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for final

Air entering the body is filtered, warmed and humidified by

the upper respiratory tract


helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing

Functions of the nose include

- filtering the air
- warming the air
-humidifying the air
- acting as resonating chamber in speech

The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are


Air moves into the lungs because

the gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure

Air moves out of the lungs because

the volume of the lungs decreases with expiration

Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the

internal intercostals

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,

the volume of the thoracic cavity increases

Pulmanary ventilation refers to

the movement of air into and out of the lungs

Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is

bound to hemoglobin

Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as

bicarbonate ions

the most important chemical regulator of respiration is

carbon dioxide

A 10% increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will

increase the rate of breathing

In quiet breathing

inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive

If a student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he cannot exhale any more, the amount of air that he expelled would be his/her

vital capacity

Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?

decrease pH

When the diaphragm and external intercoastal muscles contract,

intrapleural pressure decreases

Damage to the surfactant cells of the lungs would result in

alveolar collapse

Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and frequently has periods where he can hardly breathe. The problem is probably the result of

thick secretions that exceed the ability of the respiratory tract to remove them

In emphysema, the alveoli break down and coalesce into large air spaces. The lungs also lose elasticity and compliance is increased. You would expect a person who suffers from emphysema to have

-increased dead airspace
-decreased vital capacity
-elevated P(co2) in the blood
-Increased anteroposterior diameter of the thorax

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