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each element in the population has an equal chance of appearing; reduces chance of bias
selecting an element according to certain subgroups to diminish the change of sample flucuation; can be random stratified- accomplished by randomly selecting a proportionate number of subjects from each subgroup for the sample
someone who knows the population selects the sample; familiarity with the population, bias introduced
group is chosen because it happens to be convenient; may represent the population; ease for evaluator
data is presented in ascending or descending order along with the frequency of each score occuring in the data set
bell, gaussian, scores are equally distributed around the mean; meand, median, and mode all have the same value
average number of scores; add all scores and divide by number of scores; most common measure of central tendency
divides the distribution into 2 equal parts; 50% of scores lie above center, 50% of scores lie below center, not affected by extreme scores
score that occurs with greatest frequency; corresponds to the peak of the curve when plotted out
the square root of the sample variance; most commonly uesd method of dispersion, the larger the number representing the SD, the wider the distribution curve
the degree to which a data collection instrument measures the variable it is designed to measure; does the test really measure what it claims to be measuring?
consistent performance by the same investigator when using a data collection instrument
consistent performance by different investigators when using the same data collection instrument
the process of establishing a relationship between a measuring device and the units of measure; helps increase interexaminer reliability
determines the strength of relationship between 2 variables; shows a possible cause and effect; between -1 & +1; the closer to either of those numbers the stronger the correlation
direct association betwen 2 variables; as value of x increases, the value of y increases; as the value of x decreases, the value of y decreases
the score on one scale predicts an opposite score on the other scale; as the value of x increases, the value of y decreases; as the value of x decreases, the value of y increases
a statistical hypothesis test used when comparing the statistical difference between 2 mean scores
analysis of variance, used when comparing the statistical difference between 3 or more mean scores
probability value, used when testing hypothesis; standard of acceptability is p less than or equal to 0.05, 1 out of 20 occured by chance, nothing to do with the testing situation
Primary preventive services
involves techniques and agents to forestall onset and reverse progress of disease or arrest the disease profess before treatment becomes necessary. Ex: mechanical and chemical plaque removal, fluoride, sugar discipline
Secondary preventive services
involves routine treatment methods to terminate a disease and restore tissues to as normal as possible; intervene or prevent the progression and recurrence of disease. Ex: periodontal debridement, restorations
Tertiary preventive services
involves measures necessary to replace lost tissue and rehabilitate patients. Ex: prosthestics, implants
an unexpectedly large number of cases of disease in a particular population at a particular place and time.
the number of new cases in a population at risk during a particular period of time; conveys information about the risk of contracting the disease
the number of new and old cases of a disease in a population in a given period of time; tells how widespread the disease is, prevalence=past
Retrospective studies (case control)
seek to compare thoes diagnosed with a disease with those who do not have the disease for proper exposure to specific risk factors
a cohort is classified by exposure to one or more specific risk factors and observed into the future to determine the rate at which disease develops
a study carried out under controlled situations, control group, experimental group, may be blind or double blind
the practice in which the researcher remains uninformed and unaware of the identifiers of treatment and control group members through the period of experiment to prevent bias
Characteristics of an Ideal Index
simple, valid, reliable, clear, sensitive, quantifiable, objective, accepted
decayed, missing, filled teeth/surfaces, irreversible, past and present caries experience w/ permanent dentition
decayed, need for extraction, filled teeth, irreversible, observable caries experience in primary teeth
gingival index, reversible, based on severity of inflammation and location, used to determine prevalence and severity of gingivitis in cohort groups
periodontal disease index, ramjford, irreverible, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease, measures both reversible (gingitivits) and irreversible (periodontitis)
periodontal screening and recording, assesses state of periodontal health rapid and effective, premilinary screening to determine need for full mouth periodontal assessment, uses special probe
community periodontal indec of treatment needs, established by WHO to determine periodontal tx needs rather than periodontal status, requires special probe
simplified oral hygiene index, reversible, measures oral hygiene status, involves both debris and calculus index
plaque index, reversible, measures difference in thickness of soft deposits at gingival margin, used in conjunction with GI
patient hygiene performance, reversible, assess individual's performance in removing debris after toothbrushing instructions
volpe-manhold index, reversible, used to test agents for plaque control and calculus inhibition, scores supragingival calculus following prophylaxis
process by which the program planner identifies and measures gaps between what is and what ought to be, analyze and understand the target population, to collect baseline data for program evaluation
How to conduct a needs assessment?
direct observation, interview, questionnaire, survey, epidemilogical surveys, records, documents, charts
Type I examination
complete examination, includes mouth mirror and explorer, lighting, radiographs, study models, tests as needed
specific statement that describes, in a measurable manner, the desired result of the program, based on needs of target population; can be considered steps to achieve the program goals
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