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These are all the quiz questions that were given to us in matching form on all the quizzes together.


A set of related ideas that explain events that have occured and predict future events


A process where new knowledge is discovered

Scientific Method

A shared general philosophy regarding how questions about human behavior is answered using a standard sequence of steps in answering a question


An objective extension of the question that was originally posed


What you can't control in an experiment Ex. Fate, luck, etc

Non-experimental research

Describes relationships between variables, but can't test causal relationships

Descriptive research

Describes the characteristics of an existing phenomenon

Qualitative research

Non experimental research that examines social, cultural, and political contexts in occurs in .

Correlational research

Provides indication on how two thrings are related to one another, or how well an outcome can be predicted

Experimental Research

Participants are assigned to groups by the researcher based on a criterion, can do cause and effect relationships

Quasi-experimental research

Participants are indirectly placed in groups based on some characteristic beyond the researcher's control

Basic Research

Pure Research, has no immeditate application at the time the research is done

Applied Research

Research that has immediate application as soon as the project is done.

Achievement Test

Used to measure the knowledge of a specific area, when learnin is the outcome that is measured

Standardized Test

Done by commercial publishers and have a broad application across a variety of settings. (Come with instructions and scoring procedures)

Teacher/researcher made test

Designed for a specific purpose and limited to a small number of people

Norm-Referenced test

Allows the researcher to compare individuals test performances

Criterion referenced test

Defines a specific level of performance and the only thing that is important is the individual's performance, regardless of how they compare to others.


Part of a multiple choice question that has the purpose of of setting the question or posing the problem

Item Analysis

Analyzes a test item's effectiveness: generates two indices (difficulty and discrimination)

Difficulty index

The proportion of the test takers that got a question right

Likert Scale

A method of measuring attitudes, using a method of equal-appearing intervals

Discrimination Index

The proportion of test takers in the upper group who got the item correct - the number who got the item correct in the low group

Personality Test

Assesses stable individual behavior patterns

Projective test

Presents the respondent with an ambigious stimulus and asks the person for a response

Duration Recording

Researcher uses a device to keep track of the time and measures the length of time a behavior occurs

Frequency recording

Researcher charts the incidence or frequency of the occurence of a particular behavior.

Continuous recording

All of the behavior of a target are recorded, with little concern to the specificity of its content

Raw Data

Unorganized Data

Data Collection Form

A form used to organize for analysis of the data you collected

Coding data

transferring data from the original collection form into a format that lends itself to data analysis

Descriptive stats

Describe the general characteristics of a set of scores or data

Measures of central tendency

require two or more data points

Distribution of scores

An average or individual value that is most representative of that distribution or set of scores


Sum of a set of scores divided by the number of scores


A measure of central tendency used when the data is ordinal or when extreme scores are included in the sample


Degree of spread or dispersion that characterizes a group of scores and the degree to which a set of scores differs from some measure of central tendency


The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

Standard Deviation

The average amount that each of the individual scores varies from the mean.

Normal Curve

A bell shaped curve in which the mean=median=mode. It is asymptotic and symmetrical

Standard Scores

Have the same reference point and the same standard dev.


Subtracting the group mean from an individual score and dividing that result by the standard dev




A representative portion of a population


The ability to draw inferences and conclusions from data


The type of sampling used when the likelihood of selecting any one member of a population is known


When the likelihood of selecting one member of a population is unknown

Simple random sampling

A sampling procedure allowing for the equal and independent chance of subjects being selected for sample

Systematic Sampling

A random sampling procedure in which increments determine who becomes part of the sample

Stratified sampling

The process of selecting a sample that represents different groups of a population

Stratified random sampling

A random sampling procedure used when subjects are known to be unequal on some variable in the population

Cluster Sampling

A probability sampling procedure wherein units of subjects are selected, rather than the subjects themselves

Convenience sampling

A non probabibility sampling procedure where the selected sample represents a participating captive audience

Sampling error

The magnitude of the difference between the characteristics of the sample and the characteristics of the population from which it was selected.


The risk associated with not being 100% sure that the difference in something isn't caused by what you think but by some unforeseen factor

Control Variable

That which has influence on the DEPENDENT VARIABLE and needs to be removed or controlled

Treatment Variable

AKA independent variable


A representative portion of a population

Independent Variable

Variable that is manipulated or changed to examine its effect upon the dependent variable (AKA Predictor Variable)


Assignment of values to objects, events, or outcomes according to rules


The entirety of some group

Statistical Level

The unassuming explanation for differences between groups that implies that the differences are accounted for by other variables that aren't being studied (Alpha-Type1 & Beta-Type 2)

Null Hypothesis

A statement of equality about the variables studied that acts as a starting point and benchmark for the outcomes of the study

Dependent Variable

AKA outcome variable. That which is examined as the outcome of the experiment

Factorial Design

Experiments that include more than one independent variable

Research Hypothesis

A definite state of the relationship between two variables

Extraneous Variable

Related to the INDEPENDENT or DEPENDENT variable and has an impact on the Dependent variable


When variables compete to explain effects


A variable that is not related to the experiment but is related to the dependent or independent variable

Directional Research Hypothesis

Reflects the difference between groups, and the direction of the difference is specified

Statistical Significance

A measure of how much risk we are willing to take when reaching a conclusion about the relationship between two variables


A class of outcomes that can take on more than one value.

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