unit 1: basics/australia
Terms in this set (41)
a map that shows a particular theme, or topic
any natural characteristic of Earth's surface, such as land forms and bodies of water
any natural feature of Earth's surface that has a distinct shape. Landforms include major features such as continents, plains, plateaus, and mountain ranges. They also include minor features such as hills, valleys, canyons, and dunes.
a raised area of land, such as a hill or mountain, with a flat top
the pattern of weather over a long period of time
climate maps show
how much rainfall different areas receive. They also show how hot or cold various places tend to be in winter and summer.
shows the borders of the 50 U.S. states. Political maps of larger areas show the borders between countries. In addition to borders, political maps also show important cities, such as the capitals of states and countries.
map of economic activity
focuses on the ways people produce, buy, and sell goods and services. This kind of map might show the main types of business and industry in an area. It might also show the natural resources that fuel the area's economy, and land use
a useful material that is found in nature, such as water, wood, coal, or oil
To read a thematic map
first look at a map's title. The title usually states the topic of the map. Then look at the map legend to determine how to read the map's symbols. On the U.S. political map, the legend shows the symbols for the national and state capitals. A map legend may also explain how the map uses colors. For instance, a thematic map might use colors to show differences in elevation or population density.
Physical features maps show
the shapes of features as seen from above. They also show the elevation, or height above sea level, of various features. These maps typically use colors and shading to show changes in elevation.
part of an ocean that is enclosed by an inward-curving stretch of coastline
large inlet of the sea that cuts deeply into the land, enclosed by land on three sides
a graph that shows the average temperature and precipitation in a place over a year
how can large bodies have an effect on climate?
ocean winds and warm-water currents keep temperatures even year-round. Places farther inland have more extreme climates, with hotter summers and colder winters
things that affect vegetation
climate, elevation, sunlight (latitude), precipitation, soil
a large area of Earth with a certain mix of plants and trees that are adapted to similar conditions
calculate the density of a place
divide the total number of people living there by the location's total land area
the ways in which people use a particular area of Earth's surface; for example, for farming, development, or preservation
the planting, growing, and harvesting of trees
any fuel, such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas, that is made from the remains of prehistoric plants and animals
an area defined by one or more natural or cultural characteristics that set it apart from other areas
dry or lacking rainfall; also a climate or climate zone that is hot and dry all year with very little rain
almost as big as US
mostly dessert, arid, wide variety
all the plant life in a particular region
all the animal life in a particular region
a huge landmass from which the present continents were formed
a very large, unbroken area of land
continental drift theory
the idea that continents are slowly drifting as the tectonic plates that they sit on move. This idea comes from Alfred Wegener, who proposed that Earth once had one giant supercontinent. This supercontinent broke apart into plates that have slowly drifted to their current locations
About 80 percent of the continent's plant and animal species are found nowhere else on Earth.
the variety of plants and animals living in one area, or on Earth
During that extremely long period of time, the plants and animals in Australia developed in isolation. And, until modern times, few species have arrived or have been brought from other continents to contribute to Australia's biodiversity
animals or plants that are brought into an area from somewhere else
animals or plants that are in danger of dying out in the immediate future
animals or plants that are likely to become endangered if not protected
Australia used to have a ____ policy but later got rid of it
society in which different cultural groups keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
The country now looks closer to home for trade because the cost of shipping goods to nearby countries is much less than shipping to Europe. By 1950, Japan was Australia's most important trade partner. In recent years, South Korea, China, and Taiwan have also increased their trade with Australia.
The reversed seasons give Australians another advantage.
-Countries such as the United States and Japan import out-of-season flowers and fruits from Australia.
exotic species example
rabbit, took over
-an area of the upper atmosphere in which the ozone layer has become unusually thin
-caused mainly by chemicals known as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs
night sky in australia
-There are several constellations, or groups of stars, that are visible only in the Southern Hemisphere. One of these constellations is called the Southern Cross, or Crux. Since ancient times, its bright stars have been invaluable to sailors, who have used the Crux to find their way in the South Pacific.
-he has spotted 39 supernovas. A supernova is the explosion of a large star like our sun. His location gives him a significant advantage, because the Australian night sky is clear most of the year.