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Developmental Psychology

STUDY
PLAY
Erikson called the final crisis of development
integrity versus despair
At age 65, Mrs. Walker reacted to her recent retirement in much the same way that she dealt with earlier life changes. This illustrates
continuity theory
The three major stratification categories emphasized in the textbook that can limit choice at every stage of life are
age, gender, and ethnicity
A man who is almost 65 years old develops a more passive style of interaction and withdraws from society. Which theory predicts this behavior?
disengagement
The antithesis of disengagement theory is
activity theory
Recent research has indicated that most older adults
Want to retire as soon as they are eligible
Claire and Dennis have lived in the same house for over 40 years. They reared their children there and were actively involved in the community. As they age, their children want them to move to a nearby small apartment. Like many other older adults, Claire and Dennis
prefer to age in place
Which of the following is a program for continuing education for the elderly in the U. S.?
Elderhostel
Most studies of marriages of long duration find that compared to younger adults, the elderly are
happier in their marriages
After losing a spouse, older women typically
enjoy their independence, choosing not to remarry
Elderly men may be more troubled by losing a spouse than elderly women are because men
are less likely to seek out comfort and help
Earl and Lynn enjoy babysitting their grandchild when their other commitments and their busy lifestyle give them time for it. Their grandparenting style is
compasionate
Which of the following is one fo the ADLs?
bathing
Most elder abuse is committed by
adult children
Which of the following is a risk factor for elder abuse?
dementia in the abuse victim, dependence on the victim by the perpetrator, social isolation (All of the above)
Which of the following is one of the IADLs?
grocery shopping
The most common cause of dementia is
Alzheimer disease
The first stage of Alzheimer disease is characterized by
absentmindedness about recent events
The term "ageism" refers to
Judging people on the basis of chronological age
Consequences of a particular chronic disease are characteristic of what type of aging?
secondary
A dependency ratio is calculated by comparing the number of _____ with the number of _____.
dependents; self-supporting individuals
The main reason we may not notice the young-old is that
they do not fit out stereotypes of the elderly
The irreversible changes that naturally occur with time are called_____ aging
primary
Which senses become less sharp in late adulthood?
smell and tast, hearing and vision, touch and smell (All of the answers are correct)
Dementia is
the pathological loss of brain functioning
The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older people
develop an appreciation for the aesthetic
Mrs. Calderi is 70 years old and, as a typical person in late adulthood, she
is quite happy and enjoying her life.
Maximum life span is said to be____years for humans
122
One function of working memory is
temporary storage of information for conscious use
When Alzheimer disease appears in middle age, it
progresses more rapidly
centenarians are usually
quite content and happy even if they have disabilities
The biggest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is being
old
Randy moved across the country to advance his career. Though he moved alone, he soon developed a group of co-workers and friends who became like a gamily to him. They served as his
social convoy
According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in
stagnation and personal impoverishment
Who is most likely to feel burdened with elder care?
a daughter-in-law
Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. The quality of their marriage should
improve since they have more time to spend together
In the U.S. today, the social clock
allows for greater diversity than in the past
The loosening of gender restrictions during middle age is most likely to lead to a gender
convergence
Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents
improves with age
In some cultures, as they grow older, men find it easier to express emotions and women tend to
assert themselves
The Big Five personality traits
become quite stable by age 30
According to Erikson, when individuals are productive in an unselfish and caring way, they are demonstrating
generativity
A person who seems to thrive on changes in his or her work, lifestyle, and relationships would most likely be rated high on the personality dimension called
openness
Because they are called on to help both older and younger generations of the family, middle-aged adults have called the
sandwich generation
Which most accurately depicts middle age?
Changes do not necessarily cluster around age 40
In a typical family, the "kinkeeper" is most likely to be
a middle-aged mother
Familism may be defined as the
belief that family members take care of each other
The person most likely to take care of an older individual with a dementia is
the patient's daughter
The changes in appearance that occur in middle adulthood
Include changes in skin, hair, and fat distribution, can be made worse by poor lifestyle choices, are inevitable results of primary aging (All of the answers are correct
By the end of middle age, nearly everyone needs
reading glasses
Who will most likely have marked symptoms of menopause?
Norma, who just had a hysterectomy
One of the effects of moderate drinking is
a reduction in coronary heart disease
In middle adulthood, an individual is considered obese who
has a BMI of 30 or more
One measure of health is morbidity, which
includes both acute and chronic illnesses
The inability to enjoy life is measure by
mobility and vitality
The idea that intelligence always declines throughout adulthood was
supported by early cross-sectional studies
The research design that involves testing groups of subjects of different ages multiple times and comparing their scores with their own scores in precious periods and with the scores of new groups of adults of the same ages is called
cross-sequential research
Of the following, the best example of fluid intelligence is
the ability to quickly perceive logical relationships between words
The decline in fluid intelligence during middle adulthood
is temporary counteracted by increases in crystallized intelligence
Which of Sternberg's three aspects of intelligence could be called "street smarts"?
practical
Which of the following affects the development of expertise?
talent, age, practice (all of the answers are correct)
hormone replacement therapy for menopausal women involves taking
estrogen or estrogen/progesterone combination
In general, post-menopausal women may reduce the severity of menopause if they
Eat a healthful diet high in calcium, exercise, avoid smoking (all of the above)
Wendell has bone cancer and must use a wheelchair to accomplish his daily activities. He feels healthy and energetic and spends his days in a clown costume at the local children's hospital. Which of the following is true for Wendell?
He is disabled and has a high level of vitality
Which of the following statements is true regarding the overall health and longevity of emerging adults?
Worldwide, emerging adults can now expect to live longer, healthier lives than a few decades ago
Which of the following refers to the body's natural adjustment to any disruptions?
homeostasis
While nature is primarily responsible for the maturity and health of the reproductive system in emerging adults, which of the following more strongly influences birth rates and sexual activity
social context
Today's emerging adults have____ sexual partners and ____babies than the emerging adults of only a few years ago.
more; fewer
If you were to ask a 22-year-old college students how she feels about premarital sex, and she agrees with the majority, she would say that premarital sex is
acceptable
Which of the following is true of edgework?
If a risky business investment fails, emerging adults are less likely to be devastated than older investors
Emerging adults are more likely than high school seniors to be addicted to
cigarettes
When asked to estimate how much their peers smoke, drink, and do other drugs, college students tend to ____.
overestimate
If someone were to ask you whether or not an individual's personality remains stable from childhood through adulthood, how would you answer them?
Personality is both continuous and discontinuous
Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?
OCD
Jacoby's mother had schizophrenia, and so Jacoby is experiencing severe stress due to his new job and his grandfather's unexpected death. He is beginning to display symptoms of schizophrenia. The manifestation of these symptoms is best explained by which of the following developmental concepts?
the diathesis-stress model
According to Erikson, once the emerging adult has established a sense of identity, they will need to resolve which of the following crises?
intimacy versus isolation
How do friends differ from family members?
Friends are chosen for qualities that make them food companions
Which of the following is true of couples who cohabit before they are married?
They are more likely to divorce if they marry
In the US, emerging adults are less likely to live at home than those in some other cultures. Which of the following is true
They are still likely to receive financial support from their parents
Emily is taking a mathematics exam and is concerned about the fact that her performance will confirm her friend's expectations that girls do not perform as well on mathematics exams as compared to boys. Emily is experiencing
stereotype threat
Which of the following refers to the ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, and then make general conclusions?
inductive reasoning
Which of the following is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?
completed suicide
According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and no commitment is
diffusion
Gender identity refers to _____, while sexual orientation refers to _______.
self-definition as male or female; erotic desires
What is the most frequently abused drug among North American teenagers?
alcohol
Marsha says, "There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Marsha is demonstrating
her belief in an imaginary audience
Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens' health care. From this premis, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of
deductive reasoning
The period when children's bodies become adultlike is called
puberty
Shortly ager Brittany turned 18, she developed a newfound appreciation of her parents. What contributed to her attitude change?
increased emotional maturity and reduced egocentrism
You are a researcher conducting interviews with young adolescents and their parents. You ask 12-year-old girls if they had ever hugged or kissed a boy for a long time or hung out with older boys. You then ask their parents if their 12-year-old daughters had engaged in these behaviors. If your results are similar to other surveys, what would you find?
The parents' answers grossly underestimate their daughters' behavior
An adolescent's statement that, "But, Mother, you just don't understand; nobody understands!" is indicative of
adolescent egocentrism
According to Erikson, adolescents are in the stage of
identity versus role confusion
According to international statistics, teenagers in the US have many more births than teenagers in any other developed nation. The reason for this troubling statistic is that
teenagers in the US use less contraception than those in other countries
Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably
put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale
The most common risk factor for suicide in general is
a diagnosable psychiatric disorder
In the US suicide spike (larger increases)
In the 15-24 and over 65 age groups
Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. Even though these activities may seem boring, they are all part of Barbara's developing a healthy sense of
industry
A major coping measure that helps children and families deal with problems and stress is
social support
Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouragin learning are three of the
functions of a family
The most common type of family for children in the US is the
nuclear family
School-aged children would most admire
Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane
Social cognition refers to
the ability to understand social interactions
Liv is an extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a
withdrawn-rejected child
Girls who bully typically
mock and ridicule their victim
Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn't. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg's view of moral development
preconventional
The term menarche refers to
a girl's first menstrual period
For males, the hormone that produces most sexual changes is
testosterone
Which of the following statements is correct regarding the relationship between body fat and the onset of puberty?
There is a positive correlation between obesity and early onset of puberty
Josephina is obsessed with her weight, yet she will eat a whole package of Oreos in one sitting. Afterwards she will go into the bathroom and make herself vomit. Josephina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. Josephina most likely suffers from
bulimia nervosa
Which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder?
the family sharing meals together
A Florida man killed a doctor who performed abortions. The man knew this was a crime, and he knew he could be convicted of murder. He said abortion was worth dying for. This is an example of
postconventional morality
Which of the following factors is related to resilience in at-risk children
Self-efficacy, having positive role-models outside the family, structure and rules within the household (All of the above)
When capable of concrete operational thought, children
can apply their reasoning to real situations
The process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence enough times to no longer require much conscious thought is called
automatization
The ability to understand the connection between one fact and another, even though it is not stated, is called
transitive inference
School-aged children move toward more flexible logic as a result of decreasing
egocentrism
Which information is most likely to be in your current working memory?
the answer to this question
Which of the following abilities is necessary in order for children to be aware of what they already know and what they still need to learn?
metacognition
John has moved to Spain with his family. He attends a public school. All of his school subjects are taught in Spanish. John is learning SPanish through
immersion
Although the test you are now taking measures many things, it is upposed to be a test
achievement
Because of better health, smaller families, and more schooling. some nations have exhibited substantial increases in IQ scores. This phenomenon is called the
Flynn Effect
Giving a score for spatial intelligence in an intelligence test originates from the theory of
Howard Gardner
Insights from normal developmental are applied to the study of childhood disorders in
developmental psychopathology
In early childhood, autistic children have difficulty
with communication
The most devastating problem for autistic individuals as they grow up is their lack of
social understanding
Piaget has provide us with the _____ of children's concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the _____.
individual context; behaviorist context
Obesity in children is related to
TV watching, Lower SES, An inactive lifestyle (All of the above)
Treatment for obesity in children
Should emphasize increased activity
Theorists who support a focus on children's understanding as opposed to observable behavior are
cognitive theorists
According to Erikson, which of the following is typical of young children?
an immodest self-concept
Excessive guilt, shame, or sense of worthlessness constitutes which of the following?
internalizing problems
Identify the scenario that best demonstrates learning theories
Christine wears a dress, and both her parents tell her how pretty she looks
To be successfully resolve the Oedipus complex, the child must
strive to be like the father, in behavior and attitude
Which type of aggression tends to be characteristic of 2-year-olds?
reactive
Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who are
permissive
According to your text, _____differences are biological and ______differences are culturally prescibed
sex; gender
Three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier
relational aggression
Gilbert is an impulsive child. Which of the following is important if he is to develop healthy emotional regulation?
nurturing caregivers
Billy and Rodney are both building toys out of Legos, but they are sitting apart, each with their own set of blocks. What type of play is this?
parallel play
Parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children are exhibiting the
authoritative pattern of parenting
Sara, Molly, and Shy are playing dress-up. They are all princesses and have built a castle out of cardboard boxes and colored paper. What type of play are the three girls engaging in?
sociodramatic play
Four-year-old Bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. Most likely. as he grows older
he will become aggressive himself
Physical punishment
tends to suppress behavior in the short term
To make punishment more effective
Make it consistent, make it age appropriate, punish immediately after the infraction of possible (All of the above)
Secondary prevention involves
responding of the first warning signs of a problem
A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is called
theory of mind
Which type of injury prevention begins after an injury and is intended to limit the damage caused by the injury
tertiary
Which of the following is the best way to ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake
eat will-balanced meals with a variety of foods
The piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only from his personal perspective is
egocentrism
Skills that person can perform with assistance, but which they cannot quite perform on their own, lie within the
zone of proximal development
Gross motor skills such as riding a tricycle are acquired
through a combination of brain maturation and practice
Which of the following is the best example of scaffolding?
Miriam helps her son Ben make cookies. She measures all of the ingredients out and places them on the counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud while simplifying it as Ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon.
The ability to control one's impulsiveness appears to be directly related to the development of the
prefrontal cortex
"I catched two mices in a trap" is an example of
overregularization
Kayla is 4 years old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more efficiently. This development may be attributed to
growth of the corpus callosum
Piaget believed that between the ages of 2 and 6, it is difficult for children to think
logically
Romy understands that if she has 4 pieces of pizza and we giver her 2 more, she will have 6. However, she does not know what happens if she has 6 and we take away 2. Piaget would say that Romy
has demonstrated irreversible thinking
4-year-old Jon is sitting at the lunch counter next to his sister Erin. They are having hotdogs for lunch. Mom cuts Jon's hotdog into 5 pieces and Erin's into 6 pieces. Jon protests because "Erin has more than me!"
conservation
OF the following types of child maltreatment, which is the most common?
Neglect
Risk factors for child maltreatment would include
Extreme poverty, a home that contains general domestic violence, social isolation (All of the above)
At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recently developed emotional reaction is likely to be
a social smile
Researchers placed a dot of rouge on babies' noses and then had them look into a mirror. At what average age did most babies touch their noses when they saw their reflection?
18 months
Which specific are of the cortex in the brain is responsible for emotional self-regulation
the anterior cingulate gyrus
In Erikson's theory, the infant's earliest task is described as that of
learning whether the world can be trusted to meet basic needs
According to Erikson's theory, which of the following is true of most toddlers?
They want to gain a sense of autonomy, or control, over their own bodies
Concerning temperament and personality, research has found that
temperament is linked to biological patterns that appear in infancy
Margarita and Roberto are warm, nurturing parents who held their baby all of the time and cradled him. They are exhibiting
proximal parenting
When Caitlin falls and hurts herself, she runs to her mother crying. Rather than comforting Caitlin, her mother offers her a toy to distract her. Her mother is
distal parent
Coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called
synchrony
"Proximity-seeking" and "contact-maintaining" behaviors are displays of
attachment
Which of the following is a sign of secure attachment
a child's attempt to be close tot he caregiver after a period of exploration
Ruby does not notice when her mother leaves the day care center and ignores her mother when she returns. Ruby's behavior is characteristic of
insecure-avoidant attachment
Basically, the Strange Situation measures how a child
responds to separations and reunions with a caregiver
A parent and a toddler meet someone the toddler does not know but who makes the parent nervous the toddler will probably
act anxious
Taken as a while, the research on the effects of daycare on attachment generally
shows that daycare is more likely to have a negative effect when mothers are inattentive and the child spends a lot of time in daycare
With respect to toilet training, research indicates
starting training before 18mo is often related to slower completion
The sense that is the least developed at birth is
vision
Research on SIDS has shown that babies should be
put to sleep on their backs
Piaget believed children begin to develop cognitively at
birth
The language acquisition device (LAD) was proposed by Chomsky to explain
the universal inborn ability to learn language
According to Jean Piaget, the two elements of adaptation are
assimilation and accommodation
The are of the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses and is the last part of the brain to mature is the
prefrontal cortex
Salma is a 10 month old who is being tested on the visual cliff. We would expect her to
refuse to cross over the visual cliff
Using the word more to mean "I want a cookie" is an
holophrase
Which of the following demonstrates the Babinski reflex
An infant's toes fan upward when her foot is stroked
Newborns prefer
speech over most other sounds
Studies comparing breast-feeding with bottle-feeding show that
breast-fed babies have fewer allergies and stomachaches
Piaget believed that object permanence developed at about 8 months of age. Which of the following is true
Piaget was incorrect because his methods confused an infants' motor abilities with their cognitive abilities and object permanence occurs earlier
Human Milk Banks in the US provide breast milk for infants primarily for which of the following
For infants who cannot tolerate formula
Ann-Marie started walking when she was 10 months old; Cynthia is just beginning to take steps by herself at 13 months. Which of the following is most likely?
Both girls are developing normally
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, breastfeeding is not as popular as it should be due to
lack of societal support, physician apathy, marketing by formula companies (All of the above)
A toddler experimentally varies the way she handles a ball - first squeezing it, then throwing it - in order to learn what effect each variation has. This child is demonstrating
tertiary circular reactions
When a sperm and ovum unite, what is formed?
a zygote
Phenotype refers to
the actual expression of genetic traits
Which of the following statements is true regarding monozygotic twins?
Even though they begin with identical genotypes, their phenotypes may differ at birth
Dizygotic twins are produced when
two ova are fertilized by two different sperm at roughly the same time
A gene is recessive when
its influence can be hidden by a more powerful gene
Children with Down syndrome are generally
slow to develop language
The longest period of prenatal development is the
fetal period
The 5 characteristics that are evaluated in the Apgar are
heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes
Henry was adopted and is genetically predisposed toward alcoholism. However, his adoptive family does not drink; they actively avoid alcohol for religious reasons. Given Henry's genetic potential
alcoholism might not appear in Henry's phenotype
Which of the following is important to remember when considering that genes are a major influence on behaviors, disease, and disorders?
"Genes are not destiny"
Which of the following terms describes the level at which a certain teratogen becomes harmful?
threshold effect
If your mom's family members all have very dark skin and your dad's family members all have very light skin, your skin color may be somewhere in between. Each parent's genes contributed in a ________fashion.
additive
If individuals with Down syndrome survive to middle age, they often develop
dementia
Probably the major cause of Low Birth Weight in the US is
drug use, including tobacco and alcohol
Good prenatal care involves
taking vitamins, seeing a physician, maintaining appropriate (All of the above)
According to modern scientific evidence on the concept of bonding
For proper nurturing to occur in humans, immediate skin-to-skin contact is not necessary
A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers, and then he observed their aggression levels. In this study, the independent variable was the
viewing of the violent film
Which of the following would be an example of qualitative data collection?
Interviewing all of the siblings of a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions
An individual's socioeconomic status includes
level of education
If you find a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that
high attendance and high grades tend to occur together
Dora, who is 75 years old, disagrees completely with her teenage granddaughter about the proper role of women. Their arguments are most likely to arise from differences in which context?
historical
If researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of
longitudinal research
After he for his first job and a regular paycheck, Juan found himself buying more and more DVDs, especially as he got pay raises. The correlation between the size of his paycheck and the DVDs is
positive
A researcher was interested in finding out whether children's ability to exhibit self-control when offered unhealthy food changed with age. He asked parents of three-year-old, 6 year old, and 9 year old children to bring their children into the lab, where they were allowed to eat as much candy, cookies, and cake as they wanted. The researcher then compare the amount of food eaten by children of the three different ages. This is an example of
cross-sectional research
When her grandfather stuck his tongue out at her, tow day old leila stuck her tongue out in return. How might scientists explain her behavior
Mirror neurons were activated
What is a "critical period" of development
when certain things must occur for normal development
Identify an example of a cultural phenomenon
American babies usually sleep in a room separate from their parents
A cross sequential design
follows two or more groups of people who are of different ages over a period of time
At 55 years of age, Ross lost his job and had to be retrained in a new field that required taking a course over the Internet. Never having gone online, he was baffled while his younger classmates excelled. His frustration may be attributed to differences in the
historical context
Imagine you and your friend are having a discussion about politics, Your friend makes an argument that puts your views into disequilibrium. If you respond by believing that your friend is simply uninformed or dumb, Piaget would say that you are demonstrating
assimilation
After watching a new Jackie Chan movie, Rob tries some of the karate moves he saw in the film. Social learning theorists would say that ______has occurred
modeling
Piaget's theory of development focused primarily on
how our thinking changes as we grow older