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Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?
Producing the hormones melanin and oxytocin
Metabolizing vitamin D to its active form
Maintaining the proper balance between water and salts and between acids and bases
Gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting

Producing the hormones melanin and oxytocin

The _________ is an outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidney and the adrenal gland to surrounding structures. The _________ prevents infections in surrounding regions from spreading to the kidneys.
fibrous capsule; renal fascia
renal fascia; fibrous capsule
renal fascia; perirenal fat capsule
fibrous capsule; perirenal fat capsule

renal fascia; fibrous capsule

The _____________ collect(s) urine, which drains continuously from the papillae; the urine is then emptied into the ______________.
calyces; renal pelvis
renal pyramids; calyces
renal pelvis; calyces
renal pyramids; renal pelvis

calyces; renal pelvis

Each nephron consists of a _______________, which is a tuft of capillaries, and a ___________.
glomerulus; renal tubule
renal plexus; renal tubule
renal plexus; glomerulus
glomerulus; renal plexus

glomerulus; renal tubule

Which of the following is the functional unit of the kidney?
renal pelvis
renal pyramid
renal corpuscle


In which part of the kidney is reabsorption (1) dependent upon the body's needs at the time, and (2) regulated by hormones?
Proximal convoluted tubule
Ascending limb of the loop of Henle
Descending limb of the loop of Henle
Distal convoluted tubule

Distal convoluted tubule

Chemicals that enhance urinary output are called _______________.
countercurrent multipliers
countercurrent exchangers


Which of the following is not one of the things that must happen for micturition to occur?
The detrusor muscle must contract
The internal urethral sphincter must open
The external urethral sphincter must open
The extrusor muscle must relax

The extrusor muscle must relax

Which of the following congenital abnormalities of the urinary system is found in male infants only?
Renal calculi
Polycystic kidney disease
Horseshoe kidney


Which of the following is NOT a major urine formation process?
tubular reabsorption
glomerular filtration
tubular secretion


Which hormone(s) is/are required for facultative water reabsorption in the collecting ducts?
both ADH and aldosterone


A non-fasting urine sample from an individual who has previously eaten donuts and a soft drink showed the presence of sugar (glucose). Which of the following statement explains the presence of the glucose in the urine?
Some glucose is always present in the urine.
The individual has diabetes mellitus.
The individual exceeded the transport maximum.
The individual is glucose intolerant.

The individual exceeded the transport maximum.

Which part of the brain controls the micturition reflex?
medulla oblongata


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