57 terms

AP Human Geography Exam Review

Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives
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absolute location
position of an object on the global grid; latitude and longitude
anglocentric
focused on the English culture
Azimuthal projection
Map that maintains direction but distorts other properties flat-plane-constructed map of each hemispherel direction is accurate, and great-circle routes are apparent.
Cardinal directions
North, south, east, and west.
Cartogram
Map that uses proportionality (i.e., space on the map) to show a particular
Cartography
process of mapmaking.
Choropleth thematic map
Map that shows a pattern of a variable, such as population density or voting patterns, by using various colors or degrees of shading
Cognitive (mental) map
Map drawn from memory
Conformal (orthomorphic) projection
Map that maintains shape but distorts other properties
Cultural ecology
Study of human-environment interaction
Data aggregation
Size of geographic units being represented on a map.
Distance decay
Pattern in which the interaction between two places declines as the distance between the two places increases.
Distortion
Necessary error resulting from trying to represent the round, nearly spherical earth on a flat plane, or map.
Dot density map
Thematic map that uses dots to represent the frequency of a variable in a given area
Equal-area (equivalent) projection
Map that maintains area but distorts other properties
Equidistant projection
Map that maintains distance but distors other properties
Formal region
Region composed of areas that have a common (uniform) cultural or physical feature; sometimes referred to as uniform regions
Four main properties of a map
Shape, size (area), distance, and direction. Shape refers to the geometric shapes of the objects on the map. Size (area) refers to the relative amount of space taken up on the map by the landforms or objects on the map. Distance refers to the represented distance between objects on the map. Direction refers to the degree of accuracy representing the cardinal and immediate directions.
Friction of distance
Degree to which distance interferes with some interaction
Functional region
Group of places linked together by some function's influence on them after diffusing from a central node; sometimes referred to as a nodal region.
Geographic information system (GIS)
Computer program that stores geographic data and produces maps to show the data
geographic model
Simplified version of what exists on the earth or what might exist in the future; helps a geographer search for answers on why patterns exist on the earth as they do,
Global positioning system (GPS)
System of satellites used to determine an exact location on the global grid
Great circles
Circles formed on the surface of the earth by a plane that passes through the center of the earth. The equator and every line of longitude paired with its twin on the opposite side of the earth form great circles. Any arc of a great circle shows the shortest distance between two points on the earth's surface.
Greenwich mean time (GMT)
Baseline for time zones around the world, centered on the prime meridian; sometimes called Universal time
Human-environment interaction
one theme of geography through which geographers analyze humans; impact on their environment and their environment's impact on them
Human geography
Branch of geography primarily concerned with analyzing the structures, processes, and location of human creations and interactions with the earth.
Intermediate directions
Northwest, southwest, northeast, and southeast
Isoline thematic map
Map displaying lines that connect points of equal value; for example, a map showing elevation levels
Lines of latitude
Measured in degrees north and south from the equator, which is 0 degrees latitude. The North Pole is 90 degrees north latitude, and the South Pole is 90 degrees south latitude. Lines of latitude never intersect, so geographers often call lines of latitude parallels.
Lines of longitude
Measured in degrees east and west of one line of longitude known as the prime meridian, the line of longitude that runs through England's Greenwich Observatory. The prime meridian represents 0 degrees longitude.
Map
Two-dimensional model of the earth or a portion of its surface.
Map (cartographic) scale
Relationship between distance on the map and actual measurement in the real world.
Mercator projection
Map showing the shapes of the continents and landforms accurately but drastically distorting the size (area) of the continents. For example, Greenland appears almost as large as Africa.
Movement
Theme in geography involving the movement occurring in a space: movement of information, people, goods, and other phenomena.
Node
Place from which a diffusing phenomenon spreads to other places (its originating point)
Perceptual (vernacular) region
Region whose boundaries are determined by people's beliefs, not a scientifically measurable process.
Gall-Peters projection
Map created by a geographer to show the relatie sizes of the earth's continents accurately (equal-area). However, it distorts shape, so it is not conformal.
Physical geography
Branch of geography concerned with spatial analysis of the structures, processes, and locations of the earth's natural phenomena, like soil, climate, plants, and topography.
Place
Theme in geography that involves the unique combination of physical and cultural attributes that give each location on the earth its individual "stamp".
Primary data
Data directly collected by the geographer making the map or conducting the study.
Proportional-symbol thematic map
Map that uses some symbol to display the frequency of a variable. The larger the symbol on the map, the higher the frequency of the variable found in that region.
Reference map
Map showing common features like boundaries, roads, highways, mountains, and cities.
Region
Theme in geography involving a spatial unit that has many places sharing similar characteristics.
Relative directions
Directions commonly given by people, such as right, left, up, and down, among many others.
Relative location
Location of a place or object described in relation to places or objects around it.
Remote sensing
Technique of obtaining information about objects through the study of data collected by special instruments that are not in physical contact with the objects being analyzed.
Robinson projection
Map showing the world with slight distortions to all four properties, rather than having one property correct and the other three drastically distorted.
Secondary data
Data used by a geographer but collected by another source that previously conducted a study and made the data available for future use.
Sense of place
Person's perception of the human and physical attributes of a location that give it a unique identity in that person's mind
Simplification
Cartographer's process of eliminating unnecessary details and focusing on the information that needs to be displayed in the map.
Site
Internal physical and cultural characteristics of a place, such as its terrain and dominant religions, among others.
Situation
Location (context) of a place relative to the physical and cultural characteristics around it. The more interconnected a place is to other powerful places, the better its situation.
Space-time compression
Increasing sense of accessbility and connectivity that seems to be bringing humans in distant places closer together.
Spatial interaction
Process in which goods, ideas, information, and people move among places.
Spatial perspective
Outlook through which geographers identify, explain, and predict the human and physical patterns in space and the interconnectedness of different spaces.
Thematic map
Map that zeroes in on one feature such as climate, population, or voting patterns.