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Human rights and justified existence of goverment as __ __ between the state and its citizens
two writers in 18th century wrote the best-know works. They proposed that both the law and the administration of justice should be based on rationality and human rights.
(15)Cesare /Beccaria & Jeremy Bentham
apply to other potential offenders by showing them that a punished individual would not gain from his or her offense. Such behavior is not profitable
(18) General Deterrance
is the concept of making a punishment sure to happen whenever an undesirable act is committed. See lack of profit in such actions
Bentham: a method of determining the rightness of an action by balancing the probable pleasures and pains that it would produce. A method of working out the sum total of pleasure and pain produced by an act, and thus the total value of its consequences.
(19) Felicific Calculus
human nature simply could not accept the idea of individuals naturally being in a state of consensus or agreement with each other.
not part of the state's base of authority. might tend to make members of a jury exercise leniency out of humane motives, therefore suberting 推翻; 破壞 the law.
(20) Capital punishment
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