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34 terms

Animal Nutrition

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Explain the interrelationship between minerals in the diet
They serve as structural elements in the body.
Bone Health: Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Flouride
Blood Health: Iron, Copper, Zinc
Fluid Balance: Sodium, Potassium , Chloride
Antioxidant: Selenium with Vitamin E
List the seven macronutrients and their percentage needed in rations
Sulfur
Sodium
Phosphorous
Potassium
Chloride
Calcium: 5-8%
Magnesium
Sodium
Source: Phosphate, sodium chloride Function: water excretion/metabolism Supplemental: Sodium Chloride drip
Sulfur
Source: almost entirely with organic compounds in body Function: Used in rumen bacteria Supplemental: Calcium, Copper
Potassium
Source: Legumes, Potassium Chloride Function: maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
Phosphorous
Source: grain/forages(phosphoric acid) Function: works with Calcium for bone function Supplemental:
Calcium
Source- legumes Function: bone calcification Supplemental: Bone meal
Chloride
: Source: Potassium Chloride Function: Fluid and electrolyte balance(along with Sodium- hence sodium chloride fluids for dehydrated animals) Supplemental: Sodium Chloride drip
Magnesium
Source: availability lower for ruminants vs. monogastrics Function: Carb and lipid metabolism, critical to heart health
Differentiate between micro and macrominerals
Macro minerals are found over 5% in body while micro/trace minerals are only found under 5% in body
Identify six microminerals
(Zebras In Frenzy Can Injure Shana)
Zinc, Iron, Flouride, Copper, Iodine, Selenium
Match the micromineral with its function or deficiency symptom.
Zinc: Sexual immaturity/Growth retardation
Iron: Anemia/increased morbidity and mortality
Copper: Anemia/osteoporosis
Iodine: Thryoid issues, enlargement of glands(goiter)
Selenium: Poor growth/mastitis
Identify tow toxic minerals
Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Chromium, Manganese
Identify how vitamins and mineral interact
Vitamins are individual units that are not linked together and do not yield energy when broken down, they are co-enzymes that assist enzymes in breaking down energy from CHO, Proteins, Fats
Differentiate between fat and water soluble vitamins
Water soluble- Vitamins B and C : absorption directly into blood, short term storage, excreted through urine by kidneys
Fat Soluble: Vitamins, A,D,E,K : absorption in lymphs then into blood, long term storage, regarding excretion remains in fat storage sites
Vitamin A
Source: Green Grass Function: Maintenance, Growth, & Reproduction
Vitamin D
Source:Fish, eggs, cows milk Function: Bone formation, growth, CHO Metabolism, absorption of Calcium & Phosphate
Vitamin E
Source: Function: Strong antioxidant(along with Selenium), reproduction, immune system in monogastrics
Vitamin K
Source: Green forage, well cured hays, fish meal Function: Blood clotting
B 12 and Folic Acid deficiency causes
Anemia Deficiency
Vitamin C deficiency causes
Iron deficiency
Vitamin A deficiency causes
Deficiency: No growth/death, Blindness, Swollen legs, pigs- paralysis hind legs Toxicity: **most likely to present toxicity issues in monogastrics with 4-10 times requirements and in ruminants 30 times requirements( toxicity produces reduced growth as well)
Vitamin E: Deficiency
Deficiency: White Muscle Disease in calves Toxicity: Low toxicity since utilization dependent on adequate Selenium
Vitamin K: Deficiency
Spontaneous hemorrhaging, not blood clotting Toxicity: Relatively non-toxic
What is the vitamin associated with alpha tocopherol
Vitamin E
What is the vitamin associated with dicoumeral
Vitamin K (antagonist)
What is the vitamin associated with beta carotene
Vitamin A
What is the vitamin associated with ergosterol
Vitamin D2
What is the vitamin associated with thiamine
Vitamin B
What is the vitamin associated with riboflavin
Vitamin B
What is the vitamin associated with cyanocobalamin
Vitamin B12
What is the vitamin associated with pyridoxine
Vitamin B6
dentify at least 6 water soluble vitamins
Vitamin C,
B Vitamins: ( The Right Nutrients Produce Folicky Babies, 6/12)
Thiamine
Riboflavin
Niacine
Pyridoxine
Folic Acid
Biotin
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12
Describe the general problems associated with deficiencies of water soluble vitamins
Vitamin C is not normally associated with deficiencies since it is only a nutritional requirement for primates and guinea pigs.
Vitamin B, on the other hand, is responsible for a lot of metabolic conversions and protein synthesis in the body. Vitamin B deficiencies are therefore associated with poor reproductive rates, poor growth rates, moon blindness in horses, leg problems, head retraction, weight loss, loss of hair, and anemia.