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Explain the interrelationship between minerals in the diet
They serve as structural elements in the body.
Bone Health: Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Flouride
Blood Health: Iron, Copper, Zinc
Fluid Balance: Sodium, Potassium , Chloride
Antioxidant: Selenium with Vitamin E
List the seven macronutrients and their percentage needed in rations
Source: Phosphate, sodium chloride Function: water excretion/metabolism Supplemental: Sodium Chloride drip
Source: almost entirely with organic compounds in body Function: Used in rumen bacteria Supplemental: Calcium, Copper
Source: grain/forages(phosphoric acid) Function: works with Calcium for bone function Supplemental:
: Source: Potassium Chloride Function: Fluid and electrolyte balance(along with Sodium- hence sodium chloride fluids for dehydrated animals) Supplemental: Sodium Chloride drip
Source: availability lower for ruminants vs. monogastrics Function: Carb and lipid metabolism, critical to heart health
Differentiate between micro and macrominerals
Macro minerals are found over 5% in body while micro/trace minerals are only found under 5% in body
Identify six microminerals
(Zebras In Frenzy Can Injure Shana)
Zinc, Iron, Flouride, Copper, Iodine, Selenium
Match the micromineral with its function or deficiency symptom.
Zinc: Sexual immaturity/Growth retardation
Iron: Anemia/increased morbidity and mortality
Iodine: Thryoid issues, enlargement of glands(goiter)
Selenium: Poor growth/mastitis
Identify how vitamins and mineral interact
Vitamins are individual units that are not linked together and do not yield energy when broken down, they are co-enzymes that assist enzymes in breaking down energy from CHO, Proteins, Fats
Differentiate between fat and water soluble vitamins
Water soluble- Vitamins B and C : absorption directly into blood, short term storage, excreted through urine by kidneys
Fat Soluble: Vitamins, A,D,E,K : absorption in lymphs then into blood, long term storage, regarding excretion remains in fat storage sites
Source:Fish, eggs, cows milk Function: Bone formation, growth, CHO Metabolism, absorption of Calcium & Phosphate
Source: Function: Strong antioxidant(along with Selenium), reproduction, immune system in monogastrics
Vitamin A deficiency causes
Deficiency: No growth/death, Blindness, Swollen legs, pigs- paralysis hind legs Toxicity: **most likely to present toxicity issues in monogastrics with 4-10 times requirements and in ruminants 30 times requirements( toxicity produces reduced growth as well)
Vitamin E: Deficiency
Deficiency: White Muscle Disease in calves Toxicity: Low toxicity since utilization dependent on adequate Selenium
dentify at least 6 water soluble vitamins
B Vitamins: ( The Right Nutrients Produce Folicky Babies, 6/12)
Describe the general problems associated with deficiencies of water soluble vitamins
Vitamin C is not normally associated with deficiencies since it is only a nutritional requirement for primates and guinea pigs.
Vitamin B, on the other hand, is responsible for a lot of metabolic conversions and protein synthesis in the body. Vitamin B deficiencies are therefore associated with poor reproductive rates, poor growth rates, moon blindness in horses, leg problems, head retraction, weight loss, loss of hair, and anemia.
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