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9th Biology chapter 13 genetic engineering SECTIONS 13.1 and 13.2
Terms in this set (34)
What is meant by selective breeding?br
Choosing organism with desired characteristics
(Only animals and plants with desired characteristics are allowed to produce the next generation.)
What organisms have been produced by selective breeding?
Types of selective breeding
crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms
same species (kind)
example of hybridization
disease-resistant Burbank potato
The continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
example o inbreeding
maintaining dog breeds
Who was Luther Burbank?
He was a selective plant breeder who developed disease-resistant potatoes to help fight potato blight in Ireland, as well as over 800 varieties of other potatoes
What two plant traits did Luther Burbank try to combine in his crosses?
food producing capacity ( produce more food)
most members of a breed are genetically
(similar or not similar)
What are risk of inbreeding?
There is always a chance that cross between two individuals will bring together
Why are biologist interested in preserving the diversity of plants and animals in the wild?
Selective breeding would be nearly impossible with so many variations.
Breeders can increase the genetic variation by introducing _________, which are the ultimate source of genetic variablility
an inheritable change in DNA
Name two methods used by breeders to increase the rate of mutation.
Is it easy for breeders to produce mutants with desirable ?
No, they have to find 2 animals with the traits they want
(Many mutations are harmful, and it requires luck and to produce a few mutants with desirable characteristic that are not found in the original population)
why are radiation and chemicals useful techniques for producing mutant bacteria?
The small size of bacteria enable million of organisms to be treated at the same time
What technique do scientists use to produce mutant plants?
scientists use drugs that prevent chromosomal separation during meiosis
3 facts about polyploidy
polyploid plants have many sets of chromosomes
Polyploidy is usually fatal in animals
Bananas and some citrus fruits are polyploid
What is genetic engineering?
making changes in the DNA code of a living organism
Scientist use these two things to study and change DNA molecules
the structure of DNA
What are four techniques that biologist use to study and change DNA molecules?
1. Extract DNA from cells
2. Cut DNA into smaller pieces
3. Identify the sequences of bases in a DNA molecules
4. make unlimited copies of DNA
Explain how biologist get DNA out of a cell?
The cells are opened, and the DNA is separated from other cells
Biologist use these to cut DNA molecules at a specific sequences of nucleotides to make smaller fragments
The process by which DNA fragments are separated and analyzed.
facts about gel electrophoresis
1. an electric voltage applied to the gel separates the DNA fragments
2. Gel electrophoresis is used to compare the genomes of different organisms
3. Gel electrophoresis can be used to locate identify one particular gene in an individual's genome
3 ways Identifying DNA Sequences enables researchers
1. in studying specific genes
2. in comparing genes with other organisms
3. in Discovering the function of genes
list 4 "ingredients" added to a test tube to produce tagged DNA fragments that can be used to read a sequence of DNA
1. small, single-stranded pieces of DNA
2. Enzyme that can make a complementary DNA strand
3. supply of the 4 nucleotide bases in DNA
4. One base labeled with a fluorescent dye
What does gel reaction in the test tube generate when complimentary DNA is made for reading DNA?
The reaction generates a series of tiny DNA fragments that are color-coded according to te fluorescent base that has been added at the very end
Enzymes that splice DNA together can also be used to join ____________DNA sequences to natural DNA sequences.
How is any DNA produced
It is produced by combining DNA from different sources.
This is a technique that allows biologists to make many copies of a particular gene.
polymerase chain reaction
What is the role of the primers in PCR?
The primers are short pieces of complementary DNA sequences that provide a place for DNA polymerase to start working
What is the first step in the polymerase chain reaction?
The DNA is heated to separate its two strands
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