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113 terms

NBDH Community 3

STUDY
PLAY
Examination
survey
Diagnosis
analysis
Treatment planning
program planning
Treatment
program operation
Payment
finance
Evaluation
evaluation/appraisal
WHO
international, world health organization
DHHS
dept of health and human services, Healthy people 2020, federal
CDC
centers for disease control and prevention, federal
HRSA
health resources and services administration, federal
NIDCR
national institute of dental and craniofacial research, federal
AHRQ
agency for healthcare research and quality, federal
Random sampling
each element in the population has an equal chance of appearing; reduces chance of bias
Stratified sampling
selecting an element according to certain subgroups to diminish the change of sample flucuation; can be random stratified- accomplished by randomly selecting a proportionate number of subjects from each subgroup for the sample
Systematic sampling
select every "nth" to participate
Judgement sampling
someone who knows the population selects the sample; familiarity with the population, bias introduced
Convenience sampling
group is chosen because it happens to be convenient; may represent the population; ease for evaluator
Variable
what is being measured or observed
Dependent variable
the outcome of interest; should change in response to intervention
Independent variable
the intervention; what is being manipulated
Statistics
a science that describes data for the purpose of making interpretations
Descriptive statistics
concerned with the presentation, organization, and summarization of the data
Inferential statistics
allows one to generalize from the sample to a larger group of subjects
Frequency distribution
tabulating how often each score occurs
Ungrouped
data is presented in ascending or descending order along with the frequency of each score occuring in the data set
Cumulative
frequency of occurance of scores up to and including any given value in the data set
Grouped
grouping variables into consecutive intervals
Skew
symmetry of the curve
Positive skew
more scores are in the lower range
Negative skew
more scores are in the higher range
Normal curve
bell, gaussian, scores are equally distributed around the mean; meand, median, and mode all have the same value
Measures of central tendency
different ways to define the center or middle of a distribution
Mean
average number of scores; add all scores and divide by number of scores; most common measure of central tendency
Median
divides the distribution into 2 equal parts; 50% of scores lie above center, 50% of scores lie below center, not affected by extreme scores
Mode
score that occurs with greatest frequency; corresponds to the peak of the curve when plotted out
Measures of dispersion
describes how wide the scores are around a central point
Range
difference between the high and low score; affected by extremely high or low scores
Standard deviation
the square root of the sample variance; most commonly uesd method of dispersion, the larger the number representing the SD, the wider the distribution curve
Validity
the degree to which a data collection instrument measures the variable it is designed to measure; does the test really measure what it claims to be measuring?
Reliability
the extent to which the method of measurement performs consistently
Intraexaminer
consistent performance by the same investigator when using a data collection instrument
Interexaminer
consistent performance by different investigators when using the same data collection instrument
Calibration
the process of establishing a relationship between a measuring device and the units of measure; helps increase interexaminer reliability
Sensitivity
the ability of a test to correctly identify the presence of a disease
Specificity
the ability of a test to correctly identify the absence of a disease
Correlation co-efficient
determines the strength of relationship between 2 variables; shows a possible cause and effect; between -1 & +1; the closer to either of those numbers the stronger the correlation
Positive correlation
direct association betwen 2 variables; as value of x increases, the value of y increases; as the value of x decreases, the value of y decreases
Negative correlation
the score on one scale predicts an opposite score on the other scale; as the value of x increases, the value of y decreases; as the value of x decreases, the value of y increases
T-test
a statistical hypothesis test used when comparing the statistical difference between 2 mean scores
ANOVA
analysis of variance, used when comparing the statistical difference between 3 or more mean scores
P-value
probability value, used when testing hypothesis; standard of acceptability is p less than or equal to 0.05, 1 out of 20 occured by chance, nothing to do with the testing situation
Primary preventive services
involves techniques and agents to forestall onset and reverse progress of disease or arrest the disease profess before treatment becomes necessary. Ex: mechanical and chemical plaque removal, fluoride, sugar discipline
Secondary preventive services
involves routine treatment methods to terminate a disease and restore tissues to as normal as possible; intervene or prevent the progression and recurrence of disease. Ex: periodontal debridement, restorations
Tertiary preventive services
involves measures necessary to replace lost tissue and rehabilitate patients. Ex: prosthestics, implants
Epidemic
an unexpectedly large number of cases of disease in a particular population at a particular place and time.
Endemic
a disease that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course
Pandemic
an outbreak of disease over a wide geographical areas such as a continent
Rate
the number of events that occur in a given population in a given period of time
Natality
the number of live births
Morbidity
the rate of an illness in a population
Mortality
the number of deaths in a population
Incidence
the number of new cases in a population at risk during a particular period of time; conveys information about the risk of contracting the disease
Prevalence
the number of new and old cases of a disease in a population in a given period of time; tells how widespread the disease is, prevalence=past
Attack
an incidence rate calculated for a particular population for a single disease outbreak
Descriptive studies
describes an epidemic with respect to person, place, and time
Analytical studies
aimed at testing hypotheses
Retrospective studies (case control)
seek to compare thoes diagnosed with a disease with those who do not have the disease for proper exposure to specific risk factors
Prospective studies
a cohort is classified by exposure to one or more specific risk factors and observed into the future to determine the rate at which disease develops
Longitudinal study
a group is observed over a long period of time
Experimental studies
a study carried out under controlled situations, control group, experimental group, may be blind or double blind
Control group
the group that has experimental treatment (intervention) withheld; receives a placebo
Treatment groups
the group that receives the experimental treatment
Blindness
the practice in which the researcher remains uninformed and unaware of the identifiers of treatment and control group members through the period of experiment to prevent bias
Double blind
neither the reseacher nor the subjects know who is receiving the treatment
Characteristics of an Ideal Index
simple, valid, reliable, clear, sensitive, quantifiable, objective, accepted
Reversible index
measures conditionns that can be reversed or resolved
Irreversible index
measures cumulative conditions that cannot be reversed
Simple index
measures the presence or absence of a condition
Cumulative index
measures all the evidence of a condition, past and present
DMFT/DMFS
decayed, missing, filled teeth/surfaces, irreversible, past and present caries experience w/ permanent dentition
deft
decayed, need for extraction, filled teeth, irreversible, observable caries experience in primary teeth
dft/dfs
decayed, filled teeth/surfaces, irreversible, primary teeth
RCI
root caries index, irreversible, must have recession
GI
gingival index, reversible, based on severity of inflammation and location, used to determine prevalence and severity of gingivitis in cohort groups
SBI
sulcular bleeding index, reversible, to detect early signs of gingivitis
PDI
periodontal disease index, ramjford, irreverible, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease, measures both reversible (gingitivits) and irreversible (periodontitis)
PI
periodontal index, irreversible, does not measure attachment loss
PSR
periodontal screening and recording, assesses state of periodontal health rapid and effective, premilinary screening to determine need for full mouth periodontal assessment, uses special probe
CPITN
community periodontal indec of treatment needs, established by WHO to determine periodontal tx needs rather than periodontal status, requires special probe
OHI-S
simplified oral hygiene index, reversible, measures oral hygiene status, involves both debris and calculus index
PLI
plaque index, reversible, measures difference in thickness of soft deposits at gingival margin, used in conjunction with GI
PHP
patient hygiene performance, reversible, assess individual's performance in removing debris after toothbrushing instructions
VMI
volpe-manhold index, reversible, used to test agents for plaque control and calculus inhibition, scores supragingival calculus following prophylaxis
Needs assessment
process by which the program planner identifies and measures gaps between what is and what ought to be, analyze and understand the target population, to collect baseline data for program evaluation
How to conduct a needs assessment?
direct observation, interview, questionnaire, survey, epidemilogical surveys, records, documents, charts
Access to care Need
type of care available
Access to care Demand
type of care desired
Access to care Utilization
actual receipt of dental tx by public
Access to care Barriers
interferences with care to be provided or received
Type I examination
complete examination, includes mouth mirror and explorer, lighting, radiographs, study models, tests as needed
Type II examination
limited examination, includes mouth mirror and explorer, limited radiographs
Type III examination
inspection- mouth mirror and lighting
Type IV examination
screening- tongue depressor, lighting
Goals
broad-based statement of what changes will occur as a result of the program
Objective
specific statement that describes, in a measurable manner, the desired result of the program, based on needs of target population; can be considered steps to achieve the program goals
Formal delivery of teaching
lecture, demonstration, discussion
Informal delivery
brochures, pamphlets, video
Unawareness
the patient has incomplete or inaccurate information
Awareness
correct information is obtained but it still lacks personal meaning
Self-interest
patient personalizes information
Involvement
old ideas are discarded for new ones in an effort to change; motivate to act
Action
the patient tests new concepts; acts based on a perceived need
Habit
the patient begins to experience gratification and self-satisfaction; the behavior is modified