AP World History: Chapter 19 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (41)
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
Along with Isabella of Castile, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
First area of Spanish exploration and settlement, served as an experimental region for the nature of Spanish colonial experience, encomienda system of colonial management initiated here.
First island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World.
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
The holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor. The encomendero was responsible for their integration into the church.
Bartolomé de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor.
Led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan.
was the last of the aztec emperors, who was defeated by spanish conquistador herman cortes.
Capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
the name given to one of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire from 1525 to 1821 - today it is Central America, plus Mexico, plus Southwest United States.
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
Leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain; entered what is now United States in search of mythical cities of gold.
Pedro de Valdivia
Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established city of Santiago in 1541.
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Mine located in upper Peru (modern Bolivia); largest of New World silver mines; produced 80 percent of all Peruvian silver.
Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosí.
Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return.
Large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.
Treaty of Tordesillas
A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
University-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative and administrative functions.
Body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the Indies.
Council of the Indies
Body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World.
Major divisions of Spanish New World colonies headed by direct representatives of the king; one was based in Lima, the other in Mexico City.
Senior government officials in Spanish America. They ruled as direct representative of the king over the principal administrative units or viceroyalties. They were usually high ranking Spanish nobles with previous military or governmental experience. The Portuguese also used viceroys who resided in Goa for their possessions in the Indian Ocean, and then after the mid Seventeenth century for their colony in Brazil.
Royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of the New World; there were 10 in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrates.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
(1651-1695) Author, poet, and musician of New Spain; eventually gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil.
Strips of land along Brazilian coast granted to minor Portuguese nobles for development; enjoyed limited SUCCESS in developing the colony.
Backswoodsmen from São Paulo, Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during the 17th century.
Region of Brazil located in mountainous interior were gold strikes were discovered in 1695; became location for gold rush.
Rio de Janeiro
Brazilian port used for mines of Minas Gerais; importance grew with gold strikes; became colonial capital in 1763.
Sociedad de castas
American social system based on racial origins; Europeans or whites at top, black slaves or Native Americans at bottom, mixed races in middle.
People living in the New World Spanish colonies but born in Spain.
Whites born in the New World; dominated local Latin American economies and ranked just beneath peninsulares.
Amigos del pais
Clubs and associations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvements rather than political reform.
War of the Spanish Succession
Resulted form Bourbon family's SUCCESSION to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, grants of commercial rights to English and French.
most important imperial reformer, tried to reassert spanish control on empire, royal ministers not councils, allow spanish cities to trade with america, open more latin america ports to trade, viceroyalty 1776.
José de Gálvez
Spanish minister of the Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate Creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendants for local government.
Marquis of Pombal
Prime minister of Portugal from 1755 to 1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; expelled Jesuits; enacted fiscal reforms and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.
One of popular revolts against Spanish colonial rule in New Granada (Colombia) in 1781; suppressed as a result of divisions among rebels.
Amaru, Tupac, 2
Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 19 AP World History
Chapter 24: "Early Latin America"
Ch. 19 ID's
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Financial Algebra: Chapter 10 Section 4 Vocabulary_Cordova
Financial Algebra: Chapter 10 Section 3 Vocabulary_Cordova
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP World History: Chapter 24 Vocabulary
AP World History: Chapter 31 Vocabulary
AP World History Chapter 20
World History AP Chapter 20 Vocabulary