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50 terms

Psychology Test 3

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Coleman is currently 30 years old. When he was 15 years old, he took the WISC and was told that his score was 110. If Coleman retakes the intelligence test now (WAIS), he would likely discover that his current IQ score
is similar to his previous score of 110
Memory of 'chronological' and 'dated' personal experiences is referred to as
episodic memory
Looking back on her long life, Hilda feels good about herself and her accomplishments and swears that she would do it again the same way if given the opportunity. According to Erikson"s theory, Hilda is at the stage of
integrity versus despair
At the preconventional level, the child decides if things are good or bad (moral) on the basis of whether they
bring punishment or reward
If you tend to persist in using the same problem-solving strategy time after time, you are evidencing
a mental set
Research shows that IQ and occupational attainment (e.g., how high one is in Othe corporate ladderO) are _____________ variables.
positively correlated
The two identity statuses that decrease with age are
identity diffusion and identity foreclosure
Correlations between IQ scores and school grades can best be characterized as
moderately positive
When Teresa"s mother hides her favorite doll under a blanket, Teresa acts as if it no longer exists, and she makes no attempt to look for it. Based on this information, you can infer that Teresa is in Piaget"s
sensorimotor period of cognitive development
Which level of processing should result in the longest lasting memory codes?
semantic encoding
According to Erikson, the first stage of development (birth to one year) is a period when the infant develops the basic characteristic of
trust versus mistrust
The consensus among most experts in the area of intelligence is that the heritability of intelligence is
around 50 percent
Ten-year-old Kylee is trying to remember the capital of North Carolina during a game of 'Where Are You?' Her father tells her it begins with the letter 'R,' and she quickly comes up with Raleigh. In this case, Kylee"s memory was assisted using
an effective retrieval cue
The concept of motivated forgetting is based largely on the work of which of the following early psychologists?
Sigmund Freud
Which of the following statements regarding the role of context in memory is MOST accurate?
Context cues often facilitate the retrieval of information
A major shortcoming of stage theories of development is that
they pay too little attention to explaining individual differences (e.g., Ostage mixingO)
Tyler witnessed an automobile accident and heard one of the bystanders casually mention that the driver was probably intoxicated. Even though the driver had not been drinking, and had never crossed the center line, Tyler tells the police officer who is investigating the accident that the car had been 'weaving all over the road.' Tyler"s faulty recall illustrates
the misinformation effect
Which of the following areas of the brain is associated with the severe memory impairment that occurs in Alzheimer"s disease?
hippocampal region
Since IQ scores are assumed to be normally distributed, an IQ score of 100 would put you
at the center of the normal curve
Mercedes takes her 1-year-old son, Justice, to visit a day-care center where she plans to enroll him. Justice eagerly explores the playroom as long as Mercedes is present. When his mom leaves the room to fill out some forms, Justice becomes somewhat upset, but when Mercedes returns, he quickly calms down. This is the type of interaction you might observe between a child and a parent who
share a secure attachment relationship
Which of the following is an expression of the nurture side of the nature versus nurture argument?
An intellectually stimulating environment can lead to noticeable increases in the IQs of disadvantaged children.
The man responsible for developing the first intelligence tests designed to predict the school performance of children was
Alfred Binet
Mark is listening as his roommate lists 14 things that they need to buy for their apartment before the end of the week. Based on George Miller"s research into the capacity of short-term memory, if Mark doesn"t write the items down as he hears them, he is MOST likely to remember
between 5 and 9 items from the list
Nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that link related concepts is referred to as
a semantic network
Decay theory suggests that forgetting is due to
memory traces fading with time
The tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem while neglecting other important aspects is referred to as
centration
The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
encoding storage retrieval
For most people, which of the following is MOST likely to decline in the later years?
mental speed
Juliana had no prior fear of flying. But since she has seen all the TV reports and headlines about a recent plane crash, she has decided she will never fly again because she thinks thereOs a good chance the plane will crash. In this case, Juliana"s decision to stop flying may have been influenced by
the availability heuristic
When you mentally picture the road between your house and school, you are relying on which component of working memory?
the visuospatial sketchpad
In early adulthood, the psychosocial crisis centers on establishing close, personal relationships with others. This is the stage of
intimacy versus isolation
A student"s organized cluster of knowledge about how college professors are supposed to act is an example of a
schema
John approaches problems systematically, considering various solutions and the consequences of each, before he decides on the implementation of any one solution. John is probably at which level of cognitive development?
formal operations
Two students took a memory test. Twenty nouns were shown sequentially on a TV monitor. Mallory tried to think of rhymes for each word as it appeared on the monitor. Bailey tried to think of ways each word could be used in a sentence. Based on Craik and Lockhart"s levels-of-processing theory, you should predict that
Bailey will have better recall of the words because she used semantic encoding
Procedural memory is:
memory for actions, skills, and operations
If a test accurately measures what it was designed to measure, the test is
valid
The work of researchers like Loftus on errors in memory suggests that memory is best viewed as
reconstruction of events
You have a pair of pliers and a bag of nuts in the shell. You are lamenting the fact that you can"t shell the nuts because you do not have a nutcracker. Your inability to perceive the pliers as a makeshift nutcracker demonstrates __________ on your part
functional fixedness
Which of the following statements regarding differences in IQ is NOT supported by research findings?
children from the lowest social classes about 15 points lower on IQ tests than do children from the highest social classes
Which of the following statements best reflects the current view of the repressed memories controversy?
we should be extremely careful about accepting recovered memories of abuse in the absence of convincing corroboration
Identity foreclosure suggests that the person is committed to goals he or she
simply took over form others
At what age does an infant typically first exhibit separation anxiety?
6 to 8 months
According to Robert Sternberg, IQ tests tend to focus narrowly on which of the following types of intelligence?
academic/verbal
Gerard watched as a researcher placed five toy station wagons and three toy convertibles on a table. The researcher asked him if there were more station wagons or more cars, and Gerard correctly answered that there were more cars. Gerard"s answer indicates that he has mastered
hierarchial classification problems
The person who objects to war on the basis of higher moral principles and a personal code of ethics would be said to be at which of the following levels of moral development?
postconventional
Which of Greeno"s basic kinds of problems requires the problem solver to discover the relations among the parts of the problem?
inducing structure
__________ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
retroactive interface
A tentative answer to the heredity versus environment question with respect to intelligence is that
heredity may set certain limits on intelligence, and environmental factors determine where we fall within those limits
Which of the following appears to be most responsible for ethnic differences in IQ?
the cultural disadvantages associated with a lower-class upbringing
Byron has been watching his new neighbor for a week. She drives a sporty car, carries a cell phone, and wears nothing but blue business suits. Byron decides his new neighbor must be a lawyer. In this case, Byron seems to have formed an opinion about his new neighbor"s occupation based on
representativeness heuristic