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Lexington & Concord

On the way to Concord, where colonists had been accumulating arms, the Redcoats lead by General Thomas Gage, reached Lexington where they fought with 70 Minute Men, 8 Minute Men died in the fight, the Redcoats then destroyed the supplies left in Concord. On the way back to Boston the Redcoats were attacked by irregulars and sustained 273 casualties while the Americans less then 100

Second Continental Congress

A gathering of American patriots in May 1775 that organized the Continental Army, requisitioned soldiers and supplies, and commissioned George Washington to lead it

Continental Army

The regular army authorized by the Second Continental Army, mostly under the command of Washington during the Revolutionary War

George Washington

A member of the Second Continental Congress and later led the Americans to victory over the British, our first President

Common Sense

Published by Thomas Paine in January 1776, calling for American independence from Great Britain and establishment of a republican government

Thomas Paine

Published Common Sense, a one-time corset maker and civil servant had been in America for less then a year

Declaration of Independence

Made up of two parts. The first part justified the right for to revolt and described the theory which the American based their creation of a new, republican government. The second part why the colonists felt the need to revolt: the king's interference of representative government in America, the harsh administration of colonial affairs, the restrictions on civil rights, and the presence of troops in the colonies without their consent. Jefferson made George III the villain rather than Parliament


Also known as Tories, the term for American colonists who refused to take up arms against England

American weaknesses

The weaknesses of America was the lack of military experience and money was constantly in short supply


Protected by American troops under the leadership of Generals Gates and Arnold. General Burgoyne attacked the Americans twice and both times retreated with heavy losses soon the British were under attacked so much that they couldn't bury their dead. Burgoyne could have been saved had General Clinton not turned back to New York for reinforcements. On October 17th Burgoyne surrendered with 5,700 Redcoats

Benedict Arnold

An American general who was responsible with General Horatio Gates defended Saratoga, he later switched sides to the British because he felt he was receiving unjust criticisms of his generalship. He was going to betray West Point but the plan was foiled when Major John Andre was captured with the plans

Francis Marion

Nicknamed the Swamp Fox provided a nucleus of resistance in areas in the South that had supposedly subdued


Where the final battle of the American Revolution happened. General Cornwallis was surrounded by 17,000 American and French troops and also surrounded by French ships commanded by General de Grasse

General Cornwallis

A British General who surrended at Yorktown

John Trumball

Served as Washington's aid who in 1790 went to London to study painting with Benjamin West and he was arrested as an American spy but was saved from death because West had connections with George III. Painted the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1820

Abigail Adams

Wanted fairer treatment for women within in the family

Deborah Sampson

In 1782 she enlisted in the Massachusetts Militia under the name of Timothy Thayer she was later kicked out when she was discovered to be a woman. She then enlisted in the Continental army under the name of Robert Shurtlieff, she was wounded at the battle of Tarrytown, NY she removed the bullet herself. After the war she continued to wear men's clothes until she married


A sense of national consciousness and loyalty that promotes the interests and attributes of that nation over all else

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Provided governance of the region north of the Ohio River and the eventual admission of up to five territories—the eventual states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinios, Michigan, and Wisconsin, it prohibited the slavery in the region and reserved lands for Indians

Land Ordinance of 1785

Provided the surveying of western territories into 6-mile-square townships before sale. Every other township was to be further divided into 36 sections of 640 acres. The ordinance ensured orderly development of the West and simplified the task of defending the frontier from Indian attacks

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