How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Honors Biology: Carbs and Proteins

STUDY
PLAY
biochemistry
chemistry of organic molecules
organic molecules
molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen
macromolecule
an organic molecule that is large and has a tendency to form chains
carbon
it is the most reactive element in a macromolecule due to its ability to form a total of four bonds
monomer
individual unit in a chain of macromolecular organic compounds
polymer
two or more monomers in a chain
dehydration synthesis
the process of forming polymers by the loss of water
hydrolysis
process of splitting up polymers with the addition of water
60-65%
percentage of carbs in diet
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
elements in carbs
monosaccharide
monomer of a carb
glucose
monosaccharide of a carb that is blood sugar
fructose
monosaccharide of a carb that is fruit sugar
galactose
monosaccharide of a carb that is milk sugar
isomer
anything with the exact same formula, but a different shape
disaccharide
two monomers of a carb
maltose
glucose + glucose
sucrose
glucose + fructose
lactose
glucose + galactose
maltose
malt sugar
sucrose
table sugar
lactose
milk sugar
polysaccharide
three or more monomers of a carb
glycogen
what is formed in the liver from the glucose
starch
polysaccharide that is in plant stored form and is used for energy while being digestable
cellulose "fiber"
plant stored carb that is indigestable but helps regulate digestion
20-25%
percentage of protein in diet
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
elements in protein
amino acid
monomer of protein
functional group
special collection of atoms that give certain properties to a compound
"R" group
variable in the amino acid that can change
20
number of amino acids
dipeptide
2 peptide bonds
peptide bond
bond between amino acids
polypeptide
3 or more peptide bonds
hydrophilic
attracted to water
hydrophobic
unattracted to water
primary structure
first stage of a protein in which the polypeptide has formed
secondary structure
structure when the polypeptides become Beta pleated sheets or alpha helix
tertiary structure
sometimes called "domain"; collapsed sheet
quatemary structure
two domains bonded perfectly together; the completed protein