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529 terms

AP Psych RM

STUDY
PLAY
standardization sample
group of people representing the whole population
norms
standards of performance used as a rubric to test everyone
Flynn effect
need to restandardize because data indicates people gotten smarter over the past 50 years
Reliability
measure of how consistent a test is in the measurements it provides
test-retest
giving a test then later when they may have forgotten the material, retesting them
split half
one group takes half of the test and another group takes the other half
equivalent form
different groups take differentbut simlar tests covering the same concepts
Reliability coefficient
if test is perfectly reliable, coefficient is one
validity
extent that a test measures what it intends to measure
-calculated by comparing how well test results correlate to other measures that assess what the test supposed to predict
Predictive validity
there is a correlation between the test and future performance
content validity
measures the degree to which the test measures what it is supposed to measure
Construct validity
degree to which the test indeed measures what it is supposed to test
projective tests
when ambiguous stimuli, open to interpretation, are presented
inventory-type tests
when participants answer a standard series of question
don't typically allow free response
Rorschach Inkblot test
Projective test, sequence of ten inkblots, people asked to observe and characterize images which show their personality
Thematic Apperception Test
projective, participant asked to generate a story accompanying a set of random pictures, their personality is then psychoanalyzed
Power tests
gauge abilities in certain areas, extremely difficult where it is unlikely to get 100% (Olympiads)
speed tests
have very easy items, but time is limited
Achievement tests
assess knowledge gained (AP tests)
Aptitude tests
evaluate a person's abilities (driving test)
Intelligence
defined as goal direct adaptive thinking
Alfred Binet
French psychologist who first began to measure intelligence through his test, Stanford-Binet Scale
Stanford-Binet Scale
test originally measured child development but became one of the first intelligence tests
Intelligence Quotient
IG, computes how a person's score is above or below the average
Charles Spearman
said there was general intelligence (g factor) that was the basis of all other intelligence
factor analysis
statistical measure for analyzing test data developed by spearman
Robert Sternberg
proposed intelligence has three components: analytical, practical, and creative
Louis Thurstone
said intelligence can come in many different forms
Howard Gardner
Identified multiple intelligences like: verbal, mathematical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal (self awareness)
Daniel Goleman
created programs to enhance people's emotional intelligence (ability o recognize others intents and motivations)
Heritability coefficiet
ranges from 0-1, measures proportion of variation among individuals that can be attributed to genetic effects
psychometrics
psychological testing
personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of looking at the unconscious where a person relaxes and speaks their mind, no matter how embarrassing
psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality, attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. (Basic idea is that what we think and how we act is based on our unconscious mind and our childhood experiences)
unconscious
part of mind unaware of, made up of unacceptable thoughts, feelings, wishes, and memories.
preconscious
right below the conscious, there isn't complete control but still accessible. outside awareness
id
unconscious psychic energy. strives to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress. operates on pleasure principle which demands immediate gratification. not much control over this.
ego
operates on reality principle, seeks to gratify id's impulses in realistic ways. mostly conscious awareness and judgement and memory
superego
begins around age 4 or 5, voice of conscious that forces ego to consider not only the real but ideal viewpoints
identification
process in which children incorporate their parents values to create their superego
erogenous zones
pleasure sensitive areas of the body
defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, a way the ego protects itself against anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression
defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts that are thought to be unacceptable in society. (unconscious forgetting) ex. forgetting about a test even if you have known about it for months
regression
defense mechanism that allows us to retreat to an earlier more infintile stage of development, first day of school kids will start sucking their thumbs again even if they havent done that in years
reaction formation
defense mechanism where the ego unconsciously makes unacceptable impulses seem like their opposites. a boy will react to their strong sexual attraction to women by becoming a woman hater.
projection
defense mechanism where impulses are disguised by putting the thought onto another thought. someone who critizes people for gossiping is actually a huge gossip themself
rationalization
defense mechanism where we unconsciously give a self-justifying explanation for actions to hide the real reason. so tell yourself there is a more acceptable reason for something so you don't realize how bad the thought is. a parent who sees there child stab animals will tell themself the kid is going to be a doctor so it is ok they are stabbing animals
displacement
defense mechanism that puts a sexual or aggressive impulse onto another object or person. example would be slamming the door when mad at your mom, kicking your dog when your friend and you got into a fight
sublimation
defense mechanism where you channel your aggressive feelings onto a different activity. example someone who fights in school will excel at soccer in high school
collective unconscious
theory developed by Carl Jung, idea that people from the same culture or group will have the same unconscious thoughts, and these thoughts and values can be passed down.
projective tests
a personality test, example inkblot test or TAT, gives stimuli that gets a person to give feelings from their unconscious
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test where a person is shown a picture then tells a story about the picture, the things they say in the picture give insight on what they feel in their unconscious.
Rorschach Test
most used projective test, where a person is shown a set of 10 inkblots, identifys peoples inner feelings by analyzing what they say about the inkblots.
terror-management theory
faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self esteem provides protection against deeply rooted fear of death. terror resulting from our awareness of vulnerability and death and how we deal with it
archetypes
we have our set schemas and ideas for what a man, woman, etc. are so its a way to individuate from our norms and normal schema
traits
characteristics of behavior, a way we feel and act, assessed by self report inventories and peer reports
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
a test that asks about a persons values, then gives strength so everyone gets flattered,
factor analysis
procedure that identifies groups of related items on a test
the "Big Five" factors
CANOE, (conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion)
personality inventories
long questionare where people respond to items that ask about a wide range of feelings and behaviors, designed to assess several traits at once
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory )
most widely researched and clinically used personality test. originally developed to identify emotional disorders, assess abnormal personality tendencies, rather than normal traits
empirically derived
a test developed by testing a large pool of items then selecting the ones that discriminate between groups
person-situation controversy
look for genuine personality traits that occur over time and across different scenarios.
self actualization
on maslows hierarchy of needs, it is the top that a person tries to reach throughout their life, when every one of your physical and physiological needs are met, complete fulfillment of ones potential
peak experiences
in the moment feels life fulfilling, example graduating, or bat mitzvah, or winning a game. not real self actualization just temporarily fulfilling
unconditional positive regard
idea created by Carl Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. seeing the good in everyone, if you do bad on a test, its still very good that you put forth effort. very humanistic
self concept
our thoughts and feelings about ourself, answers "who am i"
self esteem
ones feelings of high or low self worth
self-serving bias
our readiness to perceive ourself favorably, so be able to tell ourself we are good
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance. when we feel the attention is always on us and everyone is judging
individualism
give priority to one's own goals over others
collectivism
giving priority to goals of the group over goals of self
reciprocal determinism
the effect environment has on behavior and cognition(thoughts) created by Bandura
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control
believe outside has control "the man"
internal locus of control
believe you have control over what you do
learned helplessness
the hopelessness someone learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. example dog with electric shock floor, one without the button gives up and thinks cant jump over...or word scramble give up when first 2 dont make sense
positive psychology
type of psych that helps people see the optomistic good side to things. humanistic, similar to unconditional positive regard
Alfred Adler
Psychologist who agreed with Freud that childhood experiences were important in shaping personality, but focused on the social factor not sex.
Karen Horney
Psychologist who agreed with Alfred Adler, also countered the bias of masculine views to psychology
Carl Jung
Psychologist that was the student of Freud, placed much more emphasis on social factor, believed in the collective unconscious
Abraham Maslow
Psychologist who developed hierarchy of needs, used to show personality because personality develops as a person moves through the pyramid
Carl Rogers
Psychologist who believed in humanistic views, developed theory of unconditional positive regard
compensation
making up for failures in one area by success in others
basic anxiety
feeling of being alone in an unfamiliar or hostile world
persona
make person presents to the outside world
shadow
deep, passionate, inner person (including the dark side)
anima and animus
female and male side to our personality
personal unconsciousness
comprised of memories and clusters of thought
collective unconscious
behavior and memory common to all humans and passed down from our ancient and common ancestors
Archetypes
behaviors and memories in the collective unconscious
inferiority complex
failure to contribute to society may result to this complex
conditions of worth
other people's evaluations of our worth that distort our self-concept
in-congruence
discrepancies between our self-concept and our actual thoughts and behavior, as well as feedback
explanatory styles
ways in which people explain themselves or react in different situations, can be positive or negative
Julian Rotter
proposed extent to which people take responsibility of their successes or failures plays a major role in personality (locus of control theory)
Big Five personality traits
introversion-extroversion, neuroticism-stability, agreeableness-antagonism, conscientiousness-indirectedness, and openness-nonopenness
2 ways of researching traits
nomothetic (Big 5 traits are universal)
Idiographic (traits unique to individual)
Gordon Allport
found 3 types of traits
cardinal (traits override person's hole being)
central (primary characteristics)
secondary (traits that constitute interests)
Raymond Cattel
said there were 16 source traits (underlying characteristics) which were under surface traits (those seen by everyone)
Walter Mischel
traits are not necessarily consistent across various situations
Eysenck Personality Inventory
questionnaire designed to examine personalities based on people's traits
16 Personality Factor Quiz
made by Raymond Cattel which uses his 16 traits as measures
MMPI-2
(Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 2nd ed) measures everything from traits to mental disorders
ME is comprised of
-physical self: body, name
-active self: our behavior
-social self: how we interact with others
psychological self: our feelings and personalities
I is responsible for
our self-perception, free will, and reflection
halo effect
error by which we generalize a high self-evaluation from one domain to another
11 domains of competency
seen in adulthood:
morality, sociability, intimacy, athleticism, intelligence, humor, nurturance, job competence, ability to provide, appearance, managing your house
personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of looking at the unconscious where a person relaxes and speaks their mind, no matter how embarrassing
psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality, attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. (Basic idea is that what we think and how we act is based on our unconscious mind and our childhood experiences)
unconscious
part of mind unaware of, made up of unacceptable thoughts, feelings, wishes, and memories.
preconscious
right below the conscious, there isn't complete control but still accessible. outside awareness
id
unconscious psychic energy. strives to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress. operates on pleasure principle which demands immediate gratification. not much control over this.
ego
operates on reality principle, seeks to gratify id's impulses in realistic ways. mostly conscious awareness and judgement and memory
superego
begins around age 4 or 5, voice of conscious that forces ego to consider not only the real but ideal viewpoints
identification
process in which children incorporate their parents values to create their superego
erogenous zones
pleasure sensitive areas of the body
defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, a way the ego protects itself against anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression
defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts that are thought to be unacceptable in society. (unconscious forgetting) ex. forgetting about a test even if you have known about it for months
regression
defense mechanism that allows us to retreat to an earlier more infintile stage of development, first day of school kids will start sucking their thumbs again even if they havent done that in years
reaction formation
defense mechanism where the ego unconsciously makes unacceptable impulses seem like their opposites. a boy will react to their strong sexual attraction to women by becoming a woman hater.
projection
defense mechanism where impulses are disguised by putting the thought onto another thought. someone who critizes people for gossiping is actually a huge gossip themself
rationalization
defense mechanism where we unconsciously give a self-justifying explanation for actions to hide the real reason. so tell yourself there is a more acceptable reason for something so you don't realize how bad the thought is. a parent who sees there child stab animals will tell themself the kid is going to be a doctor so it is ok they are stabbing animals
displacement
defense mechanism that puts a sexual or aggressive impulse onto another object or person. example would be slamming the door when mad at your mom, kicking your dog when your friend and you got into a fight
sublimation
defense mechanism where you channel your aggressive feelings onto a different activity. example someone who fights in school will excel at soccer in high school
collective unconscious
theory developed by Carl Jung, idea that people from the same culture or group will have the same unconscious thoughts, and these thoughts and values can be passed down.
projective tests
a personality test, example inkblot test or TAT, gives stimuli that gets a person to give feelings from their unconscious
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test where a person is shown a picture then tells a story about the picture, the things they say in the picture give insight on what they feel in their unconscious.
Rorschach Test
most used projective test, where a person is shown a set of 10 inkblots, identifys peoples inner feelings by analyzing what they say about the inkblots.
terror-management theory
faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self esteem provides protection against deeply rooted fear of death. terror resulting from our awareness of vulnerability and death and how we deal with it
archetypes
we have our set schemas and ideas for what a man, woman, etc. are so its a way to individuate from our norms and normal schema
traits
characteristics of behavior, a way we feel and act, assessed by self report inventories and peer reports
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
a test that asks about a persons values, then gives strength so everyone gets flattered,
factor analysis
procedure that identifies groups of related items on a test
the "Big Five" factors
CANOE, (conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion)
personality inventories
long questionare where people respond to items that ask about a wide range of feelings and behaviors, designed to assess several traits at once
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory )
most widely researched and clinically used personality test. originally developed to identify emotional disorders, assess abnormal personality tendencies, rather than normal traits
empirically derived
a test developed by testing a large pool of items then selecting the ones that discriminate between groups
person-situation controversy
look for genuine personality traits that occur over time and across different scenarios.
self actualization
on maslows hierarchy of needs, it is the top that a person tries to reach throughout their life, when every one of your physical and physiological needs are met, complete fulfillment of ones potential
peak experiences
in the moment feels life fulfilling, example graduating, or bat mitzvah, or winning a game. not real self actualization just temporarily fulfilling
unconditional positive regard
idea created by Carl Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. seeing the good in everyone, if you do bad on a test, its still very good that you put forth effort. very humanistic
self concept
our thoughts and feelings about ourself, answers "who am i"
self esteem
ones feelings of high or low self worth
self-serving bias
our readiness to perceive ourself favorably, so be able to tell ourself we are good
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance. when we feel the attention is always on us and everyone is judging
individualism
give priority to one's own goals over others
collectivism
giving priority to goals of the group over goals of self
reciprocal determinism
the effect environment has on behavior and cognition(thoughts) created by Bandura
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control
believe outside has control "the man"
internal locus of control
believe you have control over what you do
learned helplessness
the hopelessness someone learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. example dog with electric shock floor, one without the button gives up and thinks cant jump over...or word scramble give up when first 2 dont make sense
positive psychology
type of psych that helps people see the optomistic good side to things. humanistic, similar to unconditional positive regard
Alfred Adler
Psychologist who agreed with Freud that childhood experiences were important in shaping personality, but focused on the social factor not sex.
Karen Horney
Psychologist who agreed with Alfred Adler, also countered the bias of masculine views to psychology
Carl Jung
Psychologist that was the student of Freud, placed much more emphasis on social factor, believed in the collective unconscious
Abraham Maslow
Psychologist who developed hierarchy of needs, used to show personality because personality develops as a person moves through the pyramid
Carl Rogers
Psychologist who believed in humanistic views, developed theory of unconditional positive regard
compensation
making up for failures in one area by success in others
basic anxiety
feeling of being alone in an unfamiliar or hostile world
persona
make person presents to the outside world
shadow
deep, passionate, inner person (including the dark side)
anima and animus
female and male side to our personality
personal unconsciousness
comprised of memories and clusters of thought
collective unconscious
behavior and memory common to all humans and passed down from our ancient and common ancestors
Archetypes
behaviors and memories in the collective unconscious
inferiority complex
failure to contribute to society may result to this complex
conditions of worth
other people's evaluations of our worth that distort our self-concept
in-congruence
discrepancies between our self-concept and our actual thoughts and behavior, as well as feedback
explanatory styles
ways in which people explain themselves or react in different situations, can be positive or negative
Julian Rotter
proposed extent to which people take responsibility of their successes or failures plays a major role in personality (locus of control theory)
Big Five personality traits
introversion-extroversion, neuroticism-stability, agreeableness-antagonism, conscientiousness-indirectedness, and openness-nonopenness
2 ways of researching traits
nomothetic (Big 5 traits are universal)
Idiographic (traits unique to individual)
Gordon Allport
found 3 types of traits
cardinal (traits override person's hole being)
central (primary characteristics)
secondary (traits that constitute interests)
Raymond Cattel
said there were 16 source traits (underlying characteristics) which were under surface traits (those seen by everyone)
Walter Mischel
traits are not necessarily consistent across various situations
Eysenck Personality Inventory
questionnaire designed to examine personalities based on people's traits
16 Personality Factor Quiz
made by Raymond Cattel which uses his 16 traits as measures
MMPI-2
(Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 2nd ed) measures everything from traits to mental disorders
ME is comprised of
-physical self: body, name
-active self: our behavior
-social self: how we interact with others
psychological self: our feelings and personalities
I is responsible for
our self-perception, free will, and reflection
halo effect
error by which we generalize a high self-evaluation from one domain to another
11 domains of competency
seen in adulthood:
morality, sociability, intimacy, athleticism, intelligence, humor, nurturance, job competence, ability to provide, appearance, managing your house
Primary drives
hunger, thirst, need to sleep, drive to reproduce
secondary drives
desire to obtain learned reinforcers like money and social acceptance
Olds and Milner experiment
found instinct, arousal, and opponent process theories when they found rats would self-stimulate themselves with electric shocks
Instinct theory
learning of species-specific behavior motivates organisms to do what is necessary to unsure survival
Arousal theory
an optimum level of arousal, of alertness and activation, at which performance on a task is optimal
Yerkes-Dodson law
tasks of moderate difficulty elicit the highest level of performance
opponent process theory
All emotions are subject to a subsequent, opposite reaction. each time we experience fear in a given situation, the repetition of that emotion becomes gradually desensitized and we feel less fear.
Drive reduction theory
much of the motivation we experience is a result of our bodies trying to maintain homeostasis
set-point
traget body temperature
lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus
they send messages to brain to control body weight
hypothalamus
an area controlling feeding
glucostatic hypothesis
brain tries to make sure there is enough glucose since it is the primary fuel for most organs
Lipostatic hypothesis
fat is measured and controlled substance in the baby that regulates hunger
Anorexia nervosa
individual being 15% below ideal body weight
Body dysmorphia
distorted body image
Bulimia nervosa
alternating periods of binging and purging
Lateral hypothalamus
responsible for drinking/thirst
androgens
primary sexual hormones in males
estrogens
primary sexual hormones in females
Biological theory
Behavior is pre-programmed and biologically determined
Humanistic theory
Maslow's triangle:
Top: self-actualization
2nd tier: Esteem -> belongingness needs
1st tiers: safety -> physiological needs
Cognitive theories
motivations can be intrinsic (self) or extrinsic (outside)
Self-determination
need to feel competent and in control
self-efficacy
belief that we can or cannot attain a particular goal
Henry Murray
individual difference and varying environments can cause motivations and need to be expressed in many different ways
need for affilation
high level of this need like to avoid conflicts, like to by members of groups, and dislike being evaluated
Kurt Lewin
classified 4 conflicts
Approach approach conflict
faced with two great options
Ex accepted by Harvard and Princeton
Avoidance avoidance conflict:
faced with two bad options
Ex. Taking out the trash or doing the laundry
Approach avoidance conflict
Ex. Dessert vs getting fat
Multiple approach and avoidance:
both options have good and bad sides
Ex. Costly new car, economical ugly car
James-Lange Theory
environmental stimuli causes physiological changes and responses
stimulus ->physiological response -> emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory
Body's reaction and emotion happen at the same time- one does not cause the other
Two factor-theory
Emotions result from a cognitive interpretation of a physiological response
Stress
causes person to feel challenged or endangered
stressors
events that cause stress
transient stressors
temporary challenges
chronic stressors
very serious, can cause negative impact on health
general adaption syndrome
alarm: arousal of sympathetic nervous system
resistance: parasympathetic rebound
exhaustion: body's resources are exhausted, tissue cannot be repaired
Richard Lazarus
cognitive theory: primary appraisal
primary: sees if event is stressful
secondary: assessing whether individual can handle the stress
Type A behavior
competitive, sense of time urgency, elevated feelings of hostility and anger towards stress
Type B behavior
low level competitiveness, generally easy-going attitude towards stress
Abnormal behavior
statistically rare
judged to be maladaptive
socially unacceptable
personally distressing to the individual
Psychoanalytical model
Cause of abnormal behavior is rooted deep within the unconscious mind, unresolved intra-psychic behavior.
Humanistic Model
Abnormal behavior is a result of environmental influence, from deviating from your true self
Cognitive Model
When thoughts and belief systems are disordered and faulty, one may easily begin to distrust others and explain events in very pessimistic ways.
Biomedical Model
it is due to structural or chemical abnormalities in the brain
Behavioral Approach
abnormal behavior has at some point been rewarded or reinforced, and has now been learned
Sociocultural approach
holds that society and culture help define what is acceptable behavior
DSM-IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders by the APA
classifies psychological disorders across 5 axes
Axis I
major disorders like mood, eating, sleeping, substance-related disorders, and perceptual and cognitive disruptions
Axis II
Personality disorders (avoidant, dependent personalities, retardation)
Axis III
physical disorders that have an impact on behavior
Axis IV
asses level of psychosocial and environmental stress person is experiencing
Axis V
overall assessment of person's level of functions
Criticisms of the DSM IV TR
Relies too heavily on the medical model
"Casts too wide a net"- too many disorders
Symptoms of some disorders overlap
Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders activate the sympathetic nervous system and cause excessive worry and discomfort
Panic Disorder (AD)
Repeated attacks of intense fear with
severe medical symptoms
Generalized anxiety disorder (AD)
Excessive anxiety not focused on specific
situation or object
Phobia (AD)
intense, irrational fear of avoidance of stimuli or event
-specific phobias (claustrophobia)
-social phobias, fear of being publicly humiliated
-agoraphobia
OCD (AD)
Persistent worries accompanied by
compulsive ritualistic behavior
PTSD (AD)
Trauma followed by flashbacks and nightmares
Somatoform disorders
when patients complain of physical symptoms without a known organic (biological) cause.
Conversion Disorder (SD)
Loss of physical ability (ex. sight) with no
organic cause
Such a person is convinced his or her symptoms are real, but doesn't show a typical level of distress.
HYPOCHONDRIASIS (SD)
Preoccupation with illness where none is present, often to get attention
Factitious disorders (SD)
person inflicts injury or ingests toxins in order to produce symptoms
Mood/Affective Disorders
change stable moods from excessively euphoric to dysphoric.
Unipolar (MD)
AKA Major depression
Intense sadness, change in eating and
sleeping activity, changes in energy level
and concentration, persists for more than
two weeks (lack of serotonin)
Seasonal affective disorder (MD)
Depression which usually occurs in late
fall/winter
Bipolar Disorder (MD)
Alternating episodes of mania (euphoric
mood, reckless behavior, grandiosity,
and loss of contact with reality) and
major depressive episodes
Schizophrenia
psychotic disorder characterized by gross (large) disturbances of affect (expression of emotions), perception, movement, and thought or language.
Dopamine hypothesis
theory suggests schizophrenics have an excess number of dopamine receptors in the brain which causes symtoms
Disorganized (schizo)
Hallucinations, incoherence,
inappropriate affect, delusions
Paranoid (Schizo)
Delusions of grandeur or persecution
Catatonic (Schizo)
Disordered movement: stupor alternating
with excitement
Undifferentiated (Schizo)
Disturbances of thought, behavior and
emotion that don't fit into any other
subtype
Organic Disorders
caused by damage to brain tissues, maybe because of disease or chemicals
Personality Disorders
pervasive expression of extreme, abnormal personality which interfere with normal social functioning
Paranoid PD
extreme distrust and suspicion of others
Antisocial PD
marked by disregard for rights or interests of others
Narcissistic PD
self-preoccupations and need for others to focus on oneself
Dependent PD
need to be cared for
Histrionic PD
excessive emotional reactions and excitability, as well as by need for attention
Dissociative disorders
involve a dysfunction of memory or an altered sense of identity
Amnesia DD
sudden loss of memory following trauma
Anterograde Amnesia
loss of memories occuring after hte traumatic event
retrograde amnesia
loss of memories from before the traumatic event
Dissociative Fugue
complete loss of identity, can be caused by severe stress, assumption of new identity (leave homes and go far away)
Dissociative identity Disorder
appearance of 2 or more distinct identities in one individual, IDs might not be aware of each other
ADHD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder
Either can't concentrate or constant need to move and do something
Rosenhan Study
8 people were diagnosed with schizophrenia even when they accurate answers to all psych questions
empiricism
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish
experimental psychology
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival with most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
level of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
biological psychology
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes
evolutionary psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
psychodynamic psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
behavioral psychology
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
cognitive psychology
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatin
social-cultural psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
psychometrics
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
developmental psychology
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
educational psychology
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
personality psychology
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
human factors psychology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
Introspection
a method of exploring conscious mental processes adopted by the Structuralists; subjects were asked to look inward and report their sensations and perceptions.
Population
all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
Psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes.
Scientific Method
a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized.
Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elements of the human mind.
Behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Cognitive Psychology
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Gestalt Psychology
an organized whole. Emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Evolutionary Psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.
Psychobiology
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes.
Humanistic Psychology
a psychological viewpoint emphasizing that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her fortune, considerable capacity for achieving personal growth, intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment.
Sociocultural Psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.
Psychodynamic Psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
Developmental Psychology
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan.
Personality Psychology
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Social Psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Mary Whiton Calkins
first woman president of APA; Denied her doctorate from Harvard.
Charles Darwin
Theory of evolution, survival of the fittest—origin of species.
Dorothea Dix
created the first American mental institutions.
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalytical theory that focuses on the unconscious—Id, Ego, & Superego
G. Stanley Hall
founded the American Journal of Psychology.
William James
wrote "Principles of Psychology" and helped establish psychology as a serious discipline; regarded consciousness as a stream or flow of images and sensations.
Ivan Pavlov
known for discovering classical conditioning—An unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behavior called an unconditional response. But with repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response. Dog salivation, etc.
Jean Piaget
Four-stage theory of cognitive development. 1. Sensorimotor, 2. Preoperational, 3. Concrete Operational, & 4. Formal Operational. He said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth: assimilation & accommodation.
Carl Rogers
Humanistic psychology—the theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth.
BF Skinner
operant conditioning—techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior.
Margaret Floy Washburn
first woman granted a PhD in Psychology.
John B. Watson
founded Behaviorism
Wilhelm Wundt
introspection—psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience; father of psychology.
Developmental psychology
believes development happens from birth to death
studies changes that occur in people's abilities and behaviors as they age
lifespan vs. child psychologists
child one focuses only on particular earlier portion of the typical life span
Erik Erikson's belief
development occurs across an entire lifetime
normative development
typical sequence of developmental changes for a group of people
cross-sectional method
seeks to compare groups of people of various ages on similar tasks
longitudinal method
involves following a small group of people over a long portion of their lives (more difficult and expensive)
Maturationists
emphasize role of genetically programmed growth and development on the body
environmentalists
believe nature shapes personality and mind
tabula rasa
founded by Locke, means babies are born with a blank slate
continuous vs. discontinuous development
development occurs gradually, consistently, or through growth spurts and leaps of cognition support
critical period
refers to a time d which a skill or ability must develop
collectivist culture
one in which the needs of society are placed before individual needs
individualist cultures
promote personal needs above needs of socity
Stages
patterns of behavior that occur in a fixed sequence
Dimensions of Development
physical, cognitive, social development
Physical development
starts at conception, zygote goes through germinal (cell division) stage, embryonic stage (organ formation), fetal stage (sex difference)
teratogens
various harmful environmental agents that may affect fetal development
neonate
new born baby, nearly helpless
palmar reflex
automatic grabbing of anything within reach
Babinski reflex
toes splaying out when bottom of foot is stroked
heat-turning/ rooting reflex
touching the baby's cheek causes head to turn
Moro reflex
splaying out of the limbs when a loud noise occurs
orienting reflex
orienting themselves to sudden changes in their surroundings
Stereotyped ingestive responses
sucking and smacking lips if given sugar water, will start crying if you give them something sour
Development of nervous system depends on
environmental interaction
Cognitive development
development of learning, memory, reasoning, problem-solving, and related skills
Jean PIaget
proposed influential theory of cognitive development of children, based on Equilibration
Equilibration
child's attempt to reach a balance between what the child sees around them and what cognitive structures bring into situation
assimilation
incorporating new ideas into existing schemas
schema
mental representational model
Accommodation
modifying shcema to include new information
Piaget's developmental stages (Cognitive)
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, concrete operational, and Formal Operational stage
Sensorimotor Stage
first 2 years of life, reflexive reactions, circular reactions (repeated behaviors)
Object Permanence
objects continue to exist when they are outside field of vision
Preoperational Stage
2-7 years using words, lack of logical reasoning
-symbolic thinking (words sub. for objects)
-egocentrism (looking from 1 POV)
-artificial ism (all things are human made)
-Animism (all things are living)
Concrete Operational Stage
7-12, understanding and thinking logically about concrete things
conservation of quantity and volume
Formal Operational
12-adulthood abstract reasoning
metacognition: ability to recognize one's own cognitive processes and adapt when they aren't successful.
Criticisms of Piaget
-studied his own three kids
-underestimated kids' abilities at 4-5 age, some aren't so egocentric
-failure to recognize environmental factors
Vygotsky theory
believed much of development occurs by internalization (gaining knowledge through surrounding contexts)
observed level of ability vs. latent level of capacity
Observed ability rarely lives up to maximum latent potential because ability depends on environmental input which is rarely optimal
Fluid vs. Crystallized intelligence
Fluid: able to think in abstract and symbolic relationships (decreases in adults)
Crystallized: specific knowledge of facts and info (Increases in adults)
wisdom
form of insight into life situations that results in good judgments about difficult life problems
social development
development of ability to interact with others in social structures
Erik Erikson (psychosocial development)
-Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1 year)
-Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-2)
-Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)
-Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12)
-Identity vs. Role Confusion (teens)
-Intimacy vs. Isolation (20 to 30s)
Generativity vs. Stagnation (30s to death)
Fidelity
truthfulness to one's self
Generativity
be productive in both career and home
Stagnation
isolation
Harry Harlow
social development theory
rhesus monkey infants need comfort and security as much food
Attachment
tendency to prefer specific familiar individuals over others
Mary Ainsworth
studied human infant attachment, saw when parents left and returned most hcildren used parents for support, 7-15% were insecure, acted erratically, and rarely, some did not use parent for support
Authoritarian parenting
-command obedience without debate
-support corporal punishment
kids socially withdrawn, lack decision making skills, and curiosity
Authoritative
-expect compliance to rules but encourage discussion and responsibility
-kids have high self-esteem, independent, articulate
Permissive
-few expectations, non-demanding
kids are irresponsible, impulsive, and generous in social relationships
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
identified steps people have when they accept death
denial -> anger -> bargaining -> depression -> acceptance
Lawrence Kohlberg
moral development theory
has 3 levels, each has 2 distinct stages
Level I
preconventional morality: (7-10)
1st: avoid punishment, receive rewards
2nd: make judgments that benefit themselves
Level 2
Conventional morality: (10-16)
1st: right and wrong based on approval
2nd: development of conscience
Level 3
Post conventional morality: (16--)
1st: internal morals more important than society
2nd: look at abstract ethical principles
Carol Gilligan
developed a revised version of Kohlberg theory stressing caring relationships as central to moral progress
Psychosexual development
development of awareness of one's own sexuality
gender typing
(2-7) acquisition of sex-related roles
gender constancy
gender is a fixed, unchangeable characteristic
Oedipal vs. Electra conflict
Oedipal: boys likes moms, fears dads
Electra: girls like ddads, fear moms
Albert Bandura
sexual roles could be acquired through social or vicairous learing
Learning
relatively permanent or stable change in behavior as a result of experience
Classical Conditioning
discovered by Pavlov
pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus to eventually bring conditioned response
Unconditioned stimulus
This is a stimulus that automatically triggers a response—you don't need to be trained to react. With Pavlov and his dog, the food was the unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned Response
This is a response that is automatically triggered, and needs no training. With Pavlov, the dog salivating was the unconditioned response.
Neutral Stimulus
This is a stimulus that originally has nothing to do with a response. With Pavlov, the tuning fork is the neutral stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus
This is a stimulus that used to be neutral, and have nothing to do with a response. But, because it is paired with the UCS, now it gets a response. With Pavlov, this is the tuning fork. Note that the NS becomes the CS.
Conditioned response
This is the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus. In Pavlov's experiments, this is the salivation when the dog hears the tuning fork. Usually, the UCR and the CR are very similar.
Forward Conditioning
when CS is presented before the US (most effective)
Delay conditioning
when CS is present until the US begins Trace conditioning
Trace conditioning
when CS is removed some time before the US is presented
Simultaneous conditioning
when CS and US are presented at the same time
Backward conditioning
when US is presented before the CS (usually ineffective)
generalization
Things similar to the Conditioned Stimuli start producing conditioned responses from the animal
Discrimination
distinguishing between similar but distinct stimuli
Acquisition
when pairing of natural and neutral stimuli have occurred enough that neutral stimulus alone will elicit the conditioned response
Extinction
- Repeatedly presenting the CS in the absence of the UCS
- In classical conditioning, a previously-reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced, so the behavior gradually disappears.
Spontaneous recovery
where original response disappears, but then is elicited again by the previous CS at a later time
Second-order conditioning
Pairing a CS with a secondary CS, response might not be as strong, higher order conditioning are rarely effective
Conditioned taste aversion CTA
AKA Garcia effect, when animals eat a food resulting in nausea, they will never eat it again (even if it wasn't the food's fault)
Stimulus generalization
demonstrated by CTA, don't want to eat similar food to one who made you vomit before
Contiguity approach
C Conditioning works because the US and CS were paired in time (thought by Watson and Pavlov)
Contingency approach
Robert Rescoral believes CS and US get paired because CS comes to predict the US
Operant Conditioning
The process of learning the association between a voluntary behavior and its consequences (BF Skinner) (first discovered by Edward Thorndike)
Operant vs. Reinforcer
Operant is the action
reinforcer is the reward
Shaping
Procedure in which reinforcers gradually guide an animal's action toward a desired behavior.
AKA Differential reinforcement of successive approximations
natural reinforcement
doesn't need o be learned to be reinforced, food, water
Primary reinforcement
food, water, sex
Secondary reinforcement
provided by learned reinforcers (money)
Positive reinforcement
reward or event that increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated
Negative Reinforcement
removal of an aversive event (taking a pill to get rid of headaches)
Omission training
seeks to decrease the frequency of behavior by withholding the reward until the desired behavior is demonstrated (ground)
schedule of reinforcement
how often organism receives reward for response
Continuous reinforcement
every time they perform, they get a reward
Fastest results, but fastest extinction
Intermittent
reinforce only some of the time
slow to learn, slow extinction
Fixed ratio schedule
Animal rewarded after a fixed number of correct responses
variable ratio schedule
The number of responses required for reinforcement changes (slot machine in Vegas) (least likely to get extinct)
Fixed interval schedule
Behavior is rewarded after a specific amount of time has elapsed
Variable interval schedule
The time between reinforcers changes.
token economy
artificial economy based on tokens
tokens are secondary reinforcers
learned helplessness
when consistent effort fails to bring rewards, subject will stop trying (depression is effect)
Daniel Hebb
proposed human learning takes place by neurons forming new connections with one another or by strengthening of connections that already exist
Eric Kandel
classically conditioned Aplysia to withdraw their gills
Neuro-modulators
strengthen the synapses between the sensory neurons
long-term potential
Receiving neurons of long-term memories require fewer neurotransmitter molecules to make them fire
social learning
emphasizes mental process in learning (like cognitive learning) but also emphasizes environmental factors and behavioral factors
Edward Tolman
trained rats to run mazes to obtain food reward at the end of a maze
latent learning
learning that is not outwardly expressed until the situation calls for it
Social Psychology
study of people in interaction with each other
Group dynamics
general term for some of the phenomena we observe when people interact
social facilitation
increase in performance on a task when performed in front of others
social inhibition
when presence of others worsens performance
social loafing
putting less effort in a group task
group polarization
exaggerating our initial attitudes (judgments) after being in groups
cooperative orientation
group members try to maximize outcomes for all involved individuals
Altruistic orientation
seeking to maximize outcome for others
individualist orientation
try to maximize their own benefit
competitive orientation
people willing to max their own benefit at the expense of others
Groupthink
developed by Irving Janis, when members are so driven to reach unanimous decisions, they no longer think through individual values and realistic outcomes
mindguard
one responsible for criticizing or ostracizing members of the group who do not agree with the rest
Attribution
how people assign responsibility for certain outcomes
dispositional attribution
assumes cause of a behavior or outcome is internal/ individual
situational attribution
assigns cause to the environment or external conditions
self-serving bias
credits self when outcomes are positive, but says it is external when results are negative
fundamental attribution error
when judging behavior of others, attributing more of it to the person than the environment or situation
self-fulfilling prophecy
behaving in an unnatural way that makes a prediction come true
Rosenthal Effect
when educators teach different children different after judging the kids' intellects, resulting in the students' performances to reflect teacher's judgment
Interpersonal attraction
tendency to positively evaluate a person and gravitate to that person.
factors: characteristics, environmental and social influences
Positively evaluation
we tend to prefer the company of people who think highly of us
Shared opinions
tend to mix with people who praise and agree with our opinions
Mere Exposure Effect
how proximity affects attraction (the closer people are, the ore likely they are to be friends)
Conformity
modification of behavior to make it agree with that of a group
Soloman Asch
gender, size of group, self esteem, unanimity of group's opinion, but not age, affected individual's opinion when asked in a group
Compliance
agree to the requests of others, even f it hurts you
Foot in the door phenomenon
involves making small requests, then work up to big requests
Obedience
studied by Stanley Milgram, electric shock test, showed the more authority a person has, the more likely their orders will be followed
Social learning theory
AKA modeling, people tend to be obedient to figures of authority
Attitudes
combinations of affective (emotional) and cognitive (perceptual) reactions to different stimuli
Affective is the emotional response, cognitive component is what we think about the item or issue
Persuasion
process by which person or group nfluences the attitudes of tohers
Central route to persuasion
the use of facts to persuade
persuading factors
interpersonal attractiveness (attractive, likable, trustworthy, knowledgeable)
nature of the message (repetition, fear)
low self-esteem
Cognitive dissonance
when attitudes and behaviors contradict each other, generally people adjust their attitude and continue their behavior
Studied by Leon Festinger
Altruism; helping behavior
selfless sacrifice, when people form empathic response to plight of others
Bystander effect
when a large group does not help someone in need because of diffusion of responsibility
equity theory
workers evaluate their efforts versus their rewards
Human facotrs research
deals with interaction of person and machine
Hawthorne effect
indicates workers being monitored for any reason work more efficiently and productively
Antisocial behavior
harmful behavior to society or others (can be divided to prejudice and aggression)
Prejudice
negative attitude toward members of a particular group without evidentiary backing
Out group homogeneity
every member of a group other than our own is similar
illusory correlation
when we tend to see relationships where they don't actually exist
contact hypothesis
groups would lose stereotypes if groups were exposed to each other
Robbers' Cave experiment
opposing teams hated each other, but when working together, found that they were similar to each other
Hostile aggression
emotional and impulsive, typically induced by pain or stress
instrumental aggression
aggression committed to gain something of value
Conclusion from Albert Bandura's work
showed if children see adults rewarded for aggression, they will copy that behavior
Dehumanization
ability to view the victims of violence as somehow less than human, demonstrated by Phil Zimbardo (jail project)
Reducing aggression
Do not use punishment, but show non aggressive models of conflict resolutions, or diffusion of aggression with humor or empathy
Key features of language
-arbitrary (rarely sound like their meanings)
- has additive structure (words = sentences = paragraph)
- can be analyzed in various ways
- is productive (nearly endless combos of words)
- dynamic, constantly changing, evolving
Phonemes
smallest units of speech sounds in a given language
Morphemes
smallest semantically meaningful parts of language
Grammar
set of rules by which language is constructed, made of syntax and semantics
Prosody
tones and inflections added to language that elaborate meaning with no world alterations
Syntax
word order
Semantics
word meaning or word choice
Language stages
Cooing, babbling, holophrases (single term applied to various things)
Overextension
using one word to describe a lot of things that require a greater vocabulary
telegraphic speech
two or three word groups
"Mommy, food" AKA "Mommy, give me food"
Overgeneralization
grammar rules extended to unique situations
Transformational Grammar
Developed by Noam Chomsky, describes organization of language which differentiates superficial of word arrangement and the meaning of the words
surface vs deep structure of language
word order vs. meaning of words
Theory of linguistic relativity
Developed by Benjamin Lee Whorf, Edward Sapir, says speakers of different languages develop different cognitive systems
Typicality
Degree to which an object fits the average
Prototype
Typical picture that describes something
Superordinate concept
very broad and encompasses a large group of items (food)
Basic concept
smaller and more specific (bread)
Subordinate concept
an even smaller and more specific concept like "Rye bread"
Reasoning
drawing of conclusion from evidence
Deductive Reasoning
drawing logical conclusions from general statements
Inductive Reasoning
drawing general conclusion from specific observations
Convergent thinking
requires specific thinking to find one answer that works the best
Divergent thinking
like brainstorming, formulating various ways to solve a problem
Heuristics
intuitive shortcuts
Availability heuristic
rule of thumb is judged by what events come most to mind (airplanes are more dangerous than cars)
Representativeness heuristic
judge objects and events in terms of how closely they match their prototype (putting everything in a little box, discrimination)
Algorithms
systematic, mechanical approaches that guarantee an eventual answer to a problem
Wolfgang Kohler
showed brain uses insight ( sudden understanding of problem) to solve problems
Mental set
fixed frame of mind that we use when approaching problems
Confirmation bias
search for information that supports our hypothesis or wish
Hindsight Bias
tendency to think we would have acted perfectly once looking back or knowing all the facts
Belief perseverance
person only sees evidence that supports a particular position
Creativity
process of producing something unique