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Erikson called the final crisis of development

integrity versus despair

At age 65, Mrs. Walker reacted to her recent retirement in much the same way that she dealt with earlier life changes. This illustrates

continuity theory

The three major stratification categories emphasized in the textbook that can limit choice at every stage of life are

age, gender, and ethnicity

A man who is almost 65 years old develops a more passive style of interaction and withdraws from society. Which theory predicts this behavior?


The antithesis of disengagement theory is

activity theory

Recent research has indicated that most older adults

Want to retire as soon as they are eligible

Claire and Dennis have lived in the same house for over 40 years. They reared their children there and were actively involved in the community. As they age, their children want them to move to a nearby small apartment. Like many other older adults, Claire and Dennis

prefer to age in place

Which of the following is a program for continuing education for the elderly in the U. S.?


Most studies of marriages of long duration find that compared to younger adults, the elderly are

happier in their marriages

After losing a spouse, older women typically

enjoy their independence, choosing not to remarry

Elderly men may be more troubled by losing a spouse than elderly women are because men

are less likely to seek out comfort and help

Earl and Lynn enjoy babysitting their grandchild when their other commitments and their busy lifestyle give them time for it. Their grandparenting style is


Which of the following is one fo the ADLs?


Most elder abuse is committed by

adult children

Which of the following is a risk factor for elder abuse?

dementia in the abuse victim, dependence on the victim by the perpetrator, social isolation (All of the above)

Which of the following is one of the IADLs?

grocery shopping

The most common cause of dementia is

Alzheimer disease

The first stage of Alzheimer disease is characterized by

absentmindedness about recent events

The term "ageism" refers to

Judging people on the basis of chronological age

Consequences of a particular chronic disease are characteristic of what type of aging?


A dependency ratio is calculated by comparing the number of _____ with the number of _____.

dependents; self-supporting individuals

The main reason we may not notice the young-old is that

they do not fit out stereotypes of the elderly

The irreversible changes that naturally occur with time are called_____ aging


Which senses become less sharp in late adulthood?

smell and tast, hearing and vision, touch and smell (All of the answers are correct)

Dementia is

the pathological loss of brain functioning

The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older people

develop an appreciation for the aesthetic

Mrs. Calderi is 70 years old and, as a typical person in late adulthood, she

is quite happy and enjoying her life.

Maximum life span is said to be____years for humans


One function of working memory is

temporary storage of information for conscious use

When Alzheimer disease appears in middle age, it

progresses more rapidly

centenarians are usually

quite content and happy even if they have disabilities

The biggest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is being


Randy moved across the country to advance his career. Though he moved alone, he soon developed a group of co-workers and friends who became like a gamily to him. They served as his

social convoy

According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in

stagnation and personal impoverishment

Who is most likely to feel burdened with elder care?

a daughter-in-law

Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. The quality of their marriage should

improve since they have more time to spend together

In the U.S. today, the social clock

allows for greater diversity than in the past

The loosening of gender restrictions during middle age is most likely to lead to a gender


Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents

improves with age

In some cultures, as they grow older, men find it easier to express emotions and women tend to

assert themselves

The Big Five personality traits

become quite stable by age 30

According to Erikson, when individuals are productive in an unselfish and caring way, they are demonstrating


A person who seems to thrive on changes in his or her work, lifestyle, and relationships would most likely be rated high on the personality dimension called


Because they are called on to help both older and younger generations of the family, middle-aged adults have called the

sandwich generation

Which most accurately depicts middle age?

Changes do not necessarily cluster around age 40

In a typical family, the "kinkeeper" is most likely to be

a middle-aged mother

Familism may be defined as the

belief that family members take care of each other

The person most likely to take care of an older individual with a dementia is

the patient's daughter

The changes in appearance that occur in middle adulthood

Include changes in skin, hair, and fat distribution, can be made worse by poor lifestyle choices, are inevitable results of primary aging (All of the answers are correct

By the end of middle age, nearly everyone needs

reading glasses

Who will most likely have marked symptoms of menopause?

Norma, who just had a hysterectomy

One of the effects of moderate drinking is

a reduction in coronary heart disease

In middle adulthood, an individual is considered obese who

has a BMI of 30 or more

One measure of health is morbidity, which

includes both acute and chronic illnesses

The inability to enjoy life is measure by

mobility and vitality

The idea that intelligence always declines throughout adulthood was

supported by early cross-sectional studies

The research design that involves testing groups of subjects of different ages multiple times and comparing their scores with their own scores in precious periods and with the scores of new groups of adults of the same ages is called

cross-sequential research

Of the following, the best example of fluid intelligence is

the ability to quickly perceive logical relationships between words

The decline in fluid intelligence during middle adulthood

is temporary counteracted by increases in crystallized intelligence

Which of Sternberg's three aspects of intelligence could be called "street smarts"?


Which of the following affects the development of expertise?

talent, age, practice (all of the answers are correct)

hormone replacement therapy for menopausal women involves taking

estrogen or estrogen/progesterone combination

In general, post-menopausal women may reduce the severity of menopause if they

Eat a healthful diet high in calcium, exercise, avoid smoking (all of the above)

Wendell has bone cancer and must use a wheelchair to accomplish his daily activities. He feels healthy and energetic and spends his days in a clown costume at the local children's hospital. Which of the following is true for Wendell?

He is disabled and has a high level of vitality

Which of the following statements is true regarding the overall health and longevity of emerging adults?

Worldwide, emerging adults can now expect to live longer, healthier lives than a few decades ago

Which of the following refers to the body's natural adjustment to any disruptions?


While nature is primarily responsible for the maturity and health of the reproductive system in emerging adults, which of the following more strongly influences birth rates and sexual activity

social context

Today's emerging adults have____ sexual partners and ____babies than the emerging adults of only a few years ago.

more; fewer

If you were to ask a 22-year-old college students how she feels about premarital sex, and she agrees with the majority, she would say that premarital sex is


Which of the following is true of edgework?

If a risky business investment fails, emerging adults are less likely to be devastated than older investors

Emerging adults are more likely than high school seniors to be addicted to


When asked to estimate how much their peers smoke, drink, and do other drugs, college students tend to ____.


If someone were to ask you whether or not an individual's personality remains stable from childhood through adulthood, how would you answer them?

Personality is both continuous and discontinuous

Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?


Jacoby's mother had schizophrenia, and so Jacoby is experiencing severe stress due to his new job and his grandfather's unexpected death. He is beginning to display symptoms of schizophrenia. The manifestation of these symptoms is best explained by which of the following developmental concepts?

the diathesis-stress model

According to Erikson, once the emerging adult has established a sense of identity, they will need to resolve which of the following crises?

intimacy versus isolation

How do friends differ from family members?

Friends are chosen for qualities that make them food companions

Which of the following is true of couples who cohabit before they are married?

They are more likely to divorce if they marry

In the US, emerging adults are less likely to live at home than those in some other cultures. Which of the following is true

They are still likely to receive financial support from their parents

Emily is taking a mathematics exam and is concerned about the fact that her performance will confirm her friend's expectations that girls do not perform as well on mathematics exams as compared to boys. Emily is experiencing

stereotype threat

Which of the following refers to the ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, and then make general conclusions?

inductive reasoning

Which of the following is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?

completed suicide

According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and no commitment is


Gender identity refers to _____, while sexual orientation refers to _______.

self-definition as male or female; erotic desires

What is the most frequently abused drug among North American teenagers?


Marsha says, "There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Marsha is demonstrating

her belief in an imaginary audience

Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens' health care. From this premis, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of

deductive reasoning

The period when children's bodies become adultlike is called


Shortly ager Brittany turned 18, she developed a newfound appreciation of her parents. What contributed to her attitude change?

increased emotional maturity and reduced egocentrism

You are a researcher conducting interviews with young adolescents and their parents. You ask 12-year-old girls if they had ever hugged or kissed a boy for a long time or hung out with older boys. You then ask their parents if their 12-year-old daughters had engaged in these behaviors. If your results are similar to other surveys, what would you find?

The parents' answers grossly underestimate their daughters' behavior

An adolescent's statement that, "But, Mother, you just don't understand; nobody understands!" is indicative of

adolescent egocentrism

According to Erikson, adolescents are in the stage of

identity versus role confusion

According to international statistics, teenagers in the US have many more births than teenagers in any other developed nation. The reason for this troubling statistic is that

teenagers in the US use less contraception than those in other countries

Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably

put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale

The most common risk factor for suicide in general is

a diagnosable psychiatric disorder

In the US suicide spike (larger increases)

In the 15-24 and over 65 age groups

Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. Even though these activities may seem boring, they are all part of Barbara's developing a healthy sense of


A major coping measure that helps children and families deal with problems and stress is

social support

Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouragin learning are three of the

functions of a family

The most common type of family for children in the US is the

nuclear family

School-aged children would most admire

Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane

Social cognition refers to

the ability to understand social interactions

Liv is an extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a

withdrawn-rejected child

Girls who bully typically

mock and ridicule their victim

Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn't. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg's view of moral development


The term menarche refers to

a girl's first menstrual period

For males, the hormone that produces most sexual changes is


Which of the following statements is correct regarding the relationship between body fat and the onset of puberty?

There is a positive correlation between obesity and early onset of puberty

Josephina is obsessed with her weight, yet she will eat a whole package of Oreos in one sitting. Afterwards she will go into the bathroom and make herself vomit. Josephina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. Josephina most likely suffers from

bulimia nervosa

Which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder?

the family sharing meals together

A Florida man killed a doctor who performed abortions. The man knew this was a crime, and he knew he could be convicted of murder. He said abortion was worth dying for. This is an example of

postconventional morality

Which of the following factors is related to resilience in at-risk children

Self-efficacy, having positive role-models outside the family, structure and rules within the household (All of the above)

When capable of concrete operational thought, children

can apply their reasoning to real situations

The process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence enough times to no longer require much conscious thought is called


The ability to understand the connection between one fact and another, even though it is not stated, is called

transitive inference

School-aged children move toward more flexible logic as a result of decreasing


Which information is most likely to be in your current working memory?

the answer to this question

Which of the following abilities is necessary in order for children to be aware of what they already know and what they still need to learn?


John has moved to Spain with his family. He attends a public school. All of his school subjects are taught in Spanish. John is learning SPanish through


Although the test you are now taking measures many things, it is upposed to be a test


Because of better health, smaller families, and more schooling. some nations have exhibited substantial increases in IQ scores. This phenomenon is called the

Flynn Effect

Giving a score for spatial intelligence in an intelligence test originates from the theory of

Howard Gardner

Insights from normal developmental are applied to the study of childhood disorders in

developmental psychopathology

In early childhood, autistic children have difficulty

with communication

The most devastating problem for autistic individuals as they grow up is their lack of

social understanding

Piaget has provide us with the _____ of children's concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the _____.

individual context; behaviorist context

Obesity in children is related to

TV watching, Lower SES, An inactive lifestyle (All of the above)

Treatment for obesity in children

Should emphasize increased activity

Theorists who support a focus on children's understanding as opposed to observable behavior are

cognitive theorists

According to Erikson, which of the following is typical of young children?

an immodest self-concept

Excessive guilt, shame, or sense of worthlessness constitutes which of the following?

internalizing problems

Identify the scenario that best demonstrates learning theories

Christine wears a dress, and both her parents tell her how pretty she looks

To be successfully resolve the Oedipus complex, the child must

strive to be like the father, in behavior and attitude

Which type of aggression tends to be characteristic of 2-year-olds?


Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who are


According to your text, _____differences are biological and ______differences are culturally prescibed

sex; gender

Three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier

relational aggression

Gilbert is an impulsive child. Which of the following is important if he is to develop healthy emotional regulation?

nurturing caregivers

Billy and Rodney are both building toys out of Legos, but they are sitting apart, each with their own set of blocks. What type of play is this?

parallel play

Parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children are exhibiting the

authoritative pattern of parenting

Sara, Molly, and Shy are playing dress-up. They are all princesses and have built a castle out of cardboard boxes and colored paper. What type of play are the three girls engaging in?

sociodramatic play

Four-year-old Bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. Most likely. as he grows older

he will become aggressive himself

Physical punishment

tends to suppress behavior in the short term

To make punishment more effective

Make it consistent, make it age appropriate, punish immediately after the infraction of possible (All of the above)

Secondary prevention involves

responding of the first warning signs of a problem

A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is called

theory of mind

Which type of injury prevention begins after an injury and is intended to limit the damage caused by the injury


Which of the following is the best way to ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake

eat will-balanced meals with a variety of foods

The piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only from his personal perspective is


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