How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

453 terms

Persuasion Final

Sara Topp, Trinity University, Spring 2012
STUDY
PLAY
Integrated Marketing Communication
IMC
IMC
bombard us with tons of advertising and traditional advertising; saturate the market; more effective because combining lots; think of advertising as AGGREGATE
Advertising Goals
- increase profits and lift sales
- sell the perceived benefit
- generate traffic
- make brand comparisons
- trial
- ads should generate qualified leads
- build the brand
- must adapt to change
sell the perceived benefit
(advertising goal); the tactic of this is to focus on a particular feature, could be cheap price, higher quality, unique aspect, etc
generate traffic
(advertising goal); need to get people to the POP, online venue can make POP immediate, offer deals/sales or hold events to get potential customers into store
Point of purchase
POP
make brand comparisons
(advertising goal); ads must prove their brand is superior than all the rest, specific is better than general, more tangible; includes point of comparisons and risk of other ads
point of comparisons
what are these? price, quality, popularity, availability, taste, longevity, reliability, trustworthy, low cost, demographics, they're the ones that have existed longest, or we're the newest, etc
risk of ads
makes other brands known (only choose another brand that's already known); this is part of make brand comparisons
trial
(advertising goal); get people to try it; risk free samples; sometimes this can work as a vicarious experience
ads should generate qualified leads
(advertising goals); ads should target the most likely consumers, use targeted spots, choose specific TV shows, internet searches, email searching, certain linguistic choices, direct mailings, profiling, timing
build the brand
(advertising goal); repetition is critical, powerful images or words; if you do this well, the image will become ICONIC, choose something catchy and memorable, music/words, rhyming/shocking/humor; give testimonials and definitely get expert/celebrity testimonials; TOMA
top of mind awareness
TOMA
TOMA
it will be the first thing people think of in that product category; metabrands such as Bandaids or Kleenex
metabrands
what are these examples of? Bandaids and Kleenex
must adapt to change
(advertising goal); sometimes has to change its audience, ex: Cheerios rebranded to adults, Mac used to just be for artists, updated Applebee's with more local interior
ways to defend against clutter and over-mediated culture
- brand loyalty
- positioning
- reposition themselves
- telling consumers what they're not
- rebranding
positioning
this is setting themselves apart from the rest of the market; ex: Central Market as high class, green, good quality or HEB as local, etc
reposition themselves
this includes line extension such as Dr. Pepper with Dr. Pepper 10, or Diet Dr. Pepper or Chex Mix with a billion flavors
research
in order to be effective advertising this is important; the three types are demographic, psychographics, and sociographics
demographics
this is includes income, religion, political, ethnicity, etc
psychographics
study of consumers attitudes and interests; the psychology of buying
sociographics
individual social grouping and what people of that type are doing; ex: college students
need-driven, outer-directed, inner-directed
what are the 3 main types of sociographic categories?
survivors and sustainers
what are the two subcategories of the need-driven (lower income) sociographic category?
belongers, emulators, achievers
what are the three subcategories of the outer-driven consumers sociographic category?
I-am-me, experiential, socially conscious, integrated
what are the four subcategories of the inner-driven consumers sociographic category?
ethnographics
this observes consumers in their natural environment
weasel words, deceptive claims, magical ingredient claim
3 types of words in advertising
weasel words
purposely ambiguous, used strategically to inflate the product and they can't be proven to be incorrect; ex: "green," "greenwashing," "real," "lite," "helps" (airborne), "like," comparison word (strategic not factual), "virtually"
deceptive claims
irrelevant (ex: scratch and sniff, sniff is not equal to taste of gum); truthful but overly dramtized; includes question claims: "if you can't trust Preston, who can you trust?"--doesn't actually relate to product
magical ingredient claim
new, improved formula without scientific fact
Milk Campaign Lessons
- advertising must ALWAYS be aware of competition and consumers
- need to constantly reassess and change
- safer to create connections, another brand can help promote yourself
- it's easier to get consumers who already like you, than to get new consumers
milk campaign
what's this related to? needed new campaign because people knew of nutritional value, but weren't purchasing; there was a change in consumer taste and competition in beverage market (bright colors, sexier brands)
Got Milk? Campaign
this used focus groups to understand consumer need; food product + milk = relied on deprivation; co-branded (Oreo complimentary combination)
Got Milk? Campaign
this increase POP priming; lots of mimicry and imitation (Humor), positive associations and more amiable; sequencing of message, conclusion at end; good research about their competition and considered comparatively why better/worse; drink more of it (already users) and branched out to new demographics (Hispanics and teens)
Superbowl Ads Lessons
1). have your website ready (1st thing audience will do, can they interact?)
2). Easy to share with others
3). have connection with search engines
4). make sure they can give feedback, discussion board, interactivity
5). Buzz effective (commercial memorable), collectively figure out brand through discussion
Superbowl Campaign
what's this related to? social thing, event; only event where people actually watch the consumers; so much hype before and after; whole Cultural Phenomemon; are ads $2 mil effective? initial and after effects
Superbowl Campaign
initial effects - immediate reaction; ***BEST>>after effects - Watercooler effect, create buzz and chatting about the ad with friends, people talk, look at webpage, youtube = WOM advertising which is most effective
Beer Campaign Lessons
1). Consider product category/context
2). Establish Strategic Groupings
3). Take Advantage of Strategic Rivalries
4). Companies had to recognize that the legal context mattered
5). Social context can create problems
Beer Campaign
what does this relate to? major concerns were imports (new beers on the market) and movement towards new products on market; revolution in beer production, the technological shift changed quantity and speed (real price goes down)
Beer Campaign
what does this relate to? rivalistic pricing (companies trying to undersell one another), no longer a monopoly on the market, more brands on the market; beer market had to respond (Aneheiser Busch and Miller)
Legal Context
relates to beer ads; states with regulations = shaped where they could sell/advertise
Social Context
relates to beer ads; problem was drunk driving; "we don't support overindulgence," walk this fine balance, shapes the way they show product
Brand Share
Miller Lite was successful; No direct correlations between sales and advertising, but you increase _______ which protects losing sales to other advertisers, protects brand
Banning ads
doing this with regards to beer didn't have any effect on reducing drinking
Adweek
regular publisher of advertising
Snickers Focus Group
What advertisment do these relate to?
- brand extension (trying to gain new share of market)
- identified rival (brand comparison)
- using humor appeal
- a little mysterious (especially at beginning)
- logo shown a few times (repetition and the mere exposure effect)
Nissan Leaf Gas Powered Everything
what advertisement do these relate to?
- lots of mystery, revealed product at end
- emotional appeal (disgust), pathos
- cleaner and clearer contrast at end (dingy and dirty before)
- a little guilt and providing solution at end
- a little humor
- end with warmth appeal (works better since beginning is dreary)
- didn't compare performance (strategically)
- targeted towards environmentally-conscious; logo at end
Google chrome Dear Sophie
what advertisement do these relate to?
- warmth appeals - they work because they create a situation you can see yourself in and want
- shows you versatility of how to use Google Chrome
- mimicks our interfact, looks easy and can picture ourselves doing it for ourselves
- use icons from computer, iconic noises of clicks and incorporate these to make it more familiar and makes brand identity memorable
- effective for wider audience
Volkswagon the Force
what advertisement do these relate to?
- adorable mixed with humor and warmth appeals
- created buzz
- pairs it with Starwars music and uses iconic image
- very family oriented ("perfect" American pristine dream)
- luxury feature = remote start (cold in Janurary and implicitly comfort)
Renewable Electricity Case Study
what case study do these relate to?
consumers didn't care; consumers' lack of knowledge; needed to quantify benefits
Renewable Electricity Case Study
what case study do these relate to?
- research consumers and see what drives them
- PCE (perceived consumer effectiveness) prove this for individual who invested in green energy
- proof that cost savings and long-term value were worth
perceived consumer effectiveness
PCE
Renewable Electricity Case Study Lessons
- targeting population segments is essential
- consumers must have more awareness and visibility
- prove your product is "good" through culturally acceptable
Nike Case Study
what case study do these relate to?
- wanted to market sub-brand
- there wasn't much of a women's athletic market
- gender constraints from Nike's top-down management
- marketing constraints
Nike Case Study Lessons
- you can create an audience around your niche for your sub-brand
- this is a brand extension
- storytelling and narratives can be extremely powerful
Nike Case Study
what case study do these relate to?
- leading products in athletics are extremely masculinized
- used actual, concrete examples of women "real women"
- first: what are ways women are active and tap into this throughout life; more emotive and empathy
- 2nd: more strong, independent women, then grew towards more competitive women
- author supports it but says that there's still a long way to go
agitation
old definitions of this: "persistance to resistance to change is long term" or "style of persuasion characterized by highly emotional and volatile moral principals"
agitation
(according to Bowers and Ochs)
1). People need to be outside the normal decision making establishment
2). Advocate significant social change
3). You need to encounter resistance without the establishment in a way that requires more than the normal discussion means of persuasion
social movement
according to Bowers and Ochs, if you have the 3 parts of agitation then you might have the foundations of what?
Control
response that's made by the decision-making establishment
Reasons people agitate
there is deep discontent about something and there aren't remedies available to overcome this dissatisfaction
vertical deviance and lateral deviance
what are the two types of agitation?
vertical deviance
means that agitators ascribe to the value system of the establishment, but they dispute the distribution of benefits or power within that distribution
lateral deviance
where agitators dispute the value system itself
vertical deviance
an example of this is "advocates for no cosmetic animal testing"; includes reforming the system or making substitute changes
lateral deviance
an example is anticapitalist movements or PETA where animals are considered equal to humas; this is overhaul and "we don't espouse your values, we have our own"
vertical
this is much more easily identified; the establishment can make concessions and more easily change
lateral
this may be difficult to understand; often more abstract and want symbolic
vertical and lateral deviance
the civil rights movement was a mixture of both types of agitation
forms of power
- reward
- coercive
- legitimate
- referent
- expert
reward power
to give rewards or remove punishments (ex: in the family, it's the parents)
coercive power
change behavior by threat of punishment
legitimate power
given by social power to conduct/rule
referent power
what does it refer to, the power of identification (repect because of who you are or negative baggage) - symbolic
expert power
power you have because you have superior knowledge-expertise
legitimate
establishment generally has ________ power; insufficient for control, must do other things to maintain (pretty much exclusive)
SCABs
these pick off line = symbol that creates visceral reaction that'll polarize people
9 parts of Rhetoric of Agitation
1). Petition
2). Promulgation
3). Solidification
4). Polarization
5). Nonviolence
6). Escalation
7).Guerilla and Gandhi
8). Guerilla Warfare
9). Revolution
Tactics of Escalation
1). Contrast
2). Threaten Disruption
3). Nonverbal Offensive
4). Verbal, Obscene Deprication
5). Non-negotiable Demands
6). Non-verbal Obscenity
7). Token Violence
contrast
(tactic of escalation); ensures that the establishment believes that a large number of agitators will show up to an event (communication strategies and magnify event); this isn't dependent on actual turnober but rather just about PERCEPTION
threaten disruption
(tactic of escalation); agitators threaten establishment with disruption; threatening boycotts
nonverbal offensive
(tactic of escalation); they cannot say things, silent protest is pretty strong form, symbolic but nonverbal, things like graffiti, signs, etc
verbal, obscene deprication
(tactic of escalation); they say really awful things about and to the establishment
non-negotiable demands
(tactic of escalation); here's a bottom line, so either fulfill this or we're not talking anymore (in this stage compromise is no longer an option)
non-verbal obscenity
(tactic of escalation); showing obscene things
token violence
(tactic of escalation); like burning ephigies and things like starting small infraction, like pushing an officer...things that push the envelope, might include throwing a brick through a window (violence isn't expected to be the primary strategy)
guerilla and gandhi
this is a combination of nonviolent resistance combined with a group commited to physical violence/disturbance. there are 2 fractions that play off each other: (1) passivists with a purpose and (2) more physical/violent/aggressive; compliment forces (ying and yang)
guerilla warfare
take away passivists, so these are underground attacks, secretive planning, and it's meant to be destructive; it's at the end of the list because once a movement gets to this point, they've exhausted their other options
revolution
all out war, violent, more open, more planned end point of all strategies; says there MUST be CHANGE in power structure; more public, unified, anti-establishment, more universally agreed on
4 rhetocial strategies for those in control
1). Avoidance
2). Suppression
3). Adjustment
4). Capitulation
Decision Makers
- in order for these to be the establishment they have to prove they have control
- these have to assume the worst will happen with the agitation
- they must repel any attack (success generally goes to the most ruthless)
Avoidance Tactics
- works best if ambiguously and vaguely being dealt with
- "Formulary Response"
- evade request of agitators and routing them through bueracracy
- postponement- defers decisions or takes them under advisement
- secrecy with a rationale (existance of a higher principal)
- denial of means
formulary response
they can show public and pretend like they listened
counterpersuasion
persuasion attempt to convince the agitators that they're wrong
evasion
evade requests of agitators and routing them through bueracracy; if agitators have more power or access to higher authority then this doesn't work
secrecy with a rationale
establishment hearing demand and don't respond existence of a higher principle; we understand your concern about our military but we won't discuss this because of national security or the "interest of confidentiality"; hard for agitators to argue against
denial of means
denies the agitators the means to meet or voice their ideas (takes away their place/physical things to protest)
postponement
defers decisions or takes them under advisement; considered at next board meeting; can be successful if agitators get impatient and do something illegal, then control can point that out
Suppresion
focuses on leaders of movement; includes:
- harrassment of leaders
- overt denial of demands
- banishments
- purgation
harrassment of leaders
(part of suppression); engage in mudslinging that somehow distract from leader or hurt their image; scares the movement's participants (sometimes this comes from vigilantes or others outside establishment)
over denial of demands
(part of suppression); just say no; if establishment stops listening, responding to, so prevents movement from communicating and negotiating with (can make establishment look uncompromising)
banishments
(part of suppression); the leaders are excommunicated, expelled, jailed, (works well for establishment because few movements can continue without their leader)
purgation
(part of suppression); kill the leaders (most social movements we study, this is unreasonable, but it is important); issues: can create symbollic or make them matyrs, but can hurt movement without new leader; keep in mind that "if you're dead you can't make mistakes"
adjustment tactics
establishments change a little, but they can't let it be seen as a surrender for establishment or a compromise for agitators because then it's like they're not getting their needs met
4 adjustment tactics
1). changing the regulatory agency
2). sacrificing personnel
3). accepting some means of agitation
4). incorporating some personnel or parts of idelogy of agitation
changing the regulartory agency
(adjustment tactics); can be to rename the organization, so it existed under new name, just change means, mechanisms so you just "appear" to be adjusting
sacrificing personnel
(adjustment tactics); fire someone inside the establishment to make it look like you're making adjustments; best if you disband a "flag person" for the agitators
accepting some means of agitation
(adjustment tactics); you allow some agitation to continue, but at a low level (allowed people to read names of dead so, took away press and symbolic power)
incorporating some personnel or parts of ideology of agitation
(adjustment tactics); either hire some of their people or taking on some of their ideology, but all token
Capitulation tactics
- they absolutely surrender
- only taken when the battle is completely lost and then the establishment no longer exists
3 variables of agitation
1). actual membership (high or low) - not numbers, but in terms of context and what they're doing
2). potential membership (high or low) - what's possibility of gaining new members so they look at the strength of the claims and are people likely to be sucespitble to that (would the public genuinely like?)
3). rhetorical sophistication (high or low); tactics that the group is deploying; can leaders deploy all ideas of persuasion are they sophisticated?
3 variables of control
1). power of control (are they powerful or high/low); what type of power, more power
2). strength of ideology (empirically valid or logically consistent)
3). Rhetorical sophistication (high or low); tactics that the group is deploying; can leaders deploy all ideas of persuasion are they sophisticated?
Generalization A in B and O
Agitators low in rhetorical sophistication will use nonviolence, escalation, Gandhi and Guerilla before Petition, Promulgation, Solidification, Polarization have been exhausted; rhetorical sophisticated establishment can easily defeat such a group
Generalization B in B and O
Decision Makers low in rhetorical sophistication engage in avoidance excessively or suppress prematurely; if the agitators are high in rhetorical sophistication, capitulation will occur
Generalization C in B and O
Decision Makers high in rhetorical sophistication always adjust as soon as they perceive that the agitators are high in potential membership, especially when the agitators also have high rhetorical sophistication
Generalization D in B and O
Decision Makers can successfully avoid or suppres when the three variables are balanced between agitation and control (inertia, public doesn't like change)
Generalization E in B and O
when the agitators have few members, low potential members and high rhetorical sophistication, decision makers successfully use avoidance
Generalization F in B and O
the most bloody and protracted agitations occur when the decision makers is high in power, low in ideological strength and low in rhetorical sophistication, while the agitators are low in membership, high in potential membership, and high in rhetorical sophistication
Gamson's 4 suggested outcomes
1). Full response
2). Cooptation
3). Preemption
4). Collapse
Civil Rights Movement
what case study do these relate to?
- smaller occasions and small tactical sit-ins and then grew into something bigger
- importance of nonviolent protest (very actively protest)
- nonviolent does NOT equal passive
- nonviolent = strategic tactic, gain support from public
Civil Rights Movement
what case study do these relate to?
- movements tend to be organic and they need to tap into helpful organizations in order to be effective
- they were solidifying their community and ingroup ties and community
- Vertical move - wanted to be accepted under the establishment
Transnational Environmental Activism
what case study do these relate to?
- social movements aren't just the government, they can also be cultural reform and are important and should be studied
- cross-country borders
- why transnational? concerns they have are global and the greatest power today is in global corporations (capitalism)
Transnational Environmental Activism
what case study do these relate to?
- direct action (tactic): bringing hidden problems to the attention of audiences and that's done in dramatic and dangerous ways
- aim to change attitudes of people, not just regulations
Gay Liberation Movement
what case study do these relate to?
- Vertical: want equal rights and more integrated
- Lateral/Horizontal: (move radical) they want to change the value system
- most incremental changes are lateral, these are a spectrum, not mutually-exclusive, based on tactics,ends, and means
Gay Liberation Movement Vertical Ideas
Includes:
- allow gays to adopt
- gays want the law changed and then if cultural change occurs that's good too, but not primary focus
- accomodation and integration
Gay Liberation Movement Lateral Ideas
Includes:
- abolish family
- "reconception of how family is done"
Gay Liberation Movement
2 different bases from where tactics drawn; situated in time with lots of movements and borrowed tactics from women's, anti-war protest; unique to this movement: "Gay Power" ideas, cahnged the understanding of 'coming out,' made it a very powerful, political signification, they used all the 'gay stereotypes' like 'sissy boys'; borrow from whatever is happening now and then figure out what's unique to you and then use that
women's movement
3 stages: (1) Sufferage Movement, (2) 2nd Movement, and (3) more today
sufferage movement
early 1920's; started broad and then they got jealous that black men got vote before them and then it suddenly became very narrow focus and then once they got it they finished and fizzled out
women's movement
the 2nd movement was more inclusive, broad joiners, however, the one's leading were too exclusive
2 principal values for the student of agitation and control
1). it should enable him to make and test predictions about outcomes during specific instances of agitation and control
2). It should enable him to decide which instances of agitation and control are worth studying, i.e. which instances are likely to yield useful insights and refinements for the theory itself
3 agitation variables
1). actual membership
2). potential membership
3). rhetorical sophistication
actual membership
means the number of active memberrs in an agitative group
potential membership
depends on two elements: the strength (logical consistency and empirical validity) of its ideology and the number of people in a society susceptible to that ideology
logical consistency
component of ideological strength; involves the unity and coherence of beliefs within a value system; a measure of the internal validity among beliefs
empirical validity
component of ideological strength; refers to the external truth or falsity of a group's ideological statements and assertions
susceptibility
is determined by a number of social and personal variables
rhetorical sophistication
is the extent to which its leadership is cognizant of and able to apply principles such as are found in conventional books on rhetoric and in analyses
3 control variables
1). power
2). strength (logical consistency and empirical validity)
3). rhetorical sophistication
referent and expert
what are the 2 types of power that can be most easily eroded?
strength of ideology
to the extent that an ideology has logical consistency and empirical validity, it is likely to be impregnable to agitational attack
generalization A in B and O
an agitative group low in rhetorical sophistication uses the strategies of nonviolent resistence, escalation/confrontation, Gandhi and guerilla or guerilla prematurely, before the possibilities of petition, promulgation, solidification, and polarization have been exhausted. This premature agitation attenuates the potential of the agitative group and enhances the power of the establishment
generalization B in B and O
an establishment low in rhetorical sophistication either avoids excessively (when suppresion is impossible, as when the agitative group's strategy has been petition) or suppresses prematurely, and as soon as suppression is possible (in response, for example, to nonviolent resistance) This excessive avoidance and/or premature suppression, especially if violent, attenuates the power of control and enhances the actual and potential membership of the agitative group
generalization C in B and O
an establishment high in rhetorical sophistication always adjusts as soon as it perceives that the agitative group is high in potential membership, especially--but not only--when the agitative group's potential is buttressed by rhetorical sophistication. Most often, control adjusts as a response to the petition strategy, thus avoiding agitation.
generalization D in B and O
although an establishment adjusts voluntarily to an agitative group high in potential (see generalization C), it can always successfully avoid or suppress agitative movements when the three variables are balanced between agitation and control. This is so because the establishment always holds the advantage in legitimate power
generalization E in B and O
when the agitative group is low in actual membership, low in potential membership, and high in rhetorical sophistication, control always successfully uses the strategy of avoidance. A rhetorically sophisticated agitation group always begins with petition.
generalization F in B and O
the most protracted and bloody agitations occur when control is high in power, low in ideological strength, and low in rhetorical sophistication, while the agitators are low in actual membership, high in potential membership, and high in rhetorical sophistication
5 steps of generalization F in B and O
1). Agitation begins with the strategy of petition
2). Agitation uses the strategies of promulgation, solidification, and possibly polarization; control continues to use avoidance
3). Agitation uses the strategy of nonviolent resistance; control responds with violent suppression, weakening its own power and enhancing agitation's actual membership
4). agitation, now higher in actual membership, uses escalation/confrontation; control continues to respond with violent suppression
5). agitation continues through the strategies of Gandhi and guerilla, guerilla, and revolution, building its membership at every step when control responds with violent suppression; eventually establishment capitulates
5 technological communication innovations
1). the spoken word
2). the written word
3). the printed word
4). the electronic word
5). the interactive digital word
sources and receivers
we are expanding our roles as both _________ of communication many, many fold
spoken word
we rely 'on a person's word,' actions 'speak for themselves,' and we look for 'the final word' on various issues; this is our reverence for what?
spoken word
what is this related to? In oral/aural cultures, information or knowledge is most fully held by the old; It's only permanence was in the human mind, memory, and sometimes encapsulated in stories and legends
written word
this allowed societies to develop complex sets of knowledge, legal systems (you could write down laws and not have to recall them from memory), behavior patterns and such to assign or deed land and other possessions and to declare behaviors illegal by common definition
spoken word; written word
unlike this, this information can be recalled very precisely
knowledge
when written word first came about, this was stored in writing and was hoarded by the rich and powerful; information became individual property
written word
the permanence of this made people not only rely on written records for the 'last word' on an issue but to respect this
high reverence
even those who couldn't read insisted regularly on seeing the documents in writing before they would believe them and placed a _________ in them
written word
so with this, humans experienced an enormous change in life--especially in terms of knowledge, ownership, and power (information = power)
printed word
this is just a duplication of its predecessor; however, it made knowledge less expensive, more portable, and far more easily available to more persons
printed word
this helped widespread literacy, the emergence of a middle class of merchants and tradesmen, and helped with intellectual revolutions in Europe as the Renaissance and Reformation (information could be spread and shared fairly inexpensively, the 'New Science developed rapidly)
censorship policies
when the printed word first began, governments often saw this widespread diffusion of knowledge as dangerouse and set up _________ as a defensive measure
30%
more than ___ of the US population is functionally illiterate today
readership
this of both newspapers and new is down and the average age of newspaper readers is becoming older and older
printed word
this brought about a veritable revolution in many areas of human accomplishment--musical scores, scientific theories, artistic images, etc
electronic word
came into being in 1844 with the invention of the telegraph; this wiped out not only space but time as well; information was shared almost immediately
electronic word
this type of mass media are still the most effective channels to persuade us to buy products; this and printed word literally surround us
interactive word
messages speed-up, have higher 'definition' or greater fidelity and become more numerous and ultimately less expensive to send and receive; high dynamic communication channel
interactive word
we can use this to produce on-screen video that we can "narrowcast" to our friends and others; "enter and play"; we can use virtual operation to perform the actual physical cutting and suturing; "virtual shopping"
interactive word
this involves the print, audio/video, and computer industries all at the same time; forsee a much broader convergence
interactive word
what is this an example of? it is now possible to order goods and services directly over your television using an upgraded type of remote control
2 models of how radio and television media persuade us
1). the evoked recall (or "resonance") model
2). the transportation model, which is also called a "teaching" model
outcome of model 1
(Schwartz, radio and television); a highly emotional and motivating (almost physiological) recollection of past memories which move us to action
outcome of model 2
(Schwartz, radio and television); relies on a belief that receivers are more logical and that they learn and believe in good reasons for why they should act as directed
empathematic communication
this is Aristotle's description of Schwartz's theory; means that the receiver becomes essential in creating meaning
resonance principle
part of evoked recall model; defined as using messages or message elements that almost unconsciously cue out meanings that receivers already have stored in their conscious or unconscious minds and which combine with the source's cues to create emotional and/or logical meaning
messages our of receivers
it is better to get _____________that will motivate them to action than try to put, plant, or teach information into their memories
experiential meaning
(via the resonance principle); it's as if the receiver says 'I've been there,' after getting the message and thus the source's reference to the stored experience resonates with the audience in the same way that notes of music resonate or harmonize with one another
experiential meaning
some examples of this (everyday or extraordinary) include stalled car, forgetting an important anniversary or event, a plugged toilet or sink, missing out on a great sale or an important event, losing one's wallet or car keys, and so on
responsive chord
we process experiential meaning in the peripheral channel of the ELM; in other words they are "resonating" in a what that "rings true" to us and leads to co-created persuasion that causes purchase, joining, or voting behavior
3 scripts that cue experiential meaning
what are these?
1). verbal script
2). visual script
3). auditory script
verbal script
this focuses on specificity, logic, and word choice; this is the message in words that we see or hear, but more importantly this includes more than just the information, but also the emotional feelings that they evoke
verbal script
if this resonates and cues experiences from the audience, powerful results usually occur and remain long after the ephemeral words of the ad are gone
auditory or sound script
these are the things your hear that are not words; they are the "language" of sound--sizzles, pops, grinds, klunks, plops, and buzzes--that can often cue powerful, unconsciouss emotions
ages 18 to 34
working women _________ are the typical drinkers of diet cola but more importantly are in the age group when powerful brand loyalty is developed
sight or visual script
this serves as an important source of experiential cues; an example is quick-cut edits of new cars coming out of tight S curve can convey a sense of action, power, and control
sight or visual script
this also includes the set, costumes, props, and other visual things that continue the job of evoking experiential responses from us and thus resonating and resulting in co-created meaning
persuasion
they also need to be aware of relationships between the verbal, auditory, and visual elements in any ________
marshal mcluhan
(1963) he has been called the "first father and leading prophet of the electronic age" and the "high priest of pop culture"
development of a "global village"
Marshal McLuhan's prediction that can relate to the Internet, virtual reality, and other prophesies related to the media of modern times
medium is the message
Marshal McLuhan's prediction that the effect any new medium has on culture is much greater than the actual messages it carries
fillers
since the introduction of 24/7 news sources; there isn't enough real news to fill all that time so ______ have had to be invented to fill all that excess news time
medium
McLuhan believed that every ________ is an extension of one of our senses or body parts
speech speed
what is far slower than reading speed, so we can cover much more information than we ever could during the age of the spoken word
the lonely crowd
this media explosion has created what one critic labeled what; in which people in neighborhoods and apartment complexes rarely know one another, and persons tend not to come to the aid of their neighbors like they used to
easy access code
television has this, which means that we don't have to learn to watch it in the same way we had to learn to read, calculate, or write, so the poorest peasant in the most wretched of circumstances can see how you and I live
signal
this is used by a medium and are sounds which activated the ear drum or visual dots on a television screen which triggered nerves in the eyes to send information to the central nervous system; this is what stimulates our information-processing receptors
message
this is the meaning intended and conveyed by the signal
high-fidelity forms
this includes things like radio with its complete words, sentences, and music or film with its series of complete 35-mm visual pictures, require little effort from our information-processing receptors like our eyes or ears
low-fidelity forms
this includes things like the telegraph whose electronic impulses or dots and dashes have to be translated into letters and then into words, cartoons, or television; they require much more effort before meaning can be derived.
sensory involvement
the high-fidelity forms, such as film, result in little physiological or __________ in decoding the signal and it doesn't take much physiological effort to process these completed signals into the meaningful message
sensory participation
the low-fidelity form requires much more physiological participation or __________ in order to decode the signal and assemble its parts into meaningful elements
hot media
this is high-fidelity or complete message signals like film, books, photographs, movies, digital audio
cool media
this is low-fidelity or incomplete ones like the TV screen, television, cartoons, telephone, telegraph, personal computer and internet
hot media
this relies on signals having high fidelity, completeness, or definition
cool media
this relies on low fidelity, definition, or completeness, so we must work harder to physiologically process them
persuaders
evoking emotional experiences that are prompted by mini-cues and allow people to add their own meanings, provides a powerful set of tools in the hands of creative and insightful persuaders
uses and gratification theory
this is another approach to studying the effects of mass media, and it focuses on how receivers use media to gratify or meet or satisfy their individual needs; it assumes that we all have differing primary, secondary, and even tertiary needs
surveillance
this is the first need of the uses and gratification theory and it is the need to keep track of our daily physical and human environment--the events that can impinge on our lives like the price of gasoline, economy, events, weather etc
curiosity
this is the second need of the uses and gratification theory and it is the need to discover and learn about previously unknown information that is not necessarily critical to our interests and daily lives but which could possible be important someday and which also simply interests us
diversion
this is the third need of the uses and gratification theory and it is the need is relief from boredom which is a problem for many if not most persons at one time or another
personal identity
this is the fourth need of the uses and gratification theory; we are all uncertain about our identities, our life goals, and the impact of certain events in an ever-changing and networked world, so we turn to media to help us discover who we are, what we stand for, what we should strive for, what will make us feel satisfied with ourselves, and how we are living out our lives
mastery and control
what are two lesser or secondary needs in regards to the uses and gratification theory?
self-assured and outgoing
persons who are ___________ fill personal identity needs by reading, whereas less self-assured and outgoing persons rely on television to fill this need
agenda-setting
the public's agenda of what is important and needs our attention includes the kinds of issues people discuss, think, and worry about; this is powerfully shaped by the news media
mega-media giants
these corporations basically own the news and "tell us what to think" because they can choose what to highlight, report on repeatedly, downplay, dismiss, or ignore; they decide what gets past the "gate" or the finite space and time used for print or electronic news
audiences
the real economic design of the mass media industry is to sell ______ to advertisers; "in reality we are the products and we are being sold to advertisers"
news bite
this is a piece of news that less than 35 seconds long and is delivered by a credible source in an energetic way
expressiveness or dramatic quality
another criterion used by gatekeepers to determine what gets reported and what does not is the ______________ of both the audio and video in the story
internet sources
another criterion that may or may not have important implicatons for the larger question of agenda setting is the degree to which today's citizenry is getting part or most of their daily news from __________ like YouTube, MySpace, Facebook, various search engines, the blogosphere, etc
receiver
we are seeing an entire revolution in the news industry--it is the ______ who is really reporting the news and not the standard news media sources
medium
don't let the _________ so dominate your awareness of the world that you overlook other sources of news and information
Social Learning Theory
tells us what to think and do with ourselves and how to behave in given situations
Cultivation Theory
teaches us what to expect in future possible situations or, to think of it in another way, we learn what to prepare for in future situations from the media
television especially violent programming
heavy watchers of what believe in a much more violent world out there and expect to encounter violence sometimes in their lives
social learning
this is one kind of _______, you learn how to behave in unpleasant ways as well as pleasant ones
Cultivation Theory
this resembles the survelliance need; it tells us what is happening in the world around us and what kinds of things we can expect to happen, when, where, and how often; in other words, it "grows" or "cultivates" expectations about the world in which we live
attitudes
these are much easier to change than behaviors; they are in a fickle way
extended viewing
Cultivation theory predicts change only after what and even then over repeated times
tendency
the theory holds that media exposure only has a ________ to help them grow and then primarily with heavy viewers who are more likely to overestimate the amount of violence in our culture rather than light media viewers whose beliefs are more realistic
Social Learning Theory and Cultivation Theory
these frequently serve as major premises in persuasion that is highly effective in persuading us
critical receivers
these people need to ask of themselves "what things have I learned, not from direct observation or experience, but from media sources ranging from television to video games, to the Internet? How have they implanted major premises in my conscious and unconscious mind that might be used in persuasive arguments to get me to engage in behaviors that I otherwise might have avoided?"
news industry
this is a business, a very centralized and profitable industry; profits from the success of their advertiser clients and customers
ignoring
(method of manipulation); one way gatekeepers and media moguls who control news conglomerates can distort the news is by simply ________ and not ever reporting it or by minimizing it by giving something else a larger portion of the news space and time than the topic really deserves or by giving it a bad position in the newspaper, magazine, or television news time
favoring the sponsor
(method of manipulation); news reporters and editors may soft-pedal any negative news about these sponsors
pseudoevent
(method of manipulation); news reporters are often drawn to highly dramatic or bizarre events; "planned news"; they are carefully scripted and rehearsed; "the authentic fake"
Bias verbal and nonverbal cues
(method of manipulation); a skillful interviewer can make an interviewee seem to be quite different from his or her real self; politicians complain about being misrepresented by the news industry all the time
featured
the news sources select who is what, choosing only pro or only con advocates or ones that can be expected to make emotional and exciting quotes
Netizens
these are citizens of the Net; the Internet was unregulated and reliant upon the good will of these people
Internet
this not only engages people, it does indeed persuade them and in important ways; this is also changing the structure of persuasion; has turned recievers into potential sources with yet-to-be-determined audiences
Internet
The single most significant contributions of this are the redistribution of the control of information and the democratizing of individual voices in the persuasion process
deliver information
A major selling point of the Internet is its ability to _______ (especially advertising and other persuasive messages) immediately to a 24/7, networked, potentially enormous global audience
brand impressions
remember that Internet ads also create what are called this, or instants when the name of the brand is processed by one of your senses into your central nervous system to be stored and recalled when making an important decision
niche markets
these are very small audiences with specialized needs
disintermediation
small, independent organic coffee growers now possess the means to sell their crops internationally for better prices by cutting out the middleman, a process which is called what?
site evaluation
these or rating systems will soon emerge for each and every category of product, cause, candidate for office, religious philosophy, and a host more
critical processors
The recievers will have to be aware of such developments in order to continue to be critical processors of the most important information available from among all the options
technological innovations
these offer instructors and students (and all consumers) the opportunity to spend more time with their families and friends, etc
ethical behavior on the Internet
these issues all represent what? student use of e-mail, health care, pornography, privacy issues, financial issues, Internet counseling, legal issues, and a host more
rhetoricians
these people are centrally concerned with the messages generated by the participants in social-change movements
rhetoric
most definitions specify that it is a theory or a rationale or an art (in the sense that 'art' refers to a set of principles), that is has to do with persuasion, and that it is limited to verbal phenomena
rhetoric
the rationale of instrumental, symbolic behavior
instrumental
a message or other act is what if it contributes to the production of another message or act
expressive
behavior is this if it neither intends to produce nor succeeds in producing any social consequences
consummatory
behavior is this if it is the final step in satisfying a need, if no other behavior is necessary to satisfy that need
idelogical
these are statements that are expressive of a set of values and beliefs rather than being instrumental; something that is strictly this is not made to persuade or to alter behavior; it is made to define the position of an individual or group
expressive
purely _________ statements are rare
symbolic
behavior is this if it has a referential function--if it stands for something else
verbal behavior
this, whether descriptive or persuasive, is almost completely symbolic
continuum
imagine symbolic behavior as a _________; on one end of the spectrum are words and arbitrarily symbolic behavior and the other end is more naturally symbolic
arbitrarily
one end of the continuum of symbolic behavior is this where behavior for which no natural connection exists with what the behavior stands for, the referent
naturally
one end of the continuum of symbolic behavior in which the observer need go through no arbitrary set of rules to establish the relationship between the sign and referent
agitation
persistent, long-term advocacy of a social change, where resistance to the change is also persistant and long-term
agitation
a style of persuasion characterized by highly emotional argument based on citation of grievances and alleged violation of moral principles
persuasion
agitation is a special kind of what
agitation
this exists when:
1). people outside the normal decision-making establishment
2). advocate significant social change
3). encounter a degree of resistance within the establishment such as to require more than the normal discursive means of persuasion
control
refers to the response of the decision-making establishment to agitation
legitimate power
this of the organization has two parts:
1). legislation
2). enforcement
legislation
the power of deciding policy
enforcement
the power of administering negative and positive sanctions to those who violate and observe the policies
NOT agitators
those who attempt to persuade within the establishment, no matter what style they use in their persuasion attempts are NOT classified as what?
social change
this is any change, written or unwritten, in the way society regulates itself; can be substantive or procedural
substantive
an example of this type of social change would be higher wages for mine workers
procedural
an example of this type of social change is a collective bargaining system for mine workers
agitation
this arises when there is strongly felt dissatisfaction with existing programs and policies of government or other establishments, on the part of those who feel themselves affected by these policies but who are unable to express their discontent through regular and legitimate channels, and who feel unable to exercise the weight to which they think they are entitled in the decision-making process. When nobody is listening to us and we feel we have something to say, then comes the urge to shout.
agitation
this occurs when a group has grievances and no remedy
agitation based on vertical deviance
occurs when the agitators subscribe to the value system of the establishment, but dispute the distribution of benefits or power within that value system
agitation based on lateral deviance
occurs when the agitators dispute the value system itself
vertical deviance
this occurs when persons in a subordinate rank attempt to enjoy the privileges and prerogatives of those in superior rank
lateral deviance
this occurs in a context in which the values of the nondeviant are rejected
agitation based on lateral deviance
this is likely to employ "cool" strategies; the agitators' ideologies and demands are difficult to understand, and the agitators are likely to display symbols, engineer events, and behave in ambiguous ways
agitation based on vertical deviance
this is likely to employ "hot" strategies; the issues are based on a single value system, are easy to understand, and the aim of the agitator is to win support by making his case as clearly as possible
structure, goal orientation, and power
what are the three aspects that all organizations share?
structured; procedures; positions
the family is __________; it has a set of __________ by which decisions are made and a set of _________ in which decision-making power rests.
goal orientation
every organization has a set of expressed or implied purposes; these could include simple self-perpetuation, maintenance of a value system, gathering information, disseminating information, enlarging the base of support and power, policy making, policy implementation, enforcement of policy, and the like
ideology
a set of statements which define the unique characteristics of the organization and express the unique set of beliefs to which the members theoretically subscribe
3 generalizations about power
1). the need for social power of one kind or another is a nearly universal attribute of people in Western culture
2). An individual or a group seldom gives up power voluntarily to another individual or group
3). the exercise of social power is satisfying in itself to most individuals in Western culture
5 types of social power
1). reward power
2). coercive power
3). legitimate power
4). referent power
5). expert power
reward power
one individual or group has this over another when the first can give rewards to the second; there are two types:
1). the giving of positively perceived things and events
2). the withdrawal of negatively perceived things and events
coercive power
exists when one individual or group is able to influence another's behavior by the threat of punishment
legitimate power
this exists when one individual or group is perceived by another as having a sort of charter or social contract, an assigned position, through which that individual or group can exert influence
referent power
one individual or group has this over another when the influence is attracted to and identifies with that individual or group; the power comes from the strong desirability of a personal relationship for the influence with the attracting agency
negative referent power
this also is a type of power that can exist where if the individual or group repels the influencee, he is likely to oppose the direction of influence which the repelling agency expresses
expert power
exists when one individual or group thinks that another has superior knowledge or skill in a particular area in which influence is to be exerted
4 ways power is distributed
1). the establishment always controls legitimate power
2). the establishment also normally is capable of exerting coercive power
3). both the establishment and the agitators have some reward power
4). the agitators must depend almost completely on referent power and expert power
polarization
agitators use the strategy of what to attack directly the referent power of the establishment; similarly, if an establishment loses expert power over its own members, agitation it is likely to be relatively successful
sustained agitation
this almost always has as its principal demand the redistribution of legitimate power
rumor
in agitation and control situations, one mechanism that is frequently used by both sides is what
rumor
this occurs when information is passed from one individual to another without official verification or denial, or when information is passed from one individual to another in the absence of any trustworthy official source
situations necessary for rumors
1). the situation must be ambiguous--more than one interpretation must be plausible
2). the situation must be relevant to the individual expected to start or sustain the rumor
3). trustworthy official interpretation must be absent
4). the situation must be dramatic, preferably involving conflict
3 processes of rumors
1). leveling
2). sharpening
3). assimilation or contrast
leveling
the first process of rumors where many details get lost as the initial story gets told and retold
sharpening
the second process of rumors where the details that remain after leveling are exaggerated
assimilation or contrast
the third and most important process of rumors where the individual unintentionally distorts the rumor to make it fit more neatly into his own system of beliefs and values
assimilation
this occurs when the rumor distortion is in the direction of what he would most like to believe
contrast
this occurs when the rumor distortion is in the direction of what he would least like to believe
contrast
when rumors occur in a situation of agitation and control, the establishment distorts by this rather than by assimilation
strategies; tactics
the more general choices we call ________; the more specific choices governed by these general choices we call _______.
capitulation
this is not rhetorical; it is consummatory and referential rather than instrumental and symbolic
strategies of agitators
what are these? petition of the establishment, promulgation, solidification, polarization, nonviolent resistance; escalation/confrontation; guerilla and Gandhi; guerilla; and revolution
petition
this strategy includes all normal discursive means of persuasion
tactics of promulgation
what are these examples of? informational picketing, erection of posters, and distribution of handbills and leaflets; mass protest meeting
promulgation
this strategy includes all those tactics designed to win social support for the agitator's position
exploitation of the mass media
this is an important tactic of promulgation; this is a way for agitators to reach more people with less effort
3 groups media must please
to succeed the media needs these:
1). those on whom they depend as sources of news
2). those on whom they depend as sponsors
3). those on whom they depend as consumers
legitimizers
these are individuals within the establishment who endorse some parts of the agitators' ideology; newsworthy individuals that the agitators will seek out
stage events
agitation groups are likely to _______ that they know to newsworthy, events that are unusual or that involve conflict
solidification
this occurs primarily within the agitating group rather than beyond it; this means the rhetorical processes by which an agitating group produces or reinforces the cohesiveness of its members, thereby increasing their responsiveness to group wishes
solidification tactics
examples of these include: plays, songs, slogans, expressive and esoteric symbols, and in-group publications
agitation play
this is a simple dramatization of the grievances of the agitating group; shows a conflict between agitation and control
agitation songs
these are more varied in content and form than agitation plays, but their main function is to assure success through unity in the face of a strong but morally inferior opponent
agitation songs
these are marked by simplicity, redundance, jargon, sentimentality (exaggeration, glofication, fantasy), stereotyping, emotionality, baseness (crudity, viciousness), and humor
expressive and esoteric
agitators often invent __________ symbols to accompany songs, plays, and slogans
black panther
this is a sleek and dignified animal that allegedly does not attack except in self-defense, but then attacks ferociously
rhetorical trope synechdoche
this is part of something standing for the whole (an example is the upraised black fist for black power)
symbol
this is a nonverbal, sometimes dramatic way of saying to those who hold a particular agitating position, "you have my support"
solidifying symbols
some of these are more kinetic, requiring movement by the symbol-user
polarization
this strategy assumes that any individual who has not committed himself in one way or another to the agitation is supportive of the establishment
polarization tactics
the two main ones of these are the exploitation of flag issues and flag individuals; these are issues that and individuals who, for one reason or another, are especially susceptible to the charges made against the establishment by the agitator's ideology
action
this is the criterion of membershio in an agitating group
invention of a derogatory jargon for establishment
this is another polarizing tactic where the symbols may or may not have some natural connection to the referents
scab
to a labor union member, the person hired to replace him during a strike is called this
sweat shop
this is an exploiting factory
nonviolent resistance
this places agitators in a position in which they are violating laws they consider to be unjust, destructive of human dignity
creative disorder
tactics of nonviolent resistance that include sit-ins, school boycotts, rent strikes, and the like
physical suppression
if the establishment accedes to the demands of the agitators, the disorder ends; if the establishment reisists, it must do so by this; that is, no way of ending the agitation is open to the establishment except the physical removal of the agitators
passive resistance
this phrase often gives the false impression that this is a sort of "do-nothing method" in which the resister quietly and passively accepts evil; his mind and emotions are always active
friendship and understanding
Dr. King's second aspect of nonviolence is that it does not seek to defeat or humiliate the opponent, but to win his __________
impersonal nature
Dr. King's third aspect of nonviolence is that the attack is directed against forces of evil rather than against persons who happen to be doing the evil
retaliation
Dr. King's fouth aspect of nonviolence is that it requires a willingness to accept suffering without what, to accept blows from the opponent without striking back
refuses to hate
the nonviolent resister not only refuses to shoot his opponent, but he also _______ him (according to Dr. King)
faith in the future
the believer in nonviolence has deep __________; this is the reason why the nonviolent resister can accept suffering without retaliation (accoding to Dr. King)
civil disobedience
used in conjunction with nonviolence; occurs when an agitator deliberately breaks a statute that he considers to be unjust and destructive
instrumental
in almost all cases, nonviolent resistance to customs and laws is __________ rather than consummatory
persistence
what is the tactic that nonviolent resistance requires more than any other agitation strategy
manpower
the agitators must have the what to continue the nuisance persistently until social change occurs
physical resistance
another special requirement of the nonviolent resister, since he is a nuisance to the establishment, is that he be most careful to have exhausted the avenues of petition and verbal rhetoric before he begins his ________ to the law or custom
history
________ is the long and tragic story of the fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily
2 principal tactics of nonviolent resistance
1). physical presence
2). physical and/or economic absence
escalation/confrontation
when the establishment becomes sufficiently apprehensive, it will overprepare for agitation; this overpreparation will result in such confusion among establishment groups that security forces of the establishment will turn on themselves and on non-agitators (this is the strategy of what?)
contrast
the first tactic of escalation/confrontation; its objective is to ensure that the establishment will expect the participation of large numbers of agitators, whether this expectation has any objective reality or not (requires the use of rumor and underground press)
worst
the establishment must prepare for the ______ conceivable outcome
threatened disruption
this is the second tactic in escalation that is building on the establishment's expectation of large numbers of agitators, this tactic again uses rumors and the underground press to increase establishment tension with alleged information about the attitudes and objectives of the agitators
nonverbal offensive
once agitation has actually begun this includes dressing in strange ways and displaying posters and carrying signs of scornful establishment values
verbal obscene deprecation
these include things like "F*** the President" or other things
nonverbal obscenity
these include throwing urine and feces at Police Officers
token violence
this involves actual, but minor, attacks on representatives of the establishment by a few of the agitators; this strategy assumes that the establishment will respond to such attacks with counterattacks far our of proportion to the original provocation
Gandhi and Guerilla
this strategy confronts the establishment with a large group of agitators committed to the strategy of nonviolent resistance and another group committed to physical destruction of the establishment
rhetorical
the Gandhi side of the Gandhi and Guerilla strategy are what because their behavior is instrumental and symbolic
nonrhetorical
the Guerilla side of the Gandhi and Guerilla strategy are mainly this because their behavior is (though instrumental), is actually (not symbolically) aggressive
Guerilla
this strategy is symbolic only to the extent that physical, underground attacks on an unpopular establishment, if successful, will polarize other disaffected members of society to the extent that they will join in the attacks
revolution
this is a strategy that is not symbolic; it is war
verbal
petition and promulgation are strictly what?
solidification and polarization
these reinforce members of the movement and induct those who are sympathetic but uncommitted
nonviolent resistance
this results in "creative tension" which may lead to resolution of greviances by negotiation
escalation/confrontation
this is designed to goad the establishment into disproportionate violence, prompting the larger society to institute reforms
Gandhi and guerilla; guerilla; revolution
these three strategies are increasingly nonrhetorical, involving actual physical attacks on the establishment in a win-lose frame of reference, rather than from a compromise and reform your point of view
decision-makers
"superiority," by this we mean that the _______ must show that their ability to manage, guide, direct, and enhance the group is greater than that of other members in the group
worst
decision-makers must assume that the ______ will happen in a given instance of agitation
repel
decision-makers must be prepared to ______ any overt attack on the establishment
ruthless
in the end, victory goes to the most _______
public image
an establishment's ________ is enhanced when it can demonstrate to its membership that preparations have been sufficient to thwart external attack
control
this may or may not be administered with a heavy hand, but it is always a generalization applied to specific instances
referent power
projecting an image of strength determines, in large part, the _______ necessary for maintaining the institution
4 rhetorical strategies
1). avoidance
2). suppression
3). adjustment
4). capitulation
counterpersuasion
this is a tactic which includes entering into a discussion with the leaders of an agitative movement in an attempt to convince the agitators that they are wrong serves a number of functions for the establishment; this is the most common and often successful maneuver available to an establishment
adjustment
from the counterpersuasion tactic, decision-makers can shift to a strategy of __________ more easily than from any of the other control tactics we shall discuss
evasion
("buck-passing" and "the runaround"); a sizable bureaucracy can effectively avoid consideration of many challenges by routing the leaders of the agitation movement through the labyrinth of receptionists, outside secretaries, inside secretaries, private secretary, low-level administrator, receptionist, outside secretary, etc
high risk
evasion can be a tactic of _______ for an establishment; if an agitative movement is sufficiently powerful, the agitators will just bypass the lower level administration to the boss
evasion
this is a tactic best suited to a large establishment
postponement
less powerful and smaller establishments may use a tactic like this; by deferring any binding decision and by taking the demands of an agitative group "under advisement," an establishment can frequently avoid unwanted change
2 factors of postponement
1). the agitators may become impatient and reckless; if they break a civil law, they can be jailed
2). the agitators may be patiently persistent and wait, which allows an establishment to defer indefinitely
secrecy with a rationale
this is a tactic of avoidance where an existing power structure can hear the demands of agitators and openly decline any response by appeal to a higher principle
jurisprudence
under our system of _________, every man accused of wrongdoing is presumed to be innocent until he is proven guilty
denial of means
this means taking away things like paper, ink, duplicating equipment, cameras, etc so that the agitators can't promulgate their ideas and demands
constitutional rights
an establishment dares not violate these of free speech and free assembly; consequently, justifying reasons must be issued simultaneously with a denial of physical means
physical means
denying believers in an opposing ideology the _________ of making their greviances public can weaken, if not eliminate, an agitative movement
suppression
this is a second rhetorical strategy an establishment can adopt in responding to an external challenge
suppresion
this demands not only an understanding of the opposing ideology but a firm resolve and commitment on the part of the decision-makers to stop the spread of the ideology by thwarting the goals and personnel of the agitative movement
harassment
this is the first tactic of suppression of the agitator's leaders
2 consequences of suppresive harrassment
1). the key personnel of the agitative movement have less time to devote to their cause and their sympathizers
2). the members of the agitative group view the harassment as an example of what may happen to them if they persevere in their beliefs and activities
establishments
these, when they are harassing an agitative group, frequently receive unsought assistance from other sources
vigilante organizations
these usually emerge to combat large-scale agitation
denial of the agitators' demands
this is the most obvious suppressive tactic is this overt what
legitimate power
if an establishment has this, there is some risk that the law may eventually be interpreted in favor of the agitators; the gamble is that the very legitimacy invoked to deny the demand may be changed by a higher authority
internal dissension
if the denial is interpreted as an injustice by some members of the establishment, this may result and the establishment's decision may be rescinded
denial of demands
when the legitimate power group and the referent power groups within an establishment differ in ideology, ________ causes more damage within the establishment than damage to the agitative group
banishment purgation
2 other suppressive tactics available to some establishments and can terminate a movement by removing its leaders and spokesmen
banishment
this is includes excommunication, expulsion, academic suspension, compelling someone to leave an area under the laws of illegal assembly, encouraging or forcing someone to leave the physical boundaries of a country, confining someone in jail
banishment
of all the tactics an establishment can use, this is probably the most effective; few movements can survive without leadership and also serves as an exemplary deterrent to the members of an agitative group
purgation
this tactic means simply and literally killing the leaders and members of the agitative movement; only a powerful establishment with a powerful military force can use this tactic
adjustment
this means that institutions can adapt, modify, or alter their structures, their goals, and their personnel as a response to an external ideological change
concession
the adjustment must never be perceived by those who support and maintain the decision-makers as a _________ or partial surrender, nor should an agitative force claim that an adjustment is this
never be weak
decision-makers may be just, merciful, liberal, progressive, open-minded, etc, but they may ________
real or apparent
tactics of adjustment can be what?
apparent adjustment
changing the name of the regulatory agency after a confrontation with an agitative group is what since it doesn't change an establishment's structure, personnel, or ideology
changing an institution's name
this, while it rarely satisfies any agitative ideology, does serve to refocus and claify the institution to those within the establishment
sacrificing personnel
when agitation is addressed to a flag person, a second tactic of adjustment is this (for the establishment)
channels of communication
these within an institution suffer from the temporary vacancy, time must be allocated to finding a replacement, and the legitimate power of an establishment becomes vulnerable
flag person
when this is removed from the establishment, the agitative group suddenly finds itself without a cause, and its energies must be redirected toward maintaining its own membership
accepting some means of the aggitation
this is a tactic where an establishment can actually provoke agitators to engage in increasingly more serious infractions of law or custom; if a sit-in goes unnoticed, agitators, to gain an audience, must risk escalating the creative disorder
2 tactics of incorporation
1). incorporate some of the personnel of the agitative movement
2). incorporate parts of the dissident ideology
realistic adjustment
nonnegotiable demands, by definition, do not admit of this
capitulation
this is when the agitators are completely successful; its ideas, goals, policies, beliefs and personnel replace those of the establishment
capitulation
in history, there is no known instance in which an establishment has surrendered all its decision-making power voluntarily; last resort; total defeat
radical flanks
this is a wing of a movement that emerges that is more likely to use disruptive or illegal tactics and which develops a more pure (and less compromising) distillation of the movement's guiding ideas
moderate flank
this can present itself as a reasonable compromise partner, so that authorities give it power in order to undercut the radicals (although the moderates must distance themselves from the radicals to garner these benefits)
6 types or stages of policy effects
1). access to legislators and policymakers
2). agenda-setting for legislators
3). official policies
4). implementation and enforcement of those policies
5). achievement of the policies' intended impact
6). finally deeper structural changes to the political system
protest group
the stability and institutionalization of the protest group is as important as the benefits it achieves for its constituency
protest group's acceptance
Gamson lists consultation, negotiation, formal recognition, and inclusion as signs of the protest group's acceptance
political mediation theory
this places equal explanatory weight on conditions the movement can control, such as its level of mobilization and its strategies, and on political conditions
cultural effects
perhaps some of the hardest movement impact to study are their __________, yet these may be some of the most profound and longest-lasting outcomes
majority
a ________ may reject the movement's perspective, but it can still cause them to think more deeply about their own values and attitudes
art
this affects a society's collective memory and traditions, its "common sense" of how the world works
movements
what creates the raw materials for future movements
movements
this give people moral voice, helping them to articulate values and intuitions that they do not have time to think about in their daily lives; extremely satisfying; can generate technical, scientific, and practical knowledge; they engage people in politics
political or social protest
this refers to the act of challenging, resisting, or making demands upond authorities, powerholders, and/or cultural beliefs and practices by some individual or group
social movement
this is a collective, organized, sustained, and noninstitutional challenge to authorities, powerholders, or cultural beliefs and practices
revolutionary movement
this is a social movement that seeks, at minimum, to overthrow the government or state
movements
some of these have looked for opportunities to claim new rights while others have responded to threats or violence
movements
these have regularly had to choose between violent and nonviolent activities, illegal and legal ones, disruption and education, extremism and moderation
social movements
these are conscious, concerted, and sustained efforts by ordinary people to change some aspect of their society by using extra-institutional means
human diversity
understanding social movements is a good way to comprehend what?
social theory
scholars basically ask why and how people do the things they do, especially why they do things together: this is also the question that drives sociology in general
technical change
but while formal organizations are the main source of this, they are rarely a source of change in values, in social arrangements
moral sensibilities
these including unspoken institutions as well as articulated principles and rules--that guide our action, or at least make us uneasy when they are violated
crowds
people used to think that these transformed people into unthinking automatrons and could whip up emotions that made people do things they otherwise would not do
civil rights
it was hard to dismiss these demonstrators as misguided, immature, or irrational; as a result, scholars began to see aspects of social movements they had overlooked when they had used the lens of an angry mob
social movement organizations
these act a lot like firms: they try to accumulate resources, hire staff whose interests might diverge from constituents', and "sell" their point of view of potential contributors
political process theory
in this view, social movements were also seen as eminently rational; indeed, they were little more than normal politics that used extra-institutional means
2 components researchers have studied
1). the processes by which organizers "frame" their issues in a way that resonates with or makes sense to potential recruits and the broader public
2). the "collective identity" that organizers can either use or create in arousing interest in and loyalty to their cause
global reach
many movements have this, tying together protest groups across many countries or having international organizations
success
it's useful to think of this as a set of outcomes, recognizing that a given challenging group may receive different scores on equally valid, different measures of outcome
2 general outcomes of success
1). one concerned with the fate of the challenging group as an organization (ACCEPTANCE)
2). one with the distribution of new advantages to the group's beneficiary (NEW ADVANTAGES)
4 outcomes of success
1). full response
2). co-optation
3). preemption
4). collapse
full response
unambiguous success outcome of movement
collapse
unambiguous failure outcome of movement
co-optation
outcome of movement for acceptance without new advantages
preemption
outcome of movement for new advantages without acceptance
2 names represent the same challenging group iff
a). the major goals, purposes, and functions of the two groups are the same
b). the constituency remains the same
c). the average challenging group member and potential member would agree that the new-name group is essentially the old group relabeled
endpoint of a challenge
1). the challenging group ceases to exist as a formal entity
2). the challenging group, while not formally dissolving, ceases mobilization and influence activity
3). the challenging group's major antagonists accept the group as a valid spokesman for its constituency and deal with it as such
established interest group
the line between being a challenging group and an __________ is not always sharp