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46 terms

Toxicology

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Toxicology
the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms.
Environmental Toxicology
air, water, and soil
Consumer Toxicology
foods, cosmetics, and drugs
Central Nervous System Depression
coma
Respiratory Arrest
loss of respiratory drive, loss of muscle reflexes (tongue) allowing suffocation, aspiration of gastric contents into airways
Cardiovascular Effects
hypotension, hypovolemia, arrythmias
Specific Bodily Functions
cellular hypoxia, seizures from muscle hyperactivity, hyperexia, kidney failure, liver failure, etc.
Lethal Dose 50
refers to the dose of a substance that kills half of the test population usually within 4 hours
Potency
sensitivity of an organ or tissue to a drug; measure of a dose
Efficacy
the maximum effect of a drug; Measure of quantified drug response
Type S Poisoner
specific victim targeted, slow poisoning with specific poison Type S/S, quick decision, opportune poison Type S/Q
Type R Poisoner
random victim targeted, slow poisoning with specific poison Type R/S, quick decision, opportune poison Type R/Q
Drug
a natural or synthetic substance designed to affect the subject psychologically or physiologically
Controlled Substances
drugs that are restricted by law
Controlled Substances Act
enacted in 1970 lists illegal drugs, their category and their penalty for possession, sale or use.
PDR
Physician's Desk Reference, used to identify manufactured pills, tablets and capsules
Field Tests
presumptive tests
Lab Tests
conclusive tests
Marquis Color Test
turns purple in the presence of most opium derivatives and orange-brown with amphetamines
Dillie-Koppanyi Color Test
turns violet-blue in the presence of barbiturates
Duquenois-Levine Color Test
turns a purple color in the presence of marijuana
Van Urk Color Test
turns a blue-purple in the presence of LSD
Scott Color Test
color test for cocaine
Chromatography
Technique for separating mixtures into their component compounds
Retention Factor
number that represents how far a compound travels in a particular solvent
Relative Retention Time
the ratio of the retention time of the substance to the retention time of a standard that is placed into the sample
Spectrophotometry
the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
Spectrophotometer
an instrument used to measure and record the absorption spectrum of a chemical substance.
BAC
Blood Alcohol Content, expressed as a percent weight per volume
Preliminary Field Test for Alcohol
used to determine the degree of suspect's physical impairment and whether or not another test is justified.
Breathalyzer
collects and measures alcohol content of alveolar breath
Johann Metzger
discovered a way to detect arsenic in solutions
Valentine Rose
Rose showed how arsenic could be detected in human organs
Mathieu Orfila
the father of forensic toxicology
Olympias
a famous Ancient Greek Poisoner
Locusta
personal poisoner of Emperor Nero
Lucrezia Borgia
father was Pope Alexander VI
Madame Giulia Toffana
committed over 600 successful poisonings, including two Popes.
Hieronyma Spara
formed a society to teach women how to murder their husbands
Madame de Brinvilliers and Catherine Deshayes
French Poisoners
Thomas Hickey
first American executed for treason, for attempting to poison George Washington in 1776
William Palmer, MD
"The Rugeley Poisoner"
Viktor Yuschenko
candidate for President of Ukraine in 2004, poisoned during campaign
John Trestrail
is a practicing boarded toxicologist who has consulted on many criminal poisoning cases
Arthur Jeffrey Dempster (1886-1950)
developed the first modern mass spectrometer
Francis William Aston
was a British physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in the invention of the mass spectrometer