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Sara Topp, Trinity University, Spring 2012

Integrated Marketing Communication



bombard us with tons of advertising and traditional advertising; saturate the market; more effective because combining lots; think of advertising as AGGREGATE

Advertising Goals

- increase profits and lift sales
- sell the perceived benefit
- generate traffic
- make brand comparisons
- trial
- ads should generate qualified leads
- build the brand
- must adapt to change

sell the perceived benefit

(advertising goal); the tactic of this is to focus on a particular feature, could be cheap price, higher quality, unique aspect, etc

generate traffic

(advertising goal); need to get people to the POP, online venue can make POP immediate, offer deals/sales or hold events to get potential customers into store

Point of purchase


make brand comparisons

(advertising goal); ads must prove their brand is superior than all the rest, specific is better than general, more tangible; includes point of comparisons and risk of other ads

point of comparisons

what are these? price, quality, popularity, availability, taste, longevity, reliability, trustworthy, low cost, demographics, they're the ones that have existed longest, or we're the newest, etc

risk of ads

makes other brands known (only choose another brand that's already known); this is part of make brand comparisons


(advertising goal); get people to try it; risk free samples; sometimes this can work as a vicarious experience

ads should generate qualified leads

(advertising goals); ads should target the most likely consumers, use targeted spots, choose specific TV shows, internet searches, email searching, certain linguistic choices, direct mailings, profiling, timing

build the brand

(advertising goal); repetition is critical, powerful images or words; if you do this well, the image will become ICONIC, choose something catchy and memorable, music/words, rhyming/shocking/humor; give testimonials and definitely get expert/celebrity testimonials; TOMA

top of mind awareness



it will be the first thing people think of in that product category; metabrands such as Bandaids or Kleenex


what are these examples of? Bandaids and Kleenex

must adapt to change

(advertising goal); sometimes has to change its audience, ex: Cheerios rebranded to adults, Mac used to just be for artists, updated Applebee's with more local interior

ways to defend against clutter and over-mediated culture

- brand loyalty
- positioning
- reposition themselves
- telling consumers what they're not
- rebranding


this is setting themselves apart from the rest of the market; ex: Central Market as high class, green, good quality or HEB as local, etc

reposition themselves

this includes line extension such as Dr. Pepper with Dr. Pepper 10, or Diet Dr. Pepper or Chex Mix with a billion flavors


in order to be effective advertising this is important; the three types are demographic, psychographics, and sociographics


this is includes income, religion, political, ethnicity, etc


study of consumers attitudes and interests; the psychology of buying


individual social grouping and what people of that type are doing; ex: college students

need-driven, outer-directed, inner-directed

what are the 3 main types of sociographic categories?

survivors and sustainers

what are the two subcategories of the need-driven (lower income) sociographic category?

belongers, emulators, achievers

what are the three subcategories of the outer-driven consumers sociographic category?

I-am-me, experiential, socially conscious, integrated

what are the four subcategories of the inner-driven consumers sociographic category?


this observes consumers in their natural environment

weasel words, deceptive claims, magical ingredient claim

3 types of words in advertising

weasel words

purposely ambiguous, used strategically to inflate the product and they can't be proven to be incorrect; ex: "green," "greenwashing," "real," "lite," "helps" (airborne), "like," comparison word (strategic not factual), "virtually"

deceptive claims

irrelevant (ex: scratch and sniff, sniff is not equal to taste of gum); truthful but overly dramtized; includes question claims: "if you can't trust Preston, who can you trust?"--doesn't actually relate to product

magical ingredient claim

new, improved formula without scientific fact

Milk Campaign Lessons

- advertising must ALWAYS be aware of competition and consumers
- need to constantly reassess and change
- safer to create connections, another brand can help promote yourself
- it's easier to get consumers who already like you, than to get new consumers

milk campaign

what's this related to? needed new campaign because people knew of nutritional value, but weren't purchasing; there was a change in consumer taste and competition in beverage market (bright colors, sexier brands)

Got Milk? Campaign

this used focus groups to understand consumer need; food product + milk = relied on deprivation; co-branded (Oreo complimentary combination)

Got Milk? Campaign

this increase POP priming; lots of mimicry and imitation (Humor), positive associations and more amiable; sequencing of message, conclusion at end; good research about their competition and considered comparatively why better/worse; drink more of it (already users) and branched out to new demographics (Hispanics and teens)

Superbowl Ads Lessons

1). have your website ready (1st thing audience will do, can they interact?)
2). Easy to share with others
3). have connection with search engines
4). make sure they can give feedback, discussion board, interactivity
5). Buzz effective (commercial memorable), collectively figure out brand through discussion

Superbowl Campaign

what's this related to? social thing, event; only event where people actually watch the consumers; so much hype before and after; whole Cultural Phenomemon; are ads $2 mil effective? initial and after effects

Superbowl Campaign

initial effects - immediate reaction; ***BEST>>after effects - Watercooler effect, create buzz and chatting about the ad with friends, people talk, look at webpage, youtube = WOM advertising which is most effective

Beer Campaign Lessons

1). Consider product category/context
2). Establish Strategic Groupings
3). Take Advantage of Strategic Rivalries
4). Companies had to recognize that the legal context mattered
5). Social context can create problems

Beer Campaign

what does this relate to? major concerns were imports (new beers on the market) and movement towards new products on market; revolution in beer production, the technological shift changed quantity and speed (real price goes down)

Beer Campaign

what does this relate to? rivalistic pricing (companies trying to undersell one another), no longer a monopoly on the market, more brands on the market; beer market had to respond (Aneheiser Busch and Miller)

Legal Context

relates to beer ads; states with regulations = shaped where they could sell/advertise

Social Context

relates to beer ads; problem was drunk driving; "we don't support overindulgence," walk this fine balance, shapes the way they show product

Brand Share

Miller Lite was successful; No direct correlations between sales and advertising, but you increase _______ which protects losing sales to other advertisers, protects brand

Banning ads

doing this with regards to beer didn't have any effect on reducing drinking


regular publisher of advertising

Snickers Focus Group

What advertisment do these relate to?
- brand extension (trying to gain new share of market)
- identified rival (brand comparison)
- using humor appeal
- a little mysterious (especially at beginning)
- logo shown a few times (repetition and the mere exposure effect)

Nissan Leaf Gas Powered Everything

what advertisement do these relate to?
- lots of mystery, revealed product at end
- emotional appeal (disgust), pathos
- cleaner and clearer contrast at end (dingy and dirty before)
- a little guilt and providing solution at end
- a little humor
- end with warmth appeal (works better since beginning is dreary)
- didn't compare performance (strategically)
- targeted towards environmentally-conscious; logo at end

Google chrome Dear Sophie

what advertisement do these relate to?
- warmth appeals - they work because they create a situation you can see yourself in and want
- shows you versatility of how to use Google Chrome
- mimicks our interfact, looks easy and can picture ourselves doing it for ourselves
- use icons from computer, iconic noises of clicks and incorporate these to make it more familiar and makes brand identity memorable
- effective for wider audience

Volkswagon the Force

what advertisement do these relate to?
- adorable mixed with humor and warmth appeals
- created buzz
- pairs it with Starwars music and uses iconic image
- very family oriented ("perfect" American pristine dream)
- luxury feature = remote start (cold in Janurary and implicitly comfort)

Renewable Electricity Case Study

what case study do these relate to?
consumers didn't care; consumers' lack of knowledge; needed to quantify benefits

Renewable Electricity Case Study

what case study do these relate to?
- research consumers and see what drives them
- PCE (perceived consumer effectiveness) prove this for individual who invested in green energy
- proof that cost savings and long-term value were worth

perceived consumer effectiveness


Renewable Electricity Case Study Lessons

- targeting population segments is essential
- consumers must have more awareness and visibility
- prove your product is "good" through culturally acceptable

Nike Case Study

what case study do these relate to?
- wanted to market sub-brand
- there wasn't much of a women's athletic market
- gender constraints from Nike's top-down management
- marketing constraints

Nike Case Study Lessons

- you can create an audience around your niche for your sub-brand
- this is a brand extension
- storytelling and narratives can be extremely powerful

Nike Case Study

what case study do these relate to?
- leading products in athletics are extremely masculinized
- used actual, concrete examples of women "real women"
- first: what are ways women are active and tap into this throughout life; more emotive and empathy
- 2nd: more strong, independent women, then grew towards more competitive women
- author supports it but says that there's still a long way to go


old definitions of this: "persistance to resistance to change is long term" or "style of persuasion characterized by highly emotional and volatile moral principals"


(according to Bowers and Ochs)
1). People need to be outside the normal decision making establishment
2). Advocate significant social change
3). You need to encounter resistance without the establishment in a way that requires more than the normal discussion means of persuasion

social movement

according to Bowers and Ochs, if you have the 3 parts of agitation then you might have the foundations of what?


response that's made by the decision-making establishment

Reasons people agitate

there is deep discontent about something and there aren't remedies available to overcome this dissatisfaction

vertical deviance and lateral deviance

what are the two types of agitation?

vertical deviance

means that agitators ascribe to the value system of the establishment, but they dispute the distribution of benefits or power within that distribution

lateral deviance

where agitators dispute the value system itself

vertical deviance

an example of this is "advocates for no cosmetic animal testing"; includes reforming the system or making substitute changes

lateral deviance

an example is anticapitalist movements or PETA where animals are considered equal to humas; this is overhaul and "we don't espouse your values, we have our own"


this is much more easily identified; the establishment can make concessions and more easily change


this may be difficult to understand; often more abstract and want symbolic

vertical and lateral deviance

the civil rights movement was a mixture of both types of agitation

forms of power

- reward
- coercive
- legitimate
- referent
- expert

reward power

to give rewards or remove punishments (ex: in the family, it's the parents)

coercive power

change behavior by threat of punishment

legitimate power

given by social power to conduct/rule

referent power

what does it refer to, the power of identification (repect because of who you are or negative baggage) - symbolic

expert power

power you have because you have superior knowledge-expertise


establishment generally has ________ power; insufficient for control, must do other things to maintain (pretty much exclusive)


these pick off line = symbol that creates visceral reaction that'll polarize people

9 parts of Rhetoric of Agitation

1). Petition
2). Promulgation
3). Solidification
4). Polarization
5). Nonviolence
6). Escalation
7).Guerilla and Gandhi
8). Guerilla Warfare
9). Revolution

Tactics of Escalation

1). Contrast
2). Threaten Disruption
3). Nonverbal Offensive
4). Verbal, Obscene Deprication
5). Non-negotiable Demands
6). Non-verbal Obscenity
7). Token Violence


(tactic of escalation); ensures that the establishment believes that a large number of agitators will show up to an event (communication strategies and magnify event); this isn't dependent on actual turnober but rather just about PERCEPTION

threaten disruption

(tactic of escalation); agitators threaten establishment with disruption; threatening boycotts

nonverbal offensive

(tactic of escalation); they cannot say things, silent protest is pretty strong form, symbolic but nonverbal, things like graffiti, signs, etc

verbal, obscene deprication

(tactic of escalation); they say really awful things about and to the establishment

non-negotiable demands

(tactic of escalation); here's a bottom line, so either fulfill this or we're not talking anymore (in this stage compromise is no longer an option)

non-verbal obscenity

(tactic of escalation); showing obscene things

token violence

(tactic of escalation); like burning ephigies and things like starting small infraction, like pushing an officer...things that push the envelope, might include throwing a brick through a window (violence isn't expected to be the primary strategy)

guerilla and gandhi

this is a combination of nonviolent resistance combined with a group commited to physical violence/disturbance. there are 2 fractions that play off each other: (1) passivists with a purpose and (2) more physical/violent/aggressive; compliment forces (ying and yang)

guerilla warfare

take away passivists, so these are underground attacks, secretive planning, and it's meant to be destructive; it's at the end of the list because once a movement gets to this point, they've exhausted their other options


all out war, violent, more open, more planned end point of all strategies; says there MUST be CHANGE in power structure; more public, unified, anti-establishment, more universally agreed on

4 rhetocial strategies for those in control

1). Avoidance
2). Suppression
3). Adjustment
4). Capitulation

Decision Makers

- in order for these to be the establishment they have to prove they have control
- these have to assume the worst will happen with the agitation
- they must repel any attack (success generally goes to the most ruthless)

Avoidance Tactics

- works best if ambiguously and vaguely being dealt with
- "Formulary Response"
- evade request of agitators and routing them through bueracracy
- postponement- defers decisions or takes them under advisement
- secrecy with a rationale (existance of a higher principal)
- denial of means

formulary response

they can show public and pretend like they listened


persuasion attempt to convince the agitators that they're wrong


evade requests of agitators and routing them through bueracracy; if agitators have more power or access to higher authority then this doesn't work

secrecy with a rationale

establishment hearing demand and don't respond existence of a higher principle; we understand your concern about our military but we won't discuss this because of national security or the "interest of confidentiality"; hard for agitators to argue against

denial of means

denies the agitators the means to meet or voice their ideas (takes away their place/physical things to protest)


defers decisions or takes them under advisement; considered at next board meeting; can be successful if agitators get impatient and do something illegal, then control can point that out


focuses on leaders of movement; includes:
- harrassment of leaders
- overt denial of demands
- banishments
- purgation

harrassment of leaders

(part of suppression); engage in mudslinging that somehow distract from leader or hurt their image; scares the movement's participants (sometimes this comes from vigilantes or others outside establishment)

over denial of demands

(part of suppression); just say no; if establishment stops listening, responding to, so prevents movement from communicating and negotiating with (can make establishment look uncompromising)


(part of suppression); the leaders are excommunicated, expelled, jailed, (works well for establishment because few movements can continue without their leader)


(part of suppression); kill the leaders (most social movements we study, this is unreasonable, but it is important); issues: can create symbollic or make them matyrs, but can hurt movement without new leader; keep in mind that "if you're dead you can't make mistakes"

adjustment tactics

establishments change a little, but they can't let it be seen as a surrender for establishment or a compromise for agitators because then it's like they're not getting their needs met

4 adjustment tactics

1). changing the regulatory agency
2). sacrificing personnel
3). accepting some means of agitation
4). incorporating some personnel or parts of idelogy of agitation

changing the regulartory agency

(adjustment tactics); can be to rename the organization, so it existed under new name, just change means, mechanisms so you just "appear" to be adjusting

sacrificing personnel

(adjustment tactics); fire someone inside the establishment to make it look like you're making adjustments; best if you disband a "flag person" for the agitators

accepting some means of agitation

(adjustment tactics); you allow some agitation to continue, but at a low level (allowed people to read names of dead so, took away press and symbolic power)

incorporating some personnel or parts of ideology of agitation

(adjustment tactics); either hire some of their people or taking on some of their ideology, but all token

Capitulation tactics

- they absolutely surrender
- only taken when the battle is completely lost and then the establishment no longer exists

3 variables of agitation

1). actual membership (high or low) - not numbers, but in terms of context and what they're doing
2). potential membership (high or low) - what's possibility of gaining new members so they look at the strength of the claims and are people likely to be sucespitble to that (would the public genuinely like?)
3). rhetorical sophistication (high or low); tactics that the group is deploying; can leaders deploy all ideas of persuasion are they sophisticated?

3 variables of control

1). power of control (are they powerful or high/low); what type of power, more power
2). strength of ideology (empirically valid or logically consistent)
3). Rhetorical sophistication (high or low); tactics that the group is deploying; can leaders deploy all ideas of persuasion are they sophisticated?

Generalization A in B and O

Agitators low in rhetorical sophistication will use nonviolence, escalation, Gandhi and Guerilla before Petition, Promulgation, Solidification, Polarization have been exhausted; rhetorical sophisticated establishment can easily defeat such a group

Generalization B in B and O

Decision Makers low in rhetorical sophistication engage in avoidance excessively or suppress prematurely; if the agitators are high in rhetorical sophistication, capitulation will occur

Generalization C in B and O

Decision Makers high in rhetorical sophistication always adjust as soon as they perceive that the agitators are high in potential membership, especially when the agitators also have high rhetorical sophistication

Generalization D in B and O

Decision Makers can successfully avoid or suppres when the three variables are balanced between agitation and control (inertia, public doesn't like change)

Generalization E in B and O

when the agitators have few members, low potential members and high rhetorical sophistication, decision makers successfully use avoidance

Generalization F in B and O

the most bloody and protracted agitations occur when the decision makers is high in power, low in ideological strength and low in rhetorical sophistication, while the agitators are low in membership, high in potential membership, and high in rhetorical sophistication

Gamson's 4 suggested outcomes

1). Full response
2). Cooptation
3). Preemption
4). Collapse

Civil Rights Movement

what case study do these relate to?
- smaller occasions and small tactical sit-ins and then grew into something bigger
- importance of nonviolent protest (very actively protest)
- nonviolent does NOT equal passive
- nonviolent = strategic tactic, gain support from public

Civil Rights Movement

what case study do these relate to?
- movements tend to be organic and they need to tap into helpful organizations in order to be effective
- they were solidifying their community and ingroup ties and community
- Vertical move - wanted to be accepted under the establishment

Transnational Environmental Activism

what case study do these relate to?
- social movements aren't just the government, they can also be cultural reform and are important and should be studied
- cross-country borders
- why transnational? concerns they have are global and the greatest power today is in global corporations (capitalism)

Transnational Environmental Activism

what case study do these relate to?
- direct action (tactic): bringing hidden problems to the attention of audiences and that's done in dramatic and dangerous ways
- aim to change attitudes of people, not just regulations

Gay Liberation Movement

what case study do these relate to?
- Vertical: want equal rights and more integrated
- Lateral/Horizontal: (move radical) they want to change the value system
- most incremental changes are lateral, these are a spectrum, not mutually-exclusive, based on tactics,ends, and means

Gay Liberation Movement Vertical Ideas

- allow gays to adopt
- gays want the law changed and then if cultural change occurs that's good too, but not primary focus
- accomodation and integration

Gay Liberation Movement Lateral Ideas

- abolish family
- "reconception of how family is done"

Gay Liberation Movement

2 different bases from where tactics drawn; situated in time with lots of movements and borrowed tactics from women's, anti-war protest; unique to this movement: "Gay Power" ideas, cahnged the understanding of 'coming out,' made it a very powerful, political signification, they used all the 'gay stereotypes' like 'sissy boys'; borrow from whatever is happening now and then figure out what's unique to you and then use that

women's movement

3 stages: (1) Sufferage Movement, (2) 2nd Movement, and (3) more today

sufferage movement

early 1920's; started broad and then they got jealous that black men got vote before them and then it suddenly became very narrow focus and then once they got it they finished and fizzled out

women's movement

the 2nd movement was more inclusive, broad joiners, however, the one's leading were too exclusive

2 principal values for the student of agitation and control

1). it should enable him to make and test predictions about outcomes during specific instances of agitation and control
2). It should enable him to decide which instances of agitation and control are worth studying, i.e. which instances are likely to yield useful insights and refinements for the theory itself

3 agitation variables

1). actual membership
2). potential membership
3). rhetorical sophistication

actual membership

means the number of active memberrs in an agitative group

potential membership

depends on two elements: the strength (logical consistency and empirical validity) of its ideology and the number of people in a society susceptible to that ideology

logical consistency

component of ideological strength; involves the unity and coherence of beliefs within a value system; a measure of the internal validity among beliefs

empirical validity

component of ideological strength; refers to the external truth or falsity of a group's ideological statements and assertions


is determined by a number of social and personal variables

rhetorical sophistication

is the extent to which its leadership is cognizant of and able to apply principles such as are found in conventional books on rhetoric and in analyses

3 control variables

1). power
2). strength (logical consistency and empirical validity)
3). rhetorical sophistication

referent and expert

what are the 2 types of power that can be most easily eroded?

strength of ideology

to the extent that an ideology has logical consistency and empirical validity, it is likely to be impregnable to agitational attack

generalization A in B and O

an agitative group low in rhetorical sophistication uses the strategies of nonviolent resistence, escalation/confrontation, Gandhi and guerilla or guerilla prematurely, before the possibilities of petition, promulgation, solidification, and polarization have been exhausted. This premature agitation attenuates the potential of the agitative group and enhances the power of the establishment

generalization B in B and O

an establishment low in rhetorical sophistication either avoids excessively (when suppresion is impossible, as when the agitative group's strategy has been petition) or suppresses prematurely, and as soon as suppression is possible (in response, for example, to nonviolent resistance) This excessive avoidance and/or premature suppression, especially if violent, attenuates the power of control and enhances the actual and potential membership of the agitative group

generalization C in B and O

an establishment high in rhetorical sophistication always adjusts as soon as it perceives that the agitative group is high in potential membership, especially--but not only--when the agitative group's potential is buttressed by rhetorical sophistication. Most often, control adjusts as a response to the petition strategy, thus avoiding agitation.

generalization D in B and O

although an establishment adjusts voluntarily to an agitative group high in potential (see generalization C), it can always successfully avoid or suppress agitative movements when the three variables are balanced between agitation and control. This is so because the establishment always holds the advantage in legitimate power

generalization E in B and O

when the agitative group is low in actual membership, low in potential membership, and high in rhetorical sophistication, control always successfully uses the strategy of avoidance. A rhetorically sophisticated agitation group always begins with petition.

generalization F in B and O

the most protracted and bloody agitations occur when control is high in power, low in ideological strength, and low in rhetorical sophistication, while the agitators are low in actual membership, high in potential membership, and high in rhetorical sophistication

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