55 terms

5 steps to a 5 chapter 5 Chemistry

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Matter
Is anything that has mass and takes up space.
Element
Is defined as matter in its simplest form.
Atom
Is the smallest form of an element that still displays its particular properties.
Cations
Composed of more protons than electrons which makes it a positive charge.
Anions
Composed of more electrons than protons it makes it a negative charge.
Molecule
combine elements to create a molecule Ex. (O2) oxygen molecule or (H2)=Hydrogen
organic compounds
Compounds that contain carbon. Important examples are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acid.
Inorganic compounds
Compounds that do not contain carbon Exceptions are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and others.
Functional groups
The groups responsible for the chemical properties of organic compounds.
1) Amino group
A functional group that contains -NH2 and that acts as a base; an example is an amino acid.
2) Carbonyl group
A functional group that is hydrophilic and polar. It has a central carbon connected to R groups on either side. If both Rs are carbon chains, It is a Ketone. If one R is a hydrogen and the other a carbon chain, it is an aldehyde.
3) Carboxyl group
An acidic functional group (COOH). This functional group shows up along with amino groups in amino acids.
4) Hydroxyl group
A hydrophilic and polar functional group (-OH) that is present in compounds known as alcohols.
5) Phosphate group
An acidic functional group that is a vital component of molecules that serve as cellular energy sources: ATP, ADP, and GTP.
6) Sulfhydryl group
A functional group that helps stabilize the structure of many proteins.
Amino acid
A compound with a carbon center surrounded by an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen and an R group that provides an amino acid's unique chemical characteristics.
Amines
Compounds containing amino groups.
Aldehyde
Carbonyl group in which one R is a hydrogen and the other is a carbon chain. Hydrophilic and polar.
Ketone
Carbonyl group in which both Rs are carbon chains; hydrophilic and polar.
Hydrophilic
water-loving. Reacts well with water.
Polar
A molecule that has an unequal distribution of charge, which creates a positive and a negative side to the molecule.
Lipids
Hydrophobic organic compounds used by cells as energy stores or building blocks. Three important lipids are fats, steroids and phospholipids.
Fats
Lipids, made by combining glycerol and fatty acids, used as long-term energy stores in cells. They can be saturated or unsaturated.
Oils
A type of lipid.
Steroids
Lipids composed of four carbon rings. Ex. cholesterol, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone.
Phospholipids
Lipid with both a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head; the major component of cell membranes with the hydrophilic phosphate group forming the outside portion and the hydrophobic tail forming the interior of the wall.
Glycerol
Three-carbon molecule that combines with fatty acids to produce a variety of lipids.
Fatty acid
Long carbon chain that contains a carboxyl group on the end that combines with glycerol molecules to form lipids.
Saturated fat
Fat that contains no double bonds. It is associated with heart disease and atherosclerosis.
Unsaturated fat
Fat that contains one or more double bonds; found in plants.
Carbohydrates
Organice compound used by the cells of the human body in energy-producing reactions and as structural material. Three main types of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharide
The simplest form of a carbohydrate. The most important monosaccharide is glucose, which is used in cellular respiration to provide energy for cells.
Disaccharide
A sugar consisting of two monosaccharides bound together. Common disaccharides include sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
Polysaccharide
A carbohydrate usually composed of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharide, which acts as a storage form of energy, and as structural material in and around cells. Starch and glycogen are storage polysaccharides; cellulose and chitin are structural polysaccharides.
Starch
Storage polysaccharide made of glucose molecules; seen in plants.
Glycogen
Storage polysaccharide made of glucose molecules used by animals.
Cellulose
Polysaccharide composed of glucose used by plants to form cell walls.
Chitin
Polysaccharide that is an important part of the exoskeletons of arthropods such as insects, spiders, and shellfish.
Protein
Organic compound composed of chains of amino acids that function as structural components, transport aids, enzymes and cell signals, among other things.
Primary structure
The order of the amino acids that make up the protein.
Secondary structure
Three-dimensional arrangement if a protein caused by hydrogen bonding at regular intervals along polypeptide backbone.
Tertiary structure
Three-dimensional arrangement of a protein caused by interaction among the various R groups of amino acids involved.
Quaternary structure
The arrangement of separate polypeptide "subunits" into a single protein. Not all proteins have quaternary structure; many consist of a single polypeptide chain
Enzymes
Catalytic proteins that are picky, interacting only with particular substances. However, the enzymes can be reused and react with more than one copy of their substrate of choice and have a major effect on a reaction.
Catalysts
Molecules that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy for a reaction.
Substrates
Substances that enzymes act upon.
Active site
Part of the enzyme that interacts with the substrate in an enzyme-substrate complex.
Induced-fit model
Theory that suggests that when an enzyme and a substrate bind together, the enzyme is induced to alter its shape for a tighter active site/substrate attachment, which places the substrate in a favorable position to react more quickly.
Competitive inhibition
Condition in which an inhibitor molecule resembling the substrate binds to the active site and physically blocks the substrate from attaching.
Noncompetitive inhibition
Condition in which an inhibitor molecule binds to an enzyme away from the active site, causing a change in the shape of the active site so that it can no longer interact with the substrate.
1) Hydrolysis reaction
A reaction that breaks down compounds by the addition of H2O.
2) Dehydration synthesis reaction
A reaction in which two compounds are brought together with H2O released as a product.
3) Endergonic reaction
A reaction that requires input of energy to occur.
A+B+energy --> C
4) Exergonic reaction
A reaction that gives off energy as a product.
A+B --> energy+ C
5) Redox reaction
A reaction involving the transfer of electrons. Such reactions occur along the electron transport chain of the mitochondria during respiration.