A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is:
When students perceive the arousal that accompanies test-taking as energizing rather than debilitating, they experience much less anxiety. This is best understood in terms of the:
a hierarchy of motives
Professor Sanford explains that the need for physical safety must be met before city dwellers will be motivated to form close friendships with fellow citizens. Professor Sanford is providing an example:
destruction of its ventromedial hypothalamus
What event would most likely cause an animal to overeat and become obese?
A psychotherapist suggests that Theresa can effectively reduce the anger she feels toward her ex-boyfriend by tearing pictures of him into little pieces. This therapeutic technique is based on the:
The body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state
Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as:
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
After receiving an unexpected "A' on his psychology test, Jordan was easily persuaded to baby-sit his little sister while his parents went out for dinner. This best illustrates the:
some emotional reactions may occur without conscious thinking
Evidence that visual input is routed from the thalamus directly to the amygdala has been used to support the claim that:
The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ______ than do other theories of emotion.
solving a crossword puzzle
Relatively high levels of physiological arousal would most likely interfere with effectively:
the adaptation-level principle
What best explains why both million-dollar lottery winners and paraplegics report similar levels of happiness?
drive reduction (Hall)
Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and:
The fact that facial expressions of emotion tend to intensify the experience of emotion serves to support the:
sometimes emotion precedes cognition
Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposes has convinced Robert Zajonc that:
Sixteen-year-old Jill loves ice cream and other rich foods, but she has become increasingly anxious about gaining too much weight. Jill frequently overeats and then intentionally vomits in an attempt to control her weight. Jill most clearly suffers from:
Boyd, a suspect in a criminal investigation, has agreed to take a lie detector test. The machine used in this test is most likely to measure his:
Women's sexual receptivity differs from that of nonhuman female mammals in being more responsive to ______ levels than to estrogen levels.
slowing of digestion
When confronted by an armed robber, your emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by:
genetic influence plays a role in sexual orientation
Research on the causes of homosexuality suggest that:
c) a low blood glucose level (it is an example of a need)
Which of the following is most clearly NOT an example of an incentive?
a) social disapproval
b) a pornographic film
c) a low blood glucose level
d) the smell of rotten
It has been suggested that baring the teeth is universally associated with the expression of anger because this ability to convey threats has helped humans to survive. This suggestion best illustrates the:
A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, ecnlosed space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient's fear is best understood in terms of the:
Isaac, a 25-year-old law student, is heterosexual; his brother Chaim, a 21-year-old college senior is homosexual. The brothers obviously differ in their:
The influence of a personal and cultural experience on our wants and desires can most clearly be seen in the influence of ______ on motivation.
Chiara, a 14-year-old, is of average height but weighs only 80 pounds. She has lost 30 pounds over the last six months by eating very little and running five miles a day. She is determined not to become overweight and ignores her parents' suggestion that she should eat well-balanced meals. Chiara suffers from:
It will be good if his physiological arousal during the performance is moderate
Thaddeus will play a violin solo at this school tomorrow. What will be true of his musical performance?
After being physically aroused by his daily three-mile run, Martin finds that he experiences stronger resentment if his wife asks for an unexpected favor and more intense romantic feelings if she kisses him. Martin's experience can best be explained by the:
In experiments with adult monkeys who were fearful of snakes and their offspring who were not, Susan Mineka discovered that the younger monkeys developed a fear of snakes through the process of:
The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of:
According to the ______, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.
Couples who are passionately in love most frequently communicate intimacy by means of:
As a member of the diplomatic corps, Alex was given special training in the customs, language, and religions of the Third World country where he would be living. However, Alex probably needed little training to correctly interpret his hosts' expressions of emotion as revealed by their:
Observers watching fearful faces show more brain activity in the ______ than do those watching angry faces.
blind children who have never observed others demonstrate normal facial expressions of emotions
Research on nonverbal communication indicates that: