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72 terms

CRM Quiz questions

These are all the quiz questions that were given to us in matching form on all the quizzes together.
STUDY
PLAY
Theory
A set of related ideas that explain events that have occured and predict future events
Research
A process where new knowledge is discovered
Scientific Method
A shared general philosophy regarding how questions about human behavior is answered using a standard sequence of steps in answering a question
Hypothesis
An objective extension of the question that was originally posed
Chance
What you can't control in an experiment Ex. Fate, luck, etc
Non-experimental research
Describes relationships between variables, but can't test causal relationships
Descriptive research
Describes the characteristics of an existing phenomenon
Qualitative research
Non experimental research that examines social, cultural, and political contexts in occurs in .
Correlational research
Provides indication on how two thrings are related to one another, or how well an outcome can be predicted
Experimental Research
Participants are assigned to groups by the researcher based on a criterion, can do cause and effect relationships
Quasi-experimental research
Participants are indirectly placed in groups based on some characteristic beyond the researcher's control
Basic Research
Pure Research, has no immeditate application at the time the research is done
Applied Research
Research that has immediate application as soon as the project is done.
Achievement Test
Used to measure the knowledge of a specific area, when learnin is the outcome that is measured
Standardized Test
Done by commercial publishers and have a broad application across a variety of settings. (Come with instructions and scoring procedures)
Teacher/researcher made test
Designed for a specific purpose and limited to a small number of people
Norm-Referenced test
Allows the researcher to compare individuals test performances
Criterion referenced test
Defines a specific level of performance and the only thing that is important is the individual's performance, regardless of how they compare to others.
Stem
Part of a multiple choice question that has the purpose of of setting the question or posing the problem
Item Analysis
Analyzes a test item's effectiveness: generates two indices (difficulty and discrimination)
Difficulty index
The proportion of the test takers that got a question right
Likert Scale
A method of measuring attitudes, using a method of equal-appearing intervals
Discrimination Index
The proportion of test takers in the upper group who got the item correct - the number who got the item correct in the low group
Personality Test
Assesses stable individual behavior patterns
Projective test
Presents the respondent with an ambigious stimulus and asks the person for a response
Duration Recording
Researcher uses a device to keep track of the time and measures the length of time a behavior occurs
Frequency recording
Researcher charts the incidence or frequency of the occurence of a particular behavior.
Continuous recording
All of the behavior of a target are recorded, with little concern to the specificity of its content
Raw Data
Unorganized Data
Data Collection Form
A form used to organize for analysis of the data you collected
Coding data
transferring data from the original collection form into a format that lends itself to data analysis
Descriptive stats
Describe the general characteristics of a set of scores or data
Measures of central tendency
require two or more data points
Distribution of scores
An average or individual value that is most representative of that distribution or set of scores
Mean
Sum of a set of scores divided by the number of scores
Median
A measure of central tendency used when the data is ordinal or when extreme scores are included in the sample
Variability
Degree of spread or dispersion that characterizes a group of scores and the degree to which a set of scores differs from some measure of central tendency
Range
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Standard Deviation
The average amount that each of the individual scores varies from the mean.
Normal Curve
A bell shaped curve in which the mean=median=mode. It is asymptotic and symmetrical
Standard Scores
Have the same reference point and the same standard dev.
z-score
Subtracting the group mean from an individual score and dividing that result by the standard dev
Probability
Likelihood
Sample
A representative portion of a population
Generalizability
The ability to draw inferences and conclusions from data
Probability
The type of sampling used when the likelihood of selecting any one member of a population is known
NonProbability
When the likelihood of selecting one member of a population is unknown
Simple random sampling
A sampling procedure allowing for the equal and independent chance of subjects being selected for sample
Systematic Sampling
A random sampling procedure in which increments determine who becomes part of the sample
Stratified sampling
The process of selecting a sample that represents different groups of a population
Stratified random sampling
A random sampling procedure used when subjects are known to be unequal on some variable in the population
Cluster Sampling
A probability sampling procedure wherein units of subjects are selected, rather than the subjects themselves
Convenience sampling
A non probabibility sampling procedure where the selected sample represents a participating captive audience
Sampling error
The magnitude of the difference between the characteristics of the sample and the characteristics of the population from which it was selected.
Chance
The risk associated with not being 100% sure that the difference in something isn't caused by what you think but by some unforeseen factor
Control Variable
That which has influence on the DEPENDENT VARIABLE and needs to be removed or controlled
Treatment Variable
AKA independent variable
Sample
A representative portion of a population
Independent Variable
Variable that is manipulated or changed to examine its effect upon the dependent variable (AKA Predictor Variable)
Measurement
Assignment of values to objects, events, or outcomes according to rules
Population
The entirety of some group
Statistical Level
The unassuming explanation for differences between groups that implies that the differences are accounted for by other variables that aren't being studied (Alpha-Type1 & Beta-Type 2)
Null Hypothesis
A statement of equality about the variables studied that acts as a starting point and benchmark for the outcomes of the study
Dependent Variable
AKA outcome variable. That which is examined as the outcome of the experiment
Factorial Design
Experiments that include more than one independent variable
Research Hypothesis
A definite state of the relationship between two variables
Extraneous Variable
Related to the INDEPENDENT or DEPENDENT variable and has an impact on the Dependent variable
Confounder
When variables compete to explain effects
Moderator
A variable that is not related to the experiment but is related to the dependent or independent variable
Directional Research Hypothesis
Reflects the difference between groups, and the direction of the difference is specified
Statistical Significance
A measure of how much risk we are willing to take when reaching a conclusion about the relationship between two variables
Variable
A class of outcomes that can take on more than one value.