a fundamental change in rules and institutions that govern a society often involving violent conflict in form of mass action, insurrection, secession or civil war.
comparison of American Revolution
anti- colonial revolution, moderate and achievable goals, focused on individual liberties, moderate levels of violence, leadership survives and leads new country's government, minimal institutional and societal changes, successful in achieving goals, inspirational but not influential as model for revolutions, restoring rights
comparison of French Revolution
social revolution, Utopian and visionary goals, focus on collective and transformation goals, extreme levels of violence and reprisals, leaders destroyed by revolution, massive institutional and societal changes, not successful in achieving goals, very influential in revolutions
called war of Independence and revolutionary war this epoch making event led to end of the British rule over 13 american colonies and the formation of the United States of America usually dated from Deceleration of Independence in 1776
brought down bourbon France in the name of liberty, equality and fraternity. introduced contagion of liberalism in a Europe still ruled by conservative, aristocratic royalist institutions and usher in the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte. Prelude to first republic in France and Napoleonic wars.
new leader after the beheading of Louis XVI. first priority to win war against Prussia. wished to create a regime of virtue to rebuild french society, makes citizens moral perfection. despotism of liberty. part of Utopian idealism.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
enacted by French National assembly. brief manifesto was intended as the preamble of liberal democratic institution to be written later. affirmed sovereign authority of nation but limited authority by recognizing individual rights to life, property and security.
The Reign of Terror
during French Revolution Robespierre and his committee of public safety arrested and mass executed thousands of french citizens deemed public enemies for opposing revolution
violent revolutions are okay when natural rights cease. also have right to revolution- theory that end of government is good of society and that when government deprives natural rights deserve to be overthrown.
Alexis de Tocqueville
in studying French Revolution "in parts of France where there had been most improvement where popular discontent was the highest" economic improvement leads to revolution because once improvement shown, yearn for more.
James C. Davies
ideas have explanatory and possibly predictive value if they are juxtaposed and put in proper time sequence.
a realist, human beings in state of nature are governed by keen instinct of self-preservation. violent by nature.
human beings are deeply flawed, humans are only motivated by self interest. which predisposes human behavior toward eternal struggle for power. rejects idealistic view instead a realist view.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
believe in mankind goodness, quality of men could move to a higher plane, in nature everyone one is good "blank slate" makes us private property divides men
leader of Russian Revolution opposed bourgeois democracy, national self- determination, nation choose communism, capitalist make it business to promote war, out compete rivals
local outgrowth of the cutthroat competition characteristic of monopoly capitalism. capitalist always seek markets.
Second Treatise an Civil Government
reflect conditions inherent in nature rather than defects in human nature or society, place humans in do or die situations make conflict inevitable. self preservation most basic human instinct
State of Nature
human condition before the creation of social code of behavior and collective techniques to control human impulses
four dimensions of planetary danger: war system, population pressures, resource scarcities and environmental overload, interrelated aspects of single problem
Paradox of democratic peace
democratic states are often militarily powerful, fight other states, engage in armed intervention and did sometimes commits acts of aggression but they barely fight each other
in modern age the unintentional launching of nuclear attack because of mistake or miscalculation
conflict begins as localized and limited encounter but grows into general war after other parties are drawn into conflict through the activation of military alliances. (NATO)
christian theologist basis of just war doctrine, defensive wars justified, aggressive wars okay when government failed to make reparation
christian theologian argued moral obligation to wage aggressive war for sake of higher principle
encompassed violations of accepted rules of war such as brutality, mistreatment of civilians
no morality in international systems, political realist, economic power, leadership for military power
argued immediate arm is always power, interest is defined as power. interest of every nation is to seek power first and objectives are second.
success in international politics even without confronation ultimately depends on power. realism considers prudence- the weighing of consequences of political action- to be supreme virtue in politics. A foreign policy based on realism will avoid "the blindness of crusading frenzy that destroys nations and civilization in the name of moral, ideal or God himself"
a term often invoked but seldom defined, it is usually associated with power enhancement; shorthand for whatever enhances the power and best serves the supreme purposes of the nation, including prosperity, prestige, security and above all survival
word of balance; also often used interchangeably with stability in the literature in international relations, all nation states are thriving.
European balance of power system
constant warfare in shifting alliance. classic theory of international relations that holds that nations of approximately equal strength seek to maintain status quo by preventing nation from gaining superiority over the others resort to war as means of solving disputes seizing territory gaining prestige and glory.
nation requires hegemony power builds military power an destroys sovereignty of other states a bully
rigid military alliances
help undermine the European system. coalitions were becoming fixed, while nations were steadily accumulating military power. unprecedented peacetime outlays for military research and development, the creation relatively large standing armies, and a spiraling arms race reinforced the increasing division of Europe in two opposing alliances
following WWII traditional European balance of power system gave two rival blocs, one headed by the United States and former Soviet Union each with overwhelming economic and militarily superiority and each opposed politics and ideology of other.
cut off lend lease aid and refusal of grant large loans and launching of massive U.S. foreign aid for Europe
Soviet Union alliance linking Moscow and Europe counter alliance for NATO. Unified military command and allowed the Soviet army to maintain large garrisons within satellite states to defend outside attack
strategy based on not having nuclear war. nuclear weapons cant be used for offensive purpose, only to deter attacks
Strategic Defense Initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
Nuclear arms race
the competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union for supremacy in nuclear warfare. Both countries tried to have the largest nuclear arsenals.
New world order (466)
international politics doe not exhibit a clear balance of power configuration whereby participants with incompatible aims, conflicting interest and roughly equal power interact in predictable ways to maintain stability and peace.
the process by which values, attitudes, preferences and products associated with the most technologically advance democracies is being spread around the world via mass media and trade
International Monetary Fund
a specialized agency of the United Nations designed to promote worldwide monetary cooperation international trade, and economic stability. it also helps equalize balance of payments by allowing member countries to borrow from its fund
worlds largest single economy, 27 nations. including the establishment of single currency and elimination of internal border controls in the Schengen area, has inspired other efforts to form regional and geography based trading blocs.
North American Free Trade Agreement
United States, Mexico and Canada launched the North American Free Trade Association in January 1994
in international relations theory, the existence of a single invincible superpower; the international system said to have existed after the collapse of the Soviet Union left the U.S.as the sole (and thus unrivaled) remaining military and economic superpower on the world stage
Foreign policy goal and strategies
nations adopt in pursuit to predetermined goals and objectives. goals are by nature long range, deeply rooted and slow to change. strategies and policies in turn can be pragmatic and flexible. they can vary over time and be global or regional.
Status quo (defensive) strategy
a national policy of maintaining the existing balance of power through collective security agreements, diplomacy, and negotiation as well as through "legitimizing instruments" such as international law and international organizations
a status quo international policy laid down by U.S. president James Monroe who pledged the U.S. would resist any attempts by outside powers to alter the balance of power in the American Hemisphere
President Harry Truman's pledge of U.S. support for any free people threatened with revolution by an internal armed minority or an outside aggressor
A conflict that began in 1948 over the land once known as Palestine, now known as Israel
the national movement for the return of the Jewish people to the land of Abraham and the resumption of the Jewish sovereignty is what is now known as Israel
Egyptian threats and intelligence reports suggesting it was about to attack, Israel launched a preemptive military operation.
a political philosophy, that considers values, ideals and moral principles as the keys to comprehending and possibly changing, the behavior of nation- states.
the body of customs, treaties, and generally accept rules that define the rights and obligations of nations when dealing with one another
a body of international law dealing with the treatment of wounded prisoners of war and civilians in a war zone
a widely accepted set of rules governing conduct in land wars, the use of new weapons and the rights and duties of both neutral and warring parties
Arms control treaties
bilateral arms control agreements negotiated between the U.S and the former Soviet Union during the Cold War. Although the were both numerous and controversial these agreements altered neither country's dependency on nuclear deterrence to maintain peace
an international agreement drafted in 1968 not to aid nonnuclear nations in acquiring nuclear weapons. it was not signed by France and China and other nations actively seeking to build these weapons
was promoted by mounting scientific evidence of the rapid erosion of the ozone layer, which shields the planter from cancer causing UV radiation. in 1986 23 nations endorse a plan to reduce CFCs by year 2000s two years later more than 80 nations agreed to move the ban of CFCs and outlaw other harmful substances as well
a global warming treaty negotiated in Kyoto, Japan. example of difficulties in fashioning international environmental law. U.S will not sign anything that limit energy use. labor unions worry about lost of jobs, industries complain about additional government regulations
International Court of Justice (World Court)
Also known as the International Court of Justice, the principal judicial organ of the United Nations; the Court hears any case brought before it by parties who voluntarily accept its jurisdiction
Article 36 of ICJ
governments are legally obligated to abide by a decision of the court only when they have given prior consent to the Courts adjudication of the case. They make the declaration of intent to accept the Court's jurisdiction in advance as it invites them to do so, or the may simply choose to submit certain cases on an ad hoc basis