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20 terms

AP US Chapter 4 Terms

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Lexington & Concord
On the way to Concord, where colonists had been accumulating arms, the Redcoats lead by General Thomas Gage, reached Lexington where they fought with 70 Minute Men, 8 Minute Men died in the fight, the Redcoats then destroyed the supplies left in Concord. On the way back to Boston the Redcoats were attacked by irregulars and sustained 273 casualties while the Americans less then 100
Second Continental Congress
A gathering of American patriots in May 1775 that organized the Continental Army, requisitioned soldiers and supplies, and commissioned George Washington to lead it
Continental Army
The regular army authorized by the Second Continental Army, mostly under the command of Washington during the Revolutionary War
George Washington
A member of the Second Continental Congress and later led the Americans to victory over the British, our first President
Common Sense
Published by Thomas Paine in January 1776, calling for American independence from Great Britain and establishment of a republican government
Thomas Paine
Published Common Sense, a one-time corset maker and civil servant had been in America for less then a year
Declaration of Independence
Made up of two parts. The first part justified the right for to revolt and described the theory which the American based their creation of a new, republican government. The second part why the colonists felt the need to revolt: the king's interference of representative government in America, the harsh administration of colonial affairs, the restrictions on civil rights, and the presence of troops in the colonies without their consent. Jefferson made George III the villain rather than Parliament
Loyalists
Also known as Tories, the term for American colonists who refused to take up arms against England
American weaknesses
The weaknesses of America was the lack of military experience and money was constantly in short supply
Saratoga
Protected by American troops under the leadership of Generals Gates and Arnold. General Burgoyne attacked the Americans twice and both times retreated with heavy losses soon the British were under attacked so much that they couldn't bury their dead. Burgoyne could have been saved had General Clinton not turned back to New York for reinforcements. On October 17th Burgoyne surrendered with 5,700 Redcoats
Benedict Arnold
An American general who was responsible with General Horatio Gates defended Saratoga, he later switched sides to the British because he felt he was receiving unjust criticisms of his generalship. He was going to betray West Point but the plan was foiled when Major John Andre was captured with the plans
Francis Marion
Nicknamed the Swamp Fox provided a nucleus of resistance in areas in the South that had supposedly subdued
Yorktown
Where the final battle of the American Revolution happened. General Cornwallis was surrounded by 17,000 American and French troops and also surrounded by French ships commanded by General de Grasse
General Cornwallis
A British General who surrended at Yorktown
John Trumball
Served as Washington's aid who in 1790 went to London to study painting with Benjamin West and he was arrested as an American spy but was saved from death because West had connections with George III. Painted the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1820
Abigail Adams
Wanted fairer treatment for women within in the family
Deborah Sampson
In 1782 she enlisted in the Massachusetts Militia under the name of Timothy Thayer she was later kicked out when she was discovered to be a woman. She then enlisted in the Continental army under the name of Robert Shurtlieff, she was wounded at the battle of Tarrytown, NY she removed the bullet herself. After the war she continued to wear men's clothes until she married
Nationalism
A sense of national consciousness and loyalty that promotes the interests and attributes of that nation over all else
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Provided governance of the region north of the Ohio River and the eventual admission of up to five territories—the eventual states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinios, Michigan, and Wisconsin, it prohibited the slavery in the region and reserved lands for Indians
Land Ordinance of 1785
Provided the surveying of western territories into 6-mile-square townships before sale. Every other township was to be further divided into 36 sections of 640 acres. The ordinance ensured orderly development of the West and simplified the task of defending the frontier from Indian attacks