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a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties
The stength in which an atom holds its electrons. the tendency of an atom to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond. increases as you go up a group and from left to right on the periodic table.
electrical conductivity, luster, malleability, ductility, thermal conductivity. atoms of metals exist in lattices. All bu mecurty are solid at room temperature.
How are the electrons in a "cloud" of electrons like the blade of the fan?
Electrons in a cloud move in such a way around the nucleus that is impossible to identify their positions.
How does the mass of a proton compare to the mass of an electron?
A proton is 2000 times more massive than an electron. Or an electron is 1/2000 the mass of a proton
-poor conductors/ do not conduct (insulators)
-melting and boiling points are so low that they are usually liquids or gases at room temperature
-brittle and tend to crumble
-dull, little or no shine/luster
Group 8 atoms are the only ones that exist by themselves. MOst others form molecules that contain 2 atoms. Some form lattics.
How did Mendeleev arrange the elements? How is the modern periodic table organized?
Mendeleev-increasing atomic mass
Now-increasing atomic number (number of protons)
In a fight or chemical reaction. Metals vs Non metals
non metals try to rob metals of their outer sell electron (valance)> non metals from a positive ion, their name usually changes. Metals loose and therefore form a negative ion.
Where are the semimetals located on the periodic table?
Going down the "staircase" or on the zig zag line
How does reactivity change in metals as you go from the left to the right in the periodic table.
In general, reactivity decreases.
How does the reactivity change as you go down the alkali metal. What is the least and most reactive alkali metals?
As you go down, the metals become more reactive. Lithium is the least reactive and francium is the most reactive.
Hydrogen is in group 1. Is it an alkali metal or a nonmetal? Why is is it in group 1?
Non metal. It has one valence electron, so it is in group 1. It cannot be placed with halogens as it has just one valence
What information is listed in an element's square in the periodic table?
atomic number, chemical symbol, element name, atomic mass
What are 8 physical properties of metals?
malleability, ductility, luster, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, high melting points, solid at room temperature, and magnetism.
Patina and rust are examples of what?
oxidation-oxygen reacting with a metal. Patina is oxygen reacting with copper (ex. old penny or the Statue of Liberty). Rust is oxygen reacting with iron.
Discuss the relative hardness of pure alkali metals compared to pure alkaline earth metals.
Some alkali metals are so soft they can be cut with a plastic knife. Alkaline earth are harder than alkali metals
Is reactivity a chemical or physical property? Why?
Chemical property. New substances are being created.
What is one physical property characteristic of all transition metals?
good conductors of electricity
What are the significance of periods?
They have similar traits that continue on an exponential track
Characteristics of metalloids
Metalloids typically conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals. They are solids. They conduct heat and electricity. They insulate at low temperatures. They conduct at high temperatures.
Characteristics given in a square on the periodic table
Atomic number, atomic mass, chemical symbol, and element name
Russian chemist; contructed the first periodic table and arranged the elements in increasing atomic mass.
States, "When the elements are arranged in increasing atomic number, similar properties of elements appear at regular intervals or periodically."
The strength with wich as atom holds its electrons. Metal atoms have a low electronegativity and non- metals have a high electronegativity. Metals have little control over their outer elextrons while non-metals have tight control and are 'greedy' for more. Non metals try to rob metals of their valence electrons.
If it looses one electron it beceomes the hydroge ion H+. if it gains one it will become the hydride ion h-. It can act like a group I or a group VII element depending on what i comes into contact with.
Group V111 Noble Gases
-stable and react really under extreme circumstances
-helium is very light
-forms ions with a charge of -1
-are never found in their pure form in nature but are in various types of salts
-coloured and poisonous vapours
-all form molecules, each being made up of two atoms
-all convert Hydrogen sulfide into solfur.
-react similar to iron
-form +1 ions
-typical metallic properties
-similar chemically extreme behaviours
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