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the science of health

Personal hygiene

the self-care measures people use to maintain their health

Medical asepsis

hygienic practices tend to promote this; aka the clean technique

Factors that influence patient's personal hygiene?

social practices, body image, socioeconomic status, knowledge, personal preference, physical condition, and cultural variables


disease-producing microorganisms






condition characterized by an elevated body temperature


corner of the eye


underarm area or the armpit


the depressed point in the middle of the abdomen


the genital area

Why are the lower extremities never massaged?

prevents a possible embolus(moving blood clot)

Shearing force

tissue layers of skin slide on each other causing subcutaneous blood vessels to kink or stretch and results in an interruption of blood flow to the skin


the rubbing of skin against another surface; may remove layers of tissue

Patients at risk for pressure sores

are ill, debilitated, older, disabled, incontinent, and have spinal cord injuries, limited mobility or poor overall nutrition

Suspected deep tissue injury

localized purple or maroon area of intact skin or a blood-filled blister

Stage 1 pressure ulcer

intact skin with nonblanchable redness

Stage 2 pressure ulcer

partial thickness loss of dermis; shallow/open ulcer usually shiny or dry without slough or bruising

Stage 3 pressure ulcer

full thickness tissue loss in which subcutaneous fat is sometimes visible but bone, tendon, and muscle are not exposed

Stage 4 pressure ulcer

full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, or muscle; often inlcudes undermining or tunneling

Unstageable pressure ulcer

full thickness tissue loss, a wound base cover by slough and/or eschar in the wound bed that will usually be tan, brown, or black

Oral hygiene

care of the oral cavity


a set of artificial teeth not permanently fixed or implanted

Patients at Risk for Oral Disorders

lack of knowledge about oral hygiene, inability to perform oral hygiene etc.


medications that increase the tendency to bleed


circular area around the eye




waterproof pads


device for receiving feces or urine from either male or female patients confined to bed


a device for collecting urine from male patients; urinals for females are also available

Two types of bed pans

regular and fracture

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