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Terms in this set (101)
Who lead Spain's empire?
What was the nickname of Phillip II?
Defender of Catholicism
____________ led England to victory against the _____________ and ________ Spain despite its perceived _____ (____ and ______)
Queen Elizabeth, Spanish armada, weakened, gold, silver
Prices of goods rose, caused Spain to become weaker
Defined by control, imposing order, and freeing themselves from limitations by nobility
Who was the prime example of an absolute ruler?
What was the nickname of Louis XIV?
The _____ ______was very ___ and had a ______ _______, very much seen in the construction at __________
Sun king, vain, grand style, versailles
What were the three causes of the thirty years war?
Religion, territory, and power
Who was the absolute ruler of Prussia?
Fredrick the Great
Fredrick the great was more __________ then his father _______________ and believed that he should be a ______________
Tolerant, fredrick the 1st, father to his people
What was the seven years war called in North America?
French and Indian War
The connection to the U.S. was that the _____________ occurred and the ______ of the eventual _________ were planted
Proclamation of 1763, seeds, revolution
What was the nickname of Ivan IV?
Ivan the Terrible
The goal of Peter the Great was to _______ and _________ Russia
Peter traveled to Europe to _______ what ______ had ________ during the ____________
Observe, Russia, missed, renaissance
Peter built a seaport city for ______ to major __________
Access, trade routes
What was the seaport city that Peter built in order to gain access to major trade routes? (The capital city)
Peter goes down as a _____ leader because he ______________ into a _____________ with __________
Great, transformed Russia, major power, europe
Radical, ground breaking, innovative, new
Prior to the _____, many scholars did not _________ ___ ___________ _______ or ideas in the area of _______. For example, the earth is the ______ ___ _____ ________
1500s, question old traditional beliefs, science, center of our universe
By the mid 1500s, attitudes began to change and a _____ way of ______ took over about how we view our world, and more importantly how we ______ it
New, thinking, observe
This observation led to a willingness to _______ the _____ around us and this is defined by a period known as the ________ ___________
Question, world, Scientific Revolution
What was an important factor in bringing about this revolution?
Age of Exploration
Which person believed in the use of mathematics to describe the laws of gravity?
Who developed the scientific method?
Logical (use your mind) procedure developed for gathering and testing ideas
What is the key component of the Scientific Method?
Who, besides Francis Bacon, is associated with the Scientific Method?
Our founding fathers were strongly influenced by the philosophical ______ and the intellectual movement known as the __________ _____________
Ideas, European Enlightenment
The European Philosophers were ________ thinkers (__________) and challenged the __________
Optimistic, glass half full, monarchy
European Philosophers believed that society should be based on _________ _______ or _________ _____
Natural laws, natural rights
John Locke believed in the rights of ____, _______, and ________ ___ ____________. These rights were ________ and God given, one is born with these rights
Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, undeniable
Who developed the Social Contract Theory?
Where is John Locke from?
If government fails, the contract is broken and people are free to change/replace government
Social Contract Theory
Which philosopher believed in the three branches of government?
What are the three branches of government?
Legislative, executive, and judicial
Where is Baron Montesquieu from?
Where is Jean Jacques Rousseau from?
Jean Jacques Rousseau developed the idea that the _____ of the ________ would guide the decisions of ___________. This idea was a direct influence on the _________________________
Will, people, government, declaration of independence
Which philosopher wrote works attacking the French monarchy and was a friend of Fredrick II?
Their experience within the colonies that shaped early America
By 1730 or when originally settled, the colonies were considered ROYAL Colonies and under centralized control from England
Even with the ___________ control, the colonies were still ______ _________ and ____________
Centralized, self governed, independent
Type of feudal system that was divided into three classes and/or estates
What was the first estate made up of?
Roman Catholic Clergy
What was the second estate made up of?
First and Second estate= __% of Frances population, while the other __% belonged to the third estate
Well off merchants and skilled workers
Third estate had ____ ______ and half of their income went towards ______ while the first and second estates paid almost _____
Few rights, taxes, none
Three factors leading to french revolution were ______________ _______ ___ _________ (Rousseau and Voltaire), french economy was _____ and the country was in _____, and _____ __________ by Louis XIV and his wife Marie Antoinette was very _________ because she was from the enemy country of France, _______
Enlightenment ideas of equality, weak, debt, weak leadership, unpopular, austria
Assembly of representatives from all three estates was formed to address France's growing debt
What do the three colors on le tricolor represent?
Liberty, equality, and fraternity
What document provided the end of special rights for the 1st and second estates, equal rights for all french men, and state power over the church?
Declaration of the rights of man
Form of killing in which you were beheaded, how Louis XVI was killed
Which ruler lead a committee of public safety?
Sudden takeover of power
Vote of the people
New set of laws enacted by Napoleon
Napoleon gave all citizens ______ rights but took _____ many of the individual _________ (_____ _______) won during the _________
Equal, away, freedoms, free speech, revolution
Why did Napoleon sell the Louisiana territory to the U.S.?
Money and they didn't want Britain to have control
What three mistakes did Napoleon make?
Continental system, peninsular war, and attempting to conquer Russia
Strategy used to defeat Napoleon
Scorched earth policy
What doomed more then 400K of Napoleons troops?
What do we have today that is like the Congress of Vienna?
The Congress of Vienna created a ______ ___ ______ so no one nation was to become a ______ to the other
Balance of power, threat
Spaniards born in Spain who were educated by being exposed to enlightenment ideas
France is the colony of ____ __________, revolution lead by _________ __________
St Domingue, Toussaint L'Ouverture
In _______, the creoles lead a _______ _________ where the colony of Brazil won its ____________
Portugal, bloodless revolution, independence
Pride and/or loyalty to ones country rather then just a section
People involved in Nationalism were linked by ________ _________, ________ __________, ________ ________, and _________
Common ancestry, shared language, culture history, religion
Believed in a right to a land/nation they could call their own rather then belonging to a kingdom or empire
What are the three types of nationalist movements?
Unification, separation, and state building
Prime minister who unified the Northern parts of Italy
Camillo di Cavour
What is another name for a loose grouping?
Otto Van Bismark's political style was known as _________, meaning "______ ________ _________"
Realpolitik, tough power politics
Period of rule under Kaiser
The Industrial Revolution era is defined by a great increase in ________ __________ that began in _______
Machine production, England
The Industrial Revolution was the transition of goods being made by ______ to being made by _______ ________
Hand, factory machines
What is one of the key farming methods that made farming more productive?
When new and better farming methods were introduced, what was the result for England?
Increase in population
Machine production of goods
Why was England one of the first countries to industrialize?
Resources and factors of production
What resources did England have?
Coal, water, iron ore, and rivers
What factors of production did England have?
Land, labor, and capital
Where were factories built by?
What was the function of the steam engine?
Power of the steam drove the engines of the trains
Set up the worlds first railroad line
What was the result of the invention of the steam engine?
Quicker transport of goods and people
Movement of people to cities for jobs/work
What were the negatives of industrialization?
Over crowded cities, filth, sickness, child labor, and pollution
With _____ ______, British government did not limit the use of children until _____
Child Labor, 1819
Theory that argues that governments should leave big business (industry) alone
System in which people invest money to make a profit
Theory grew out of a belief in progress and a concern for justice and fairness, people owned rather then private individuals
Who wrote the Communist Manifesto?
Form of Socialism in which production is controlled by the people, later on by the state
Group of workers that negotiate or collectively bargain with owners/employers for better pay and working conditions/safety and benefits
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