Who were Byzantine soldiers that were hired by the government to fight?
decreased the soldiers pay
What did the emperor do when he ran out of money?
They were weaker because the army was made up of mercenaries.
Why did the Persian emperor think this was a good time to attack the Byzantine empire?
Yes, because the Persians won the war.
Was the Persian emperor correct to attack the Byzantine empire while they were weak?
Avars & Bulgars
What was the two tribes in the Balkans that were strong enough to take the land from the Byzantines?
What tribe took over Italy?
1. He reformed the Army 2. He reconquered the land taken by Persia & the Barbarians 3. He made the roads safe for commerce
How did Heraclius help the Byzantine empire?
Heraclius fired the Mercenary soldiers & trained Byzantine peasants for the army.
How did Heraclius reform the army?
Heraclius gave each soldier enough land to support them & their family
How did Heraclius motivate the peasant soldiers to fight since he had no money to pay them?
They were defending their own land
Why did the citizen-soldiers fight harder than the mercenary soldiers had fought?
Heraclius conquered so much new land that he had to re-organize the empire by dividing it into providences called ______?
What are the special groups that united people who had the same trade, such as goldsmiths and notaries called?
Silk was very expensive because it came all the way from China & only important people from the government wore it.
Why was silk such an important item in this empire?
How did the Chinese make silk?
they stole silkworms from China
What did the Byzantine empire do to make their own silk?
What did Heraclius changed the official language to?
What did Heraclius use as the title for their rulers?
Heracluis wanted people to think of them as the Roman empire.
Why did Heracluis change the official language of the Byzantine empire?
As Muhammad went through the Middle East, he discovered jewish merchants whose belief were based on what book?
What did Christian merchants base their belief on?
Who did Muhammad claim he received a special message from, who said Muhammad was a prophet?
Muhammad was supposed to give the Arab people the message from what god?
What is Allah's holy book called?
What religion means "submission to Allah"?
What did they call the people who followed Islam?
What did they call the people that did NOT follow Islam?
They would lose money from the yearly Pilgrimage to Mecca.
The new religion of Islam was different for the people because it only included the worship of one god. If he Arab's accepted Muhammad's new religion, why would the merchants of Mecca would lose money?
Non-Muslim Meccans made Muhammad leave his home in 622, and this flight from Mecca became known as ______?
Which calendar was used to mark the year Muhammad left his home in 622?
Muhammad did not want to leave Mecca because he believed "what" should be the temple of Allah?
It's when Muslims fight for his faith. (holy war)
Describe the term "Jihad":
Who were the men who lead the Muslims after Muhammad's death?
Who was the 1st man that lead the Caliphs?
1. He conquered the Arabian Peninsula 2. converted the people to Islam.
What was Abu-Bakr able to do in only two years?
Khalid ibn al-Walid
Who lead the army into Persia and conquered Persia for Caliph Omar?
What city was Khalid able to take over?
Dome of the Rock
Which Islamic mosque stands in Jerusalem today?
The action & teachings do not match up.
How do the actions of the Muslim generals compare to the Koran's teaching of how to live without fighting?
The Byzantine emperors gave more & more land to peasants who joined the army. Nobility were angry with this practice. How long did the "civil war" last in the land?
Leo the Isaurian
What man began his career as an "administrator" & "a general" in Byzantine government?
Who did Leo the Isaurian become more powerful than?
Emperor Leo III
Leo the Isaurian captured the true emperor & named himself ________?
What did the Byzantines invent as an explosive weapon that burst into flames when it touched the water?
During the time of Leo's reign, who camped outside the walls of Constantinople?
The Byzantines used Greek fire to burn ____ ____ so Leo could bring in supplies for his people.
froze to death & a plague
What else killed the Muslim soldiers camped around Constantinople allowing Leo to take back Asia Minor from the Muslims?
Leo III believed to have authority over the state & church, which is called _____?
What are sacred pictures and statues of Jesus & the saints?
An earthquake shook the place & Leo believed it was a sign from God to destroy them.
What happened to Constantinople that caused Leo to destroy all the statues & pictures in the church?
What is hatred of icons called?
Pope Gregory III
Who disagreed with Leo about destroying the statues & pictures in the church? (This disagreement caused a split in the church into Byzantium & Rome.)
Eastern Orthodox Church, patriarch
The Eastern part of the Catholic church is called ____ & its leader is called _____?
Roman Catholic Church, pope
The western part of the Catholic church is called ____ & its leader is called ____?
Who "reorganized the University of Constantinople", during the Golden Age of the Byzantine Empire?
Who "revised the law" in the Golden Age of the Byzantine Empire?
What new alphabet was invented for Slavic Bible?
Cyril & Methodius
What missionaries translated the Bible into Slavic?
never married, devoted life to making empire stronger, army well trained, made nobles collect taxes, kept church from taking land from peasants
Describe Basil II?
He defeated the Bulgars & captured 14,000 soldiers, blinded them in groups of 100, except for a one-eyed man to lead the way home.