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Explain the interrelationship between minerals in the diet

They serve as structural elements in the body.
Bone Health: Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Flouride
Blood Health: Iron, Copper, Zinc
Fluid Balance: Sodium, Potassium , Chloride
Antioxidant: Selenium with Vitamin E

List the seven macronutrients and their percentage needed in rations

Calcium: 5-8%


Source: Phosphate, sodium chloride Function: water excretion/metabolism Supplemental: Sodium Chloride drip


Source: almost entirely with organic compounds in body Function: Used in rumen bacteria Supplemental: Calcium, Copper


Source: Legumes, Potassium Chloride Function: maintain fluid and electrolyte balance


Source: grain/forages(phosphoric acid) Function: works with Calcium for bone function Supplemental:


Source- legumes Function: bone calcification Supplemental: Bone meal


: Source: Potassium Chloride Function: Fluid and electrolyte balance(along with Sodium- hence sodium chloride fluids for dehydrated animals) Supplemental: Sodium Chloride drip


Source: availability lower for ruminants vs. monogastrics Function: Carb and lipid metabolism, critical to heart health

Differentiate between micro and macrominerals

Macro minerals are found over 5% in body while micro/trace minerals are only found under 5% in body

Identify six microminerals

(Zebras In Frenzy Can Injure Shana)
Zinc, Iron, Flouride, Copper, Iodine, Selenium

Match the micromineral with its function or deficiency symptom.

Zinc: Sexual immaturity/Growth retardation
Iron: Anemia/increased morbidity and mortality
Copper: Anemia/osteoporosis
Iodine: Thryoid issues, enlargement of glands(goiter)
Selenium: Poor growth/mastitis

Identify tow toxic minerals

Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Chromium, Manganese

Identify how vitamins and mineral interact

Vitamins are individual units that are not linked together and do not yield energy when broken down, they are co-enzymes that assist enzymes in breaking down energy from CHO, Proteins, Fats

Differentiate between fat and water soluble vitamins

Water soluble- Vitamins B and C : absorption directly into blood, short term storage, excreted through urine by kidneys
Fat Soluble: Vitamins, A,D,E,K : absorption in lymphs then into blood, long term storage, regarding excretion remains in fat storage sites

Vitamin A

Source: Green Grass Function: Maintenance, Growth, & Reproduction

Vitamin D

Source:Fish, eggs, cows milk Function: Bone formation, growth, CHO Metabolism, absorption of Calcium & Phosphate

Vitamin E

Source: Function: Strong antioxidant(along with Selenium), reproduction, immune system in monogastrics

Vitamin K

Source: Green forage, well cured hays, fish meal Function: Blood clotting

B 12 and Folic Acid deficiency causes

Anemia Deficiency

Vitamin C deficiency causes

Iron deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency causes

Deficiency: No growth/death, Blindness, Swollen legs, pigs- paralysis hind legs Toxicity: **most likely to present toxicity issues in monogastrics with 4-10 times requirements and in ruminants 30 times requirements( toxicity produces reduced growth as well)

Vitamin E: Deficiency

Deficiency: White Muscle Disease in calves Toxicity: Low toxicity since utilization dependent on adequate Selenium

Vitamin K: Deficiency

Spontaneous hemorrhaging, not blood clotting Toxicity: Relatively non-toxic

What is the vitamin associated with alpha tocopherol

Vitamin E

What is the vitamin associated with dicoumeral

Vitamin K (antagonist)

What is the vitamin associated with beta carotene

Vitamin A

What is the vitamin associated with ergosterol

Vitamin D2

What is the vitamin associated with thiamine

Vitamin B

What is the vitamin associated with riboflavin

Vitamin B

What is the vitamin associated with cyanocobalamin

Vitamin B12

What is the vitamin associated with pyridoxine

Vitamin B6

dentify at least 6 water soluble vitamins

Vitamin C,
B Vitamins: ( The Right Nutrients Produce Folicky Babies, 6/12)
Folic Acid
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12

Describe the general problems associated with deficiencies of water soluble vitamins

Vitamin C is not normally associated with deficiencies since it is only a nutritional requirement for primates and guinea pigs.
Vitamin B, on the other hand, is responsible for a lot of metabolic conversions and protein synthesis in the body. Vitamin B deficiencies are therefore associated with poor reproductive rates, poor growth rates, moon blindness in horses, leg problems, head retraction, weight loss, loss of hair, and anemia.

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