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50 terms

D'amico ch 17 cardio Quiz (Ken's)

All the bold terms I could find in cardio and childhood cardio sections. Let me know if you guys find problems with any definitions. Thanks! Ken
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Pericardium
Thin three layered sac that covers and protects the heart. Two parietal layers, the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium make up the parietal layer outside, then a thin layer of serous fluid for lube, then the visceral pericardium closely covers the heart. 426
Visceral pericardium
Inner layer of pericardium, lines the outer surface of the heart 426
Heart
Four chamber pump, extends from the second rib to the fifth intercostal space 426
Mediastinal space
Center thoracic area, contains the heart, trachea, esophagus, and major blood vessels. 426
Epicardium
The outermost layer of the heart. Really the same as the visceral pericardium. 427
Myocardium
Middle, muscular layer of the heart, cardiac muscle 427
Endocardium
Innermost layer of the heart. Smooth, inner lining of the heart's chambers 427
Right Atrium
Thin walled heart chamber above and to the right of the right ventricle. Pulmonary side, tricuspid valve 428
Right Ventricle
Thick, triangular heart chamber, pulmonary side, pushes blood into pulmonary trunk through semilunar valve. Anterior portion of heart 428
Left Atrium
Receives O2 rich blood from the pulmonary veins and pumps it into the left ventricle. Posterior portion of the heart. Thicker than the right atrium. 428
Left Ventricle
Receives blood from the left atrium, through the mitral valve, pumps to the aorta through semilunar valve, systemic side, stronger than the pulmonary. Behind the left ventricle. 428
Atrioventricular Valves
Separates the atria from the ventricles. Includes the right, pulmonary tricuspid valve, and the left, mitral, or bicuspid valve. 429
Semilunar Valves
Separates the ventricles from the vascular system, valves 429
S1
Sound heard when the AV valves close, (Lub) 429
S2
Sound heard when the aortic and pulmonary, or semilunar valves close after contraction of the ventricles. (dub) 429
Systole
Phase of ventricular contraction, begins with the AV (mitral and tricuspid)valves closing, ends with the aortic and pulmonic (semilunar) valves closing. 429
Diastole
Phase of ventricular relaxation, atrial contraction. Starts with the closure of theaortic and pumonary (semilunar) valves, and ends with the closure of the AV (mitral and tricuspid) valves 429
Heart Murmurs
Harsh blowing sounds caused by disruption of blood flow into the heart, between the chambers of the heart or from the heart into the pulmonary or aortic systems. 431
Cardiac Conduction System
The electrical system in the heart. Includes the Sinoatrial (SA) node, the Intra atrial conduction pathways, the Atrioventricular (AV) node, the Bundle of His, the right and left Bundle Branches and the Purkinje Fibers. All work together to make the heart contract properly and pump blood. 434
Sinoatrial (SA) node
Electrical center that Initiates the electrical impulse to cause heart contraction. Pacemaker of the heart 60-100 bpm pg 434
atrioventricular node (AV) node
Electrical center between the atria and the ventricles. Slows signal slightly to delay ventricular contraction until atria have finished contracting. Also capable of independent firing if SA node fails. 40-60 bpm pg434
Bundle of His
Electrical wiring which gets it's impulse from the AV node. Slows impulse slightly, giving atria time to finish filling the ventricles. Connects to the bundle branches . 434
Bundle Branches
Electrical wiring from the Bundle of His to the Purkinje fibers. Left and right fibers run down interventricular septum between the ventricles. Spreads the impulse through the myocardial tissue. Aso capable of independant firing if SA and AV node fail. 436
Purkinje Fibers
Electrical wiring, from the left and right Bundle Branches into the Myocardial tissue to cause the ventricles to contract. 436
Sternum
Flat center chest bone, made up of the Manubrium, Body, and Xiphoid Process. 437
cardiac cycle
The events of one complete heart beat, including contraction and relaxation of atria and ventricles. 437
Period of ventricular filling
Event beginning of the cardiac cycle, blood enters passively onto the ventricles from the atria, ~70%. Then the "atrial kick" finishes the filling. 437
Ventricular systole
Event: The ventricles are electrically stimulated and contract, mitral and tricuspid valves shut, semi lunar valves open, and blood rushes into systemic and pulmonary circulation. 437
Isovolumetric Relaxation
Event: The ventricles finish contracting, the pressure in the arteries is higher than in ventricles, semilunar valves snap shut "S2" 437
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
A visual representation of the electrical depolarization wave as it sweeps through the heart. The cardiac cell at rest is normally more positively charged on the outside than on the inside. The electrical signal flips this, and the cell contracts. 438
P Wave
First point of ECG, represents signal from SA node and part of atrial depolarization and initialization of contraction atria 0.08 sec. 439
PR interval
Interval in the ECG for electrical current to travel across both atria and arrive at the AV node, 0.12 to 0.2 sec. 439
QRS interval
Interval in the ECG, Ventricular depolarization, atrial repolarization, lasts 0.08 to 0.11 sec. 439
T Wave
Spot in EKG, marks ventricular repolarization Last wave. 439
QT Interval
Interval in ECG, represents the period from start of ventricular depolarization to moment of repolarization. Ventricular contraction. 439
Stroke volume
Amount of blood ejected with every heart beat. 439
Cardiac output
Amount of blood ejected from left ventricle in 1 min. Adult ~ 4-8 L. 439
Xanthelasma
Deposits of yellowish cholesterol seen on eyelids. Indicative of premature Atherosclerosis 453
Infective endocarditis
Bacterial infiltration of lining of the heat chambers. Associated with splinter hemorrhages of the nail bed. 455
Thrill
Soft vibratory sensations felt on the chest. Indicative of elevated ventricular volume or aortic regurgitation depending on location and character. Best felt in intercostal spaces with fingertips or flat palm on chest. Also "heaves" (abnormal) 458
Bruit
Loud blowing sound in the heart, (abnormal) 461
Ductus venosus
Prenatal duct in vein system that shunts blood away from heart and liver. Closes at birth or within 12-72 hrs. 787
Ductus arteriosus
Prenatal duct in artery system that shunts blood away from pulmonary to systemic system . Closes shortly after birth. 441 and 787
Foramen Ovale
Prenatal duct through atrial septum to shunt blood away from pulmonary circulation. Closes shortly after birth. 441 and 787
Sinus arrhythmia
Heart period variability, heart rate increases on inspiration, decreases on expiration. Common until early adulthood. From Parasympathetic inervation of the heart. 787
Innocent murmurs
Childhood heart noises caused by increased blood flow across normal heart structures. Fairly common, 75% of children will have this at some time. 787
Coarctation of the aorta
Congenital defect. A narowing of the aorta, resulting in decreased femoral and increased upper extremity pulses. 787
parietal pericardium
the outer two layers of pericardium, the fiberous and outer serous layers that form a sack that the heart moves inside of. 427
Arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
Fatty buildup in the arteries feeding the heart, may lead to Ischemia and death of myocardial tissue (heart attack)
Atherosclerosis
A build up of fatty plaques and cholesterol on the inside of artery walls, can decrease or block blood flow.