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use of psychological techniques to treat emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems

eclectic psychotherapy

treatment that draws on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem

psychodynamic psychotherapies

explores childhood events and encourages individuals to develop insight into their psychological problems


a reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material


analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client's life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies

biomedical therapy

use of medications and other medical therapies to treat the symptoms associated with psychological disorders

free association

spontaneous report of all mental images, thoughts, feelings as a way of revealing unconscious conflicts

dream interpretation

dreams are the "royal road to unconscious", interpretation often reveals unconscious conflicts

behavior therapy

normal and abnormal behavior is learned; use classical and operant conditioning to change maladaptive behaviors

interpersonal psychotherapy

focuses on helping clients improve current relationships

token economy

clients are given tokens for desired behaviors, which they can later trade for rewards

exposure therapy

confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, leading to a decrease in the emotional response

systematic desensitization

a client relaxes all muscles while imagining being in increasingly frightening situations

cognitive therapy

recognition and alteration of unhealthy thinking patterns

cognitive restructuring

teaches clients to question automatic beliefs that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs

mindfulness meditation

teaches individual to be fully present in each moment, be aware of thoughts, and detect symptoms before they become a problem

cognitive behavioral therapy

blend of cognitive and behavioral techniques

humanistic therapy

emphasizes human potential, self-awareness, and free-will

person-centered therapy

all individuals have a tendency toward growth and it can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist

gestalt therapy

help client become aware of thoughts and to take responsibility for them

group therapy

multiple participants work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere

antipsychotic drugs

effective only against positive symptoms of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, alter brain dopamine levels


study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms

antianxiety medications

drugs that help reduce a person's experience of fear and anxiety


drugs that help lift people's mood

tardive dyskinesia

possible motor side effect that could be permanent with long term drug use


inhibit the breakdown of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine


block the reuptake of serotonin

tricyclic antidepressants

block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine


reduces anxiety through increasing levels of GABA; Valium, Xanax


used to treat bipolar disorder


antianxiety medicine that may take a few weeks to work, does not reduce alertness; Buspar

electroconvulsive therapy

induces a mild seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain, used for severe depression

transcranial magnetic stimulation

places a powerful pulsed magnet over a person's scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain


surgical destruction of specific brain areas

natural improvement

tendency of symptoms to return to their mean or average level

nonspecific treatment effects

not related to specific mechanisms by which treatment is supposed to be working

outcome studies

evaluate whether a particular treatment works

process studies

answer questions regarding why a treatment works or under what circumstances a treatment works

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