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Treatment planning

program planning


program operation






international, world health organization


dept of health and human services, Healthy people 2020, federal


centers for disease control and prevention, federal


health resources and services administration, federal


national institute of dental and craniofacial research, federal


agency for healthcare research and quality, federal

Random sampling

each element in the population has an equal chance of appearing; reduces chance of bias

Stratified sampling

selecting an element according to certain subgroups to diminish the change of sample flucuation; can be random stratified- accomplished by randomly selecting a proportionate number of subjects from each subgroup for the sample

Systematic sampling

select every "nth" to participate

Judgement sampling

someone who knows the population selects the sample; familiarity with the population, bias introduced

Convenience sampling

group is chosen because it happens to be convenient; may represent the population; ease for evaluator


what is being measured or observed

Dependent variable

the outcome of interest; should change in response to intervention

Independent variable

the intervention; what is being manipulated


a science that describes data for the purpose of making interpretations

Descriptive statistics

concerned with the presentation, organization, and summarization of the data

Inferential statistics

allows one to generalize from the sample to a larger group of subjects

Frequency distribution

tabulating how often each score occurs


data is presented in ascending or descending order along with the frequency of each score occuring in the data set


frequency of occurance of scores up to and including any given value in the data set


grouping variables into consecutive intervals


symmetry of the curve

Positive skew

more scores are in the lower range

Negative skew

more scores are in the higher range

Normal curve

bell, gaussian, scores are equally distributed around the mean; meand, median, and mode all have the same value

Measures of central tendency

different ways to define the center or middle of a distribution


average number of scores; add all scores and divide by number of scores; most common measure of central tendency


divides the distribution into 2 equal parts; 50% of scores lie above center, 50% of scores lie below center, not affected by extreme scores


score that occurs with greatest frequency; corresponds to the peak of the curve when plotted out

Measures of dispersion

describes how wide the scores are around a central point


difference between the high and low score; affected by extremely high or low scores

Standard deviation

the square root of the sample variance; most commonly uesd method of dispersion, the larger the number representing the SD, the wider the distribution curve


the degree to which a data collection instrument measures the variable it is designed to measure; does the test really measure what it claims to be measuring?


the extent to which the method of measurement performs consistently


consistent performance by the same investigator when using a data collection instrument


consistent performance by different investigators when using the same data collection instrument


the process of establishing a relationship between a measuring device and the units of measure; helps increase interexaminer reliability


the ability of a test to correctly identify the presence of a disease


the ability of a test to correctly identify the absence of a disease

Correlation co-efficient

determines the strength of relationship between 2 variables; shows a possible cause and effect; between -1 & +1; the closer to either of those numbers the stronger the correlation

Positive correlation

direct association betwen 2 variables; as value of x increases, the value of y increases; as the value of x decreases, the value of y decreases

Negative correlation

the score on one scale predicts an opposite score on the other scale; as the value of x increases, the value of y decreases; as the value of x decreases, the value of y increases


a statistical hypothesis test used when comparing the statistical difference between 2 mean scores


analysis of variance, used when comparing the statistical difference between 3 or more mean scores


probability value, used when testing hypothesis; standard of acceptability is p less than or equal to 0.05, 1 out of 20 occured by chance, nothing to do with the testing situation

Primary preventive services

involves techniques and agents to forestall onset and reverse progress of disease or arrest the disease profess before treatment becomes necessary. Ex: mechanical and chemical plaque removal, fluoride, sugar discipline

Secondary preventive services

involves routine treatment methods to terminate a disease and restore tissues to as normal as possible; intervene or prevent the progression and recurrence of disease. Ex: periodontal debridement, restorations

Tertiary preventive services

involves measures necessary to replace lost tissue and rehabilitate patients. Ex: prosthestics, implants


an unexpectedly large number of cases of disease in a particular population at a particular place and time.


a disease that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course


an outbreak of disease over a wide geographical areas such as a continent


the number of events that occur in a given population in a given period of time


the number of live births


the rate of an illness in a population


the number of deaths in a population


the number of new cases in a population at risk during a particular period of time; conveys information about the risk of contracting the disease


the number of new and old cases of a disease in a population in a given period of time; tells how widespread the disease is, prevalence=past


an incidence rate calculated for a particular population for a single disease outbreak

Descriptive studies

describes an epidemic with respect to person, place, and time

Analytical studies

aimed at testing hypotheses

Retrospective studies (case control)

seek to compare thoes diagnosed with a disease with those who do not have the disease for proper exposure to specific risk factors

Prospective studies

a cohort is classified by exposure to one or more specific risk factors and observed into the future to determine the rate at which disease develops

Longitudinal study

a group is observed over a long period of time

Experimental studies

a study carried out under controlled situations, control group, experimental group, may be blind or double blind

Control group

the group that has experimental treatment (intervention) withheld; receives a placebo

Treatment groups

the group that receives the experimental treatment


the practice in which the researcher remains uninformed and unaware of the identifiers of treatment and control group members through the period of experiment to prevent bias

Double blind

neither the reseacher nor the subjects know who is receiving the treatment

Characteristics of an Ideal Index

simple, valid, reliable, clear, sensitive, quantifiable, objective, accepted

Reversible index

measures conditionns that can be reversed or resolved

Irreversible index

measures cumulative conditions that cannot be reversed

Simple index

measures the presence or absence of a condition

Cumulative index

measures all the evidence of a condition, past and present


decayed, missing, filled teeth/surfaces, irreversible, past and present caries experience w/ permanent dentition


decayed, need for extraction, filled teeth, irreversible, observable caries experience in primary teeth


decayed, filled teeth/surfaces, irreversible, primary teeth


root caries index, irreversible, must have recession


gingival index, reversible, based on severity of inflammation and location, used to determine prevalence and severity of gingivitis in cohort groups


sulcular bleeding index, reversible, to detect early signs of gingivitis


periodontal disease index, ramjford, irreverible, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease, measures both reversible (gingitivits) and irreversible (periodontitis)


periodontal index, irreversible, does not measure attachment loss


periodontal screening and recording, assesses state of periodontal health rapid and effective, premilinary screening to determine need for full mouth periodontal assessment, uses special probe


community periodontal indec of treatment needs, established by WHO to determine periodontal tx needs rather than periodontal status, requires special probe


simplified oral hygiene index, reversible, measures oral hygiene status, involves both debris and calculus index


plaque index, reversible, measures difference in thickness of soft deposits at gingival margin, used in conjunction with GI


patient hygiene performance, reversible, assess individual's performance in removing debris after toothbrushing instructions


volpe-manhold index, reversible, used to test agents for plaque control and calculus inhibition, scores supragingival calculus following prophylaxis

Needs assessment

process by which the program planner identifies and measures gaps between what is and what ought to be, analyze and understand the target population, to collect baseline data for program evaluation

How to conduct a needs assessment?

direct observation, interview, questionnaire, survey, epidemilogical surveys, records, documents, charts

Access to care Need

type of care available

Access to care Demand

type of care desired

Access to care Utilization

actual receipt of dental tx by public

Access to care Barriers

interferences with care to be provided or received

Type I examination

complete examination, includes mouth mirror and explorer, lighting, radiographs, study models, tests as needed

Type II examination

limited examination, includes mouth mirror and explorer, limited radiographs

Type III examination

inspection- mouth mirror and lighting

Type IV examination

screening- tongue depressor, lighting


broad-based statement of what changes will occur as a result of the program


specific statement that describes, in a measurable manner, the desired result of the program, based on needs of target population; can be considered steps to achieve the program goals

Formal delivery of teaching

lecture, demonstration, discussion

Informal delivery

brochures, pamphlets, video


the patient has incomplete or inaccurate information


correct information is obtained but it still lacks personal meaning


patient personalizes information


old ideas are discarded for new ones in an effort to change; motivate to act


the patient tests new concepts; acts based on a perceived need


the patient begins to experience gratification and self-satisfaction; the behavior is modified

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