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PSY Ch 13: Therapies

STUDY
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psychotherapy
use of psychological techniques to treat emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems
eclectic psychotherapy
treatment that draws on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem
psychodynamic psychotherapies
explores childhood events and encourages individuals to develop insight into their psychological problems
resistance
a reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material
transference
analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client's life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies
biomedical therapy
use of medications and other medical therapies to treat the symptoms associated with psychological disorders
free association
spontaneous report of all mental images, thoughts, feelings as a way of revealing unconscious conflicts
dream interpretation
dreams are the "royal road to unconscious", interpretation often reveals unconscious conflicts
behavior therapy
normal and abnormal behavior is learned; use classical and operant conditioning to change maladaptive behaviors
interpersonal psychotherapy
focuses on helping clients improve current relationships
token economy
clients are given tokens for desired behaviors, which they can later trade for rewards
exposure therapy
confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, leading to a decrease in the emotional response
systematic desensitization
a client relaxes all muscles while imagining being in increasingly frightening situations
cognitive therapy
recognition and alteration of unhealthy thinking patterns
cognitive restructuring
teaches clients to question automatic beliefs that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs
mindfulness meditation
teaches individual to be fully present in each moment, be aware of thoughts, and detect symptoms before they become a problem
cognitive behavioral therapy
blend of cognitive and behavioral techniques
humanistic therapy
emphasizes human potential, self-awareness, and free-will
person-centered therapy
all individuals have a tendency toward growth and it can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist
gestalt therapy
help client become aware of thoughts and to take responsibility for them
group therapy
multiple participants work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere
antipsychotic drugs
effective only against positive symptoms of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, alter brain dopamine levels
psychopharmacology
study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms
antianxiety medications
drugs that help reduce a person's experience of fear and anxiety
antidepressants
drugs that help lift people's mood
tardive dyskinesia
possible motor side effect that could be permanent with long term drug use
MAOI
inhibit the breakdown of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine
SSRI
block the reuptake of serotonin
tricyclic antidepressants
block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine
benzodiazepines
reduces anxiety through increasing levels of GABA; Valium, Xanax
lithium
used to treat bipolar disorder
non-benzodiazepine
antianxiety medicine that may take a few weeks to work, does not reduce alertness; Buspar
electroconvulsive therapy
induces a mild seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain, used for severe depression
transcranial magnetic stimulation
places a powerful pulsed magnet over a person's scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain
psychosurgery
surgical destruction of specific brain areas
natural improvement
tendency of symptoms to return to their mean or average level
nonspecific treatment effects
not related to specific mechanisms by which treatment is supposed to be working
outcome studies
evaluate whether a particular treatment works
process studies
answer questions regarding why a treatment works or under what circumstances a treatment works