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Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans


an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Half-way covenant

Puritans established this to ease requirements for church membership.


movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society


Religious belief that says God created the world and lets it run itself by natural law

1st great Awakening

a series of religious revivals among Protestants in the American colonies

Mayflower compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.


Pilgrims that live in Plymouth believed that the church of England can not be reformed.


Puritans that lived in Massachusetts Bay. They adopt the reforms to purify the church of Enlgand

Cambridge Agreement

1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control of the government of the colony.

Congregational church

a Protestant denomination holding that each individual congregation should be self-governing

Thomas Hooker

"Father of democracy"

Bacon's Rebellion

A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land

Roger williams

Fought for religious freedom and Founded Rhode Island.


Founded to provide refuge for English debtors.

Proprietary colony

colony run by individuals or groups to whom land was granted

William Penn

Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania

Navigation Acts

Laws passed by the British to control colonial trade

French indian war

a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by Indian tribes).

Proclamation of 1765

Avoid conflict between the Indians and British colonists seeking inexpensive land.

Stamp Act

A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies

The Coercive Acts

Parliaments angry response to the Boston tea party. Designed to punish Massachusetts and Boston for rebellion.

Common sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

The Declaration of independence

The statement agreed by the Continental Congress 1776 proclaiming the freedom and independence of thirteen British colonies in North America and announcing the creation of the United States of America.

The battle of Saratoga

Battle between colonists and British army. This convinced that French government to aid America and declare war on Britian.

The treaty of Paris

1783 Established America's new boundaries.

The Articles of Confederation

America's first constitution which provided for a new central government with limited powers. Its weakness was the lack of authority to tax and the lack to exercise authority directly over the states.

Shay's rebellion

was led by Daniel Shays it was a protest against the land being taken away and the taxes that they had just worked so hard to get rid of

The federal Constitution

a series of compromises that created the United States Government.

Federalist papers

Series of essays that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.


people who opposed the Constitution

Patrick Henry

" Give me liberty or give me death"

Declaratory Act

Anything colonists did were non excistent, had to depend of royal government.

indentured servitude

person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to america.


who stated that a good government mainly left people alone and that government should not be allowed to encroach on people's liberties and on their property.

Townshend act

a law by the British Parliament which states the colonists had to pay a tax on products such as lead, glass, tea, paper and paints

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