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A & P Cells
Terms in this set (92)
Forms the border of the cell and many of its organelles.
-Includes plasma membrane of 2 bordering cells and looks like 2 parallel lines under electron microscope.
The phospholipid bilayer that covers the entire cell
-Controls passage of materials in and out of cell.
-Governs interactions with other cells.
Side of the plasma membrane that faces the cytoplasm
Side of the plasma membrane that faces the cytoplasm.
Fluid between the nucleus and surface membrane
Extensions of the plasma membrane
A junction that adheres adjoining cells and runs between both cells
Composed of lipids
A transport vesicle that can leave a cell
The area between adjacent cells
The organelle that is used to organize fibers during cell division
Components of the centrosome
Can be found in the cytoplasm of the cell and are used to make proteins
Used to store DNA
The organelle used to make ATP
The membrane surrounding the nucleus
Where ribosomes are made and found within the nucleus
A type of junction that holds adjacent cells together and includes protein fibers
Basal cell surface
The cell surface that faces the basement membrane
The layer that anchors a tissue
The portion of the endomembrane system that makes phospholipids
The portion of the endomembrane system that makes proteins
The organelle that is used to recycle cell parts
The largest in diameter protein fiber in a cell that composes the cytoskeleton
Medium diameter filaments found throughout the cell
Lateral cell surface
The cell surface that faces an adjoining cell
The organelle that is used to modify and package proteins
Vesicles that are formed from the Golgi
Clusters of microfilaments found at the interior perimeter of the plasma membrane
Fibers that help compose the microvillus
Apical cell surface
The surface of the cell that faces the interior space or lumen
Membrane proteins that penetrate into the phospholipid bilayer or all the way through it
Membrane proteins that pass completely through the plasma membrane
Membrane proteins that do NOT protrude into the phospholipid bilayer but adhere only to one face of the membrane
Sugar molecule found within the transmembrane proteins
Anchoring peripheral protein
Plasma proteins that help attach the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane
A molecule that binds to a receptor on the plasma membrane
A membrane protein that binds to a chemical messenger
Membrane protein that brakes down a chemical messenger and terminates its effects
The waste products of a chemical reaction
A membrane protein that constantly allows ions to pass in and out of the cell
Gated Ion channel
A membrane protein that opens and closes to allow ions to pass in and out of the cell only at certain times
A membrane protein (glycoprotein) that helps distinguish the body's own cells from foreign cells
Cell-adhesion molecule (CAM)
A membrane protein that binds one cell to another
A process in which particles are driven through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure (force exerted on a membrane by water)
ie. blood pressure forces fluid through clefts in capillary walls, & kidneys filtering wastes from blood.
Particles of matter that mix with a more abundant substance called the solvent
A major inorganic molecule
Narrow spaces between capillary cells that hold back larger particles
-Makes up about 2% of the molecules of the plasma membrane.
-Larger than lipids and make up 50% of the membrane weight.
- Receptors, Second-messenger systems, Enzymes, Ion channels, Carriers, Cell-identity markers, Cell-adhesion molecules.
Surface proteins on plasma membrane of target cell.
-Cell communication via chemical signals (hormones/neurotransmitters)
-Usually specific for one substrate.
Messenger (chemical) binds to a surface receptor.
-Triggers changes w/in cell that produces a 2nd messenger in the cytoplasm.
-Involves transmembrane proteins and peripheral proteins.
-Breaks down chem. messengers/hormones.
-Carry out final stages of starch and protein digestion in sm. intestine.
-Helps produce 2nd messengers (cAMP)
Transmembrane proteins with pores that allow water and dissolved ions to pass through membrane.
- Play an important role in the timing of nerve signals and muscle contraction.
- Channelopathies=family of diseases that result from defects in channel proteins.
Type of channel protein that are open and close in response to stimuli.
Ligand= chem. regulated gates
Voltage= regulated gates
Mechanically= stretch and pressure regulated gates.
Transmembrane proteins that bind to glucose, electrolytes, and other solutes to transfer them across the membrane.
- Uses ATP
Enables our bodies to identify which cells belong to it and which are foreign invaders.
- Glycoproteins make the glycocalyx with carbohydrate surface coating.
Cell-Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
Adheres cells to each other and to extracellular material.
(cells dont grow/survive normally unless linked to extracellular material)
ie. binding of immune cell to cancer cell requires CAMs
due to desmosomes and gap junctions.
1. Chem. 1st messenger (epinephrine) binds to a surface receptor.
-triggers changes w/in cell that produces a 2nd messenger in the cytoplasm.
2. Receptor activates G protein (an intracellular peripheral protein Guanosine triphosphate-GTP)
3. G protein relays signal to adenylate cyclase, which converts ATP to cAMP(2nd messenger)
4. cAMP activates kinase in the cytosol
5.Kinases add phosphate groups to other cellular enzymes which activates and inactivates certain enzymes triggering a physiological change in the cell.
*60% of medication work by altering activity of G proteins.
Selectively permeable membrane
A membrane that allows some things through,
(Steroids/Lipids, Hormones, Water, O2, and CO2)
while preventing other things from entering or leaving
(Ions-Na+/K+, Proteins, Polar molecules).
Number of osmoles of solute per kilogram of water.
Ability of a solution to affect fluid volume and pressure in a cell.
(depends on concentration and permeability of solute)
Membrane transport mechanisms that do NOT require ATP.
-Random molecular motion provides energy
-Filtration, Diffusion, Osmosis
Membrane transport mechanisms that requires ATP.
- Vesicular transport
Carrier Mediated transport
Membrane transport mechanisms that use a membrane protein to transport substances from one side of the membrane to the other.
- Facilitated diffusion
- Active transport
The net movement of particles from high to low concentration.
Temperature: ^ temp= ^ motion of particles
Molecular weight: Larger molecules move slower
Steepness of concentration gradient: ^ difference=^rate
Membrane surface area: ^ area= ^ rate
Membrane permeability: ^permeability= ^ rate
Factors affecting diffusion rate through a membrane
Diffusion through lipid bilayer
Type of simple diffusion that is non-polar, hydrophobic, lipid soluble substances diffuse through lipid layer.
Diffusion through channel proteins
Type of simple diffusion that diffuses water and charged, hydrophilic solutes through channel proteins in the membrane.
By regulating number of channel proteins or by opening and closing gates.
How cells control permeability
Passive transport mechanism that involves the flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other.
-High to low concentration gradient
Channel proteins in plasma membrane used during osmosis for the passage of water.
- Cells can increase/decrease rate of osmosis by installing/removing these.
The amount of hydrostatic pressure required to stop osmosis.
The pressure applied to one side, overrides pressure, drives against concentration gradient.
ie. Heart drives water out of capillaries by this->
- capillary filtration
A solution that has a lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than intracellular fluid (ICF)
- Cells absorb water, swell, and may burst (lysis)
A solution that has a higher concentration of nonpermeating solutes.
- Cells lose water and shrivel (crenate)
A solution that has equal concentrations in cell and ICF.
- Cells have no change in volume or shape
Proteins in the plasma membrane that carry solutes from one side of the membrane to the other.
-Specific for certain ligand
-Provides receptor site for solute to bind to
-Ligand doesnt change when transported through the membrane--(enzymes chemically change ligand)
Transport maximum (TM)
Refers to the saturation in carrier-mediated transport proteins.
-As the solute concentration rises, the rate of transport rises, but only to a certain point= the transport rate when all carriers are occupied.
A carrier-mediated transport protein that carries only one solute at a time.
A carrier-mediated transport protein that carries 2 or more solutes simultaneously in same direction.
A carrier-mediated transport protein that carries 2 or more solutes in opposite directions.
ie. Na/K pump brings in K and removes Na from cell.
Carrier-mediated transport of solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient.
- No ATP
- Solute attaches to binding site on carrier, carrier changes confirmation, then releases solute on other side of membrane.
Carrier mediated active transport method used to keep K concentration higher than Na w/in the cell than the ECF.
- Keeps inside more (-) and outside more (+) for nerve and muscle function.
-Heat production as by-product from ATP consumption
- Necessary due to constant K and Na leakage through the membrane.
*half of daily calories are utilized for Na- K pumps
Secondary Active Transport
A form of carrier mediated transport with a steep concentration gradient maintained between sides of a plasma membrane.
(water behind a dam)
- Na-glucose transport protein (SGLT) simultaneously binds Na and glucose and carries both into the cell.
"Fixed anions(-)" attract cations(+) causing osmosis.
-Cell swelling stimulates the Na-K pump to decrease ion concentration, decrease osmolarity and cell swelling.
Regulation of cell volume
An active transport process that moves large particles, fluid droplets, or numerous molecules at once through the membrane in vesicles.
Active, vesicular transport process that brings material into the cell.
Endocytosis/cell eating- engulfing large particles.
ie. Pseudopods, phagosomes, macrophages
Endocytosis/cell drinking- taking in droplets of ECF containing molecules useful in the cell.
ie. Pinocytic vesicle
Endocytosis where particles bind to specific receptors on plasma membrane.
ie. Clathrin-coated vesicle in cytoplasm-uptake of LDL
Discharging material from the cell
-Utilizes motor proteins energized by ATP
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