Led to other uprisings on college campuses, including Jackson State
Twenty-sixth Amendment
Ratified in response to Vietnam War
Gave the right to vote to citizen eighteen and older
By November 1971, eleven million Americans between eighteen and twenty-one were eligible to vote
Henry Kissinger
National Security Advisor and Secretary of State under Nixon
Pursued relations with China
Played significant role in SALT
Negotiated talks after Six- Day War of Arab countries against Israel
SALT 1 and SALT 2
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
SALT 1 - Agreement signed by the United States and the Soviets to stop building nuclear ballistic missiles for five years
SALT 2- Singed by Carter and Brezhnev; it reduced and limited number of missile launchers and bombers
These treaties helped to reduce tension between the United States and the U.S.S.R
Watergate Scandal
CRP/CREEP ( Committee for the Re-election of the President) attempted to spy on Democrats at their headquarters in the Watergate Hotel
Men with connections to CRP/CREEP were arrested and convicted
Nixon stated that the burglars had no connection to his administration
James McCord, one of the convicted burglars, claimed a Republican cover- up
An investigation uncovered wire taps, presidential tapes, and further evidence of espionage
Robert Woodward and Carl Bernstein, writers for The Washington Post, helped reveal the details behind the break-in
This deception at the highest political level caused many Americans to become disenchant with the government
Furman v. Georgia
Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty was unconstitutional unless fairly applied
Subsequent Supreme Court decisions have allowed the death penalty in certain circumstances
War Powers Act
President has to report to Congress within forty-eight hours of the commitment of United States troops of substantially increasing troops in foreign conflicts
Congressional approval is need for any military commitment of troops for more than ninety days
Requirement enacted by Congress over Nixon's veto
Saturday Night Massacre
Followed Nixon's refusal to give his tapes to Archibald Cox, the government's special prosecutor
Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Cox from this appointment
Rather than fire Cox, Richardson quit
Eventually, the tapes surfaced and Nixon resigned in August 1973
Roe v. Wade
Supreme Court decision that rules first trimester abortions were to be allowed
All state laws prohibiting such abortions were made unconstitutional
Decision was based on a woman's right to privacy
Led to criticism from Roman Catholics and right-to-life group
Gerald Ford
Thirty-eighth President
Became vice president after Spiro Agnew resigned as a result of an investigation into financial irregularities
Took office after Nixon's resignation
Pardoned Nixon, though the former president had not been charged with anything
His rise to power represented the first use of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, which provided for action in cases of a vice-president vacancy
Jimmy Carter
Thirty-ninth president
Defeated Gerald Ford for presidency
Wanted to make a "responsible government"
Reduced unemployment and eased the energy crisis
Negotiated the Camp David Accords, in which Israel returned land in the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for Egyptian recognition of Israel's rights
Iran's holding of American hostages, along with inflation, led to his loss to Ronald Regan in 1980
Both during his tenure in office and since his loss to Reagan, Carter has worked for improvements in human rights
Bakke v. Regents of the University of California
The Supreme Court upheld the university's use of race in its admissions decisions
The Court also found that Bakke, a white, should have been admitted to the university's medical school
This holding banned the use of racial quotas
American Hostages in Iran
America had supported the Shah of Iran, who lost power after a coup by the Ayatollah Khomeini
Supporters of Khomeini were anti-American because of this support of the Shah
Carter allowed the Shah to receive medical attention in the US upsetting Iranians
Iranian revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Iran and took hostages
Carter froze Iranian assets in the US and sent ships within striking distance
An accord was finally signed and the revolutionaries freed the hostages on Reagan's inauguration day
Three Mile Island
A nuclear power plant located south of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, overheated, causing part of its uranium core to melt
The overheating was caused by human, design, and mechanical errors
Radioactive water and gases were released
Led to a slowdown in the construction of other reactors and changes in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Americans became more aware of environmental concerns
Ronald Reagan
Fortieth President
Defeated Carter after carrying a large majority
Increased military spending, including the Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars Program), which was a space-based defense system
Succeeded in getting a tremendous tax cut, aiming to increase investments and improve the job market (Reaganomics)
After first increasing the number of nuclear weapons, Reagan worked with Gorbachev toward the reduction of nuclear weapons
Won re-election over Democratic nominees, Walter Mondale and Geraldine Ferraro
Mikhail Gorbachev
Russian political leader
Worked with Reagan to reduce nuclear weapons
Removed Russian troops from Afghanistan
Worked to liberalize repressive atmosphere of country under governmental policies of "glasnost" (openness) and "perestroika" (restructuring)
Key player in the fall of communism in Russia
Iran-Contra Affair
Scandal involving CIA, National Security Council, and the Reagan administration
The US sold weapons to Iranians friendly to American in order to encourage them to free hostages
Profits form sales of weapons funded Nicaraguan revolutionaries fighting the Sandinista government
Congress had approved neither the sale nor the funding, and hearings led to convictions of Oliver North, Robert McFarlane, and John Poindexter
For many, the hearings echoed the Watergate scandal; American citizens became increasingly skeptical of their government
Black Monday (Stock Market Crash)
The Dow Jones dropped 22.6%, the largest single-day drop since 1914
Causes included trade deficits, computerized trading, and American criticism of West Germany's economic policies
The crash later affected the insurance industry and was a cause of the savings and loan crisis
Savings and Loan Scandal
The lax regulation of the savings and loan industry led to poor investments and high insolvency
The economic environment following Black Monday worsened the savings and loan financial disaster
As the federal government guaranteed deposits up to $100,000, a $166 billion rescue appropriation was made
The scandal is representative of the effects of poor governmental regulation
George Bush
Forty-first president
Prior to becoming president, he served as a congressman, director of the CIA, UN Ambassador, and vice president to Ronald Reagan
Sent troops to overthrow Manual Noriega in Panama
Led the US to success in the Gulf War, forcing Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait
START
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
Signed by Mikhail Gorbachev and George Bush
Cut the nuclear weapons arsenals of both nations by thirty percent
START was a landmark agreement in the easing of American-Russian tensions
Persian Gulf War
Saddam Hussein, dictator and leader of Iraq, invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990
American interests in oil were threatened
After Iraq failed to meet the deadline for peaceful withdrawal, the US launched Operation Desert Storm on January 18, 1991, led by General Norman Schwarzkopf
Air strikes were followed by a ground war
Multi-national forces defeated Iraqi troops and liberated Kuwait
Though under heavy embargos, Saddam was left in power, which would lead to a second war with Iraq in the George W. Bush presidency
Effects of the Collapse of Soviet Union
Break-up of nations created new foreign policy challenges and a proliferation of weaponry
Provided new opportunities for US trade
Led to new foreign policy challenges in Asia
Bill Clinton
Forty-second president
Former law professor, attorney general of Arkansas, and governor of Arkansas
Achieved gun control measures, a strong economy, acts supporting time off for family leave, and welfare reform
Led the US to join the north American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), lifting trade barriers between the US, Canada and Mexico
Became the second president to be impeached by the House of Representatives after an extra-marital affair with Monica Lewinsky
Branch Davidian Incident
Apocalyptic Christian group founded during the 1930's
David Koresh and his followers lived at a compound outside Waco, Texas
A shootout occurred between the FBI, ATF, ad Branch Davidians as a warrant for illegal weapons and child abuse was attempted to be served
Four federal agents and five Branch Davidians were killed
A fifty-one day standoff occurred, ending with the burning of the compound and the death of Koresh and the rest of his followers
Oklahoma City Bombing
Timothy McVeigh destroyed the Oklahoma City Federal Building with a fertilizer bomb
168 people were killed in the destruction caused by the explosion
McVeigh said he was upset with the government about the Branch Davidian fiasco and the event at Rudy Ridge
McVeigh was killed by lethal injection in 2001
George W. Bush
Forty-third President
Former Texas governor sworn into office in 2001
Won presidential race after the Democratic nominee and former vice president, Al Gore, conceded following a voting ordeal in Florida
Gore had more popular votes than Bush but fewer electoral votes
Passed initiatives in attempts to improve education( NO Child Left Behind Act)
His declaration against terrorism led to the liberation of Afghanistan and the invasion of Iraq
Son of former president, George Bush
Re-elected in 2004
September 11, 2001
Day of attacks by terrorist cells connected to the Al Qaeda network, which was led by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi dissident
Al Qaeda operatives hijacked two airliners and crashed then into New York's World Trade Center, destroying the buildings and killing thousands
Another hijacked plane hit the Pentagon in Washington, D.C
A final hijacked plane was diverted from its mission crashing in Pennsylvania
As a result of the attacks, Congress passed the USA Patriot Act, which broadened government authority to gather intelligence and further defined crimes that were punishable as terrorism
Attacks led to the invasion of Afghanistan
Evolution of the Major Political Parties from Civil War to Modern Day
Key Moment: Passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Political Parties: Republican and Democrat - extension of slavery into the territories was the main concern of Lincoln's Republican, while Democratic voting split North- South along the issue
Evolutionary Point: After a Northern victory in the Civil War, the South became anti- Republican and anti- North,; the North maintained political control became increasingly industrial and wealthy
Key Moment: Though Democratic candidates had been elected since the Civil War, Franklin Roosevelt's presidency helped to redefine the party
Parties: Modern- day Republican and Democratic parties- business and tariffs used to support the state versus policies that support broad social programs
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