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it causes a new gene to appear in the gene pool which could be beneficial or harmful to the population.

How could mutation affect a gene pool?


a weakened pathogen introduced into the body to activate the immune system to fight infection.


protein produced by immune system to fight foreign substances that enters the body.


connective tissue that connect bones together


connective tissue that connect muscle to bones


An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits. Factor that could directly affect survival of organisms in their environment.


genetic make up of an organism that control the phenotype of a trait

gene pool

the combined genetic information of all members of a particular population


Organisms that obtain energy by eating only plants. also known as primary consumers

sexual reproduction

A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents.

asexual reproduction

reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent

pathway of energy as it flows in the ecosystem

producers - herbivores - carnivores - omnivores - decomposers

grass- grasshopper - toad - snake - hawk - bacteria

arrange the following organisms based on how energy is transferred in the ecosystem.( snake, bacteria, grass, toad, grasshopper, hawk)

tall - dominant
short - recessive

A tall pea plant(TT) is cross pollinated with a short pea plant (tt) to produce a tall pea plant (Tt). Which trait is
dominant and recessive?


In humans, free earlobe (F) is dominant over attached earlobe (f). A man who is heterozygous foe free earlobe
married a woman with attached earlobe.What is the probability for them to have children with free earlobe?

Ss x ss

In seeds of pea plants, smooth (S) is dominant over wrinkled (s). A pea plant with smooth seeds is cross
pollinated with a pea plant with wrinkled seeds which resulted in pea plants with smooth and wrinkled seeds. What are the genotypes of the parents.

46 chromosomes

Your cells undergo mitosis. Your body cells have 46 chromosomes,how many chromosomes are there in each
new cell formed by mitosis?

about 50% from father and 50% from mother

What percent of your DNA have you inherited from your parents?

cell membrane

regulates the movements of substances in and out of the cell


Give the correct steps on how energy is produced from food by arranging the following in their proper sequence.
1. .sugar is absorbed by cells and further broken down
2. carbon dioxide is release as waste product
3. .broken down sugar enters the mitochondria and energy
is produced
4. food is broken down to sugar through the process of

greater solutes inside the cell than outside thus, water moves from outside into the cell across the
cell membrane causing the cell to burst or lysis.

What happens to cell when placed in a hypotonic environment?

ovaries and testes

organs in human where cells that undergo meiosis are located


part of the sperm cell that contains DNA

fossils provide information about organisms that lived million yrs ago

Why are fossils important in the study of evolution?

9 chromosomes from each parent

An organism has 18 chromosomes in its body cells, how many chromosomes did this organism inherit from each of
its parents?

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