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A shared general philosophy regarding how questions about human behavior is answered using a standard sequence of steps in answering a question
Describes relationships between variables, but can't test causal relationships
Non experimental research that examines social, cultural, and political contexts in occurs in .
Provides indication on how two thrings are related to one another, or how well an outcome can be predicted
Participants are assigned to groups by the researcher based on a criterion, can do cause and effect relationships
Participants are indirectly placed in groups based on some characteristic beyond the researcher's control
Used to measure the knowledge of a specific area, when learnin is the outcome that is measured
Done by commercial publishers and have a broad application across a variety of settings. (Come with instructions and scoring procedures)
Teacher/researcher made test
Designed for a specific purpose and limited to a small number of people
Criterion referenced test
Defines a specific level of performance and the only thing that is important is the individual's performance, regardless of how they compare to others.
Part of a multiple choice question that has the purpose of of setting the question or posing the problem
Analyzes a test item's effectiveness: generates two indices (difficulty and discrimination)
The proportion of test takers in the upper group who got the item correct - the number who got the item correct in the low group
Presents the respondent with an ambigious stimulus and asks the person for a response
Researcher uses a device to keep track of the time and measures the length of time a behavior occurs
Researcher charts the incidence or frequency of the occurence of a particular behavior.
All of the behavior of a target are recorded, with little concern to the specificity of its content
transferring data from the original collection form into a format that lends itself to data analysis
Distribution of scores
An average or individual value that is most representative of that distribution or set of scores
A measure of central tendency used when the data is ordinal or when extreme scores are included in the sample
Degree of spread or dispersion that characterizes a group of scores and the degree to which a set of scores differs from some measure of central tendency
Subtracting the group mean from an individual score and dividing that result by the standard dev
The type of sampling used when the likelihood of selecting any one member of a population is known
Simple random sampling
A sampling procedure allowing for the equal and independent chance of subjects being selected for sample
A random sampling procedure in which increments determine who becomes part of the sample
The process of selecting a sample that represents different groups of a population
Stratified random sampling
A random sampling procedure used when subjects are known to be unequal on some variable in the population
A probability sampling procedure wherein units of subjects are selected, rather than the subjects themselves
A non probabibility sampling procedure where the selected sample represents a participating captive audience
The magnitude of the difference between the characteristics of the sample and the characteristics of the population from which it was selected.
The risk associated with not being 100% sure that the difference in something isn't caused by what you think but by some unforeseen factor
That which has influence on the DEPENDENT VARIABLE and needs to be removed or controlled
Variable that is manipulated or changed to examine its effect upon the dependent variable (AKA Predictor Variable)
The unassuming explanation for differences between groups that implies that the differences are accounted for by other variables that aren't being studied (Alpha-Type1 & Beta-Type 2)
A statement of equality about the variables studied that acts as a starting point and benchmark for the outcomes of the study
Related to the INDEPENDENT or DEPENDENT variable and has an impact on the Dependent variable
A variable that is not related to the experiment but is related to the dependent or independent variable
Directional Research Hypothesis
Reflects the difference between groups, and the direction of the difference is specified
A measure of how much risk we are willing to take when reaching a conclusion about the relationship between two variables
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