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FORENSIC PSYC TEST 1 CHAPTERS 1,2
Terms in this set (134)
after age 10-- associated with ethnic minority and deviant peers.causes significant school problems!!!
the ability to experience another person's emotions
the middle range of the extraversion dimension
behavior that either damages interpersonal relationships or is culturally undesirable
anxious insecure attachment
distressed by separation /angry at mother on return
parents over-baring parents, inconsistent with affection and intimacy
A theory developed by John Bowlby, and later expanded by Mary Salter Ainsworth, which states that infants have a strong need to establish close emotional bonds with significant others in their social environments. According to the theory, the nature of this emotional bond determines the quality of social relationships later in life.the theory that that the type or style of an infant's attachment to his or her caregivers can set the stage for psychological health or problems later in life
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Traditionally considered a chronic neurological condition characterized by developmentally poor attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. More contemporary perspectives see the behavior pattern as a deficiency in interpersonal skills. 3 key behaviors-- easily distracted, impulsive, can't sit still More often in boys than girls (5:1) Disorder of self-control and emotional regulation Often rejected by peers 1/4 of kids with ADHD engage in antisocial behavior as kids/criminal behavior as adultscore problem for ADHD inability to control behavior core problem for ADHD inability to control behavior
The approach to parenting that sets a very rigid structure on the family setting and allows little decision making by the child.
The approach to parenting that sets a very rigid structure on the family setting and allows little decision making by the child.
avoidant insecure attachment
rarely cries, doesn't really care about whether the mother is there or not.
officially began in 1913 with the publication of a landmark paper by John B Watson. represents a recurring phase in the cyclical history of psychology. A psychology of consciousness or mind if followed by a psychology of action and behavior
psychologists who study the biological aspects of behavior. They try to determine which genetic and neurophysiological variables play a part in criminal behavior
Bowlby's attachment theory
experiment done with leaving a baby with a stranger.
when the CD pattern beings before age 10-- associated with maladjustment and family influences.
theoretical thinking that emphasizes free will as the hallmark of human behavior. If people realize in advance that severe punishment would be forthcoming regardless of their social status or privileges, they would choose not to engage in criminal behavior.
Reported by UCR. The rate of crimes that are dropped due to offender committing suicide or other circumstances the percentage rate of crimes known to the police that they believe they have solved through an arrest; a statistic used to measure a police department's productivity
attitudes, beliefs, values and thoughts that a person holds about the social environment, interrelations, human natures, and him or her-self.
cognitive and language deficiencies
increase risk of antisocial behavior
ability to UNDERSTAND another's emotions
formation of concepts, schemas, theories, attitudes, beliefs, and other mental or abstract versions of the world. Cognitive psychologists would argue that mental processes are a crucial-if not more so- in understanding criminal action as behavior itself
internal mental processes that enable humans to imagine, to gain knowledge, to reason, and to evaluate information
key concept in twin study research. It is the genetics term for the degree to which related pairs of subject both show a particular behavior or condition. It is usually expressed in percentages.
repetitive/persistent misbehaviors.distinct from learning disability-- it can lead to a learning disability because they act out/have a hard time in school. Also often rejected by peers.A diagnostic label used to identify children who demonstrate habitual misbehavior.
views humans as creatures of conformity who want to do the "right" thing. To a large extent, this assumption represents the foundation of humanistic perspectives in psychology. Humans are basically "good" people trying to live to their fullest potential.
crimes of obedience
an act performed in response to orders from authority that is considered illegal or immoral by the larger community.
the process of identifying personality traits, behavioral tendencies, geographic location, and demographic variables of an offender based on characteristics of the crime
An interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior, including their forms, causes, legal aspects, and control.
overall number of criminal offenses that go undetected or are unknown by law enforcement agencies
based on the classic crowd theory of Gustave Le Bon. Refers to the observation that in crowds or groups, many people lose their sense of individuality, remove self-imposed controls, and neutralize their internalized moral restraints. "Not being scrutinized or accountable when submerged in the group.
under the control of one or more independent variables, the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Philosophy of criminal justice arising from the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits
An approach to early childhood education that supports children's development of naturally occurring milestones. examines the changes and influences across a persons lifetime that may contribute to the formation of antisocial and criminal behavior sometimes called the "risk factors"
In the study of criminal behavior, these are the various tracks individuals follow that lead to antisocial behavior. Researchers began by identifying two pathways but have now found evidence of more.life course of all humans follow a pathway that may be littered with risk factors
holds that human beings may be placed along a continuum consisting of all the animals in the known universe. According to this perspective, humans are intimately tied to their animal ancestry in important and significant ways holds that human beings may be placed along a continuum consisting of all the animals in the known universe. According to this perspective, humans are intimately tied to their animal ancestry in important and significant ways
argues that humans are distinctly different from other animals- spiritually, psychologically, and mentally.
Differential Association Theory
A theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts. according to this theory, criminal behavior is learned, as is all social behavior through social interactions with other people it is not the result of emotional disturbance, mental illness, or innate qualities of "goodness" or "badness". People learn to be criminal as a result of messages they get from others who were also taught to be criminal.
social signals transmitted by subcultural or peer groups to indicate whether certain kinds of behavior will be rewarded or punished within a particular social context
relatively stable and enduring tendency to behave a certain way, and it distinguishes one person from another.
Dispositions or Traits
Internal factors, such as beliefs, values, personality traits, or abilities, that guide a person's behavior.
Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD)
A pattern that generally includes conduct disorders and oppositional defiant disorders that is characterized by chronic violation of social norms and rights of others disruptive behavior disorders -- CD and ODD
parents see minor behaviors as problematic and use ineffective, authoritarian strategies to deal with them-- micromanagers. (enforces harsh punishments in real world)A parental style in which the parent takes extraordinary control of the child's life including imposing rigid rules and seeing even trivial minor behaviors as problematic. Typically results in harsh punishment but inconsistent discipline. Opposite of Lax style.
a persons performance level is based on that persons expectation that behaving in a particular way will lead to a given outcome
person or animal receives neither reinforcement nor punishment. (goal) eliminates undesired behavior. (action) no reinforcement or punishment for undesired behavior
A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, and assertive
fraternal twins (dizygotic twins)
develop from two different fertilized eggs and are no more genetically alike
organisms-including humans- are prevented from responding in a way that had previously produced rewards, their behavior often becomes more energetic and vigorous.. When a behavior directed at a specific goal is blocked, arousal increases, and the individual experiences a drive to reduce it. People who employ violence to reduce frustration will, under extreme frustration, become more vigorous than usual, possibly even resorting to murder and other violent actions. It also suggests that violent behavior directed at reducing frustration will be reinforced, since it reduces unpleasant arousal by altering the precipitating event or stimuli.
fundamental attribution error
a common human tendency to discount the influence of the situation and explain behavior by referring to the personality of the actor instead. Concept that applies to making attributions abut others, not ourselves.
General Theory of Crime
Asserts that the operation of a single mechanism, low self-control, accounts for " all crime, at all times, including acts ranging from vandalism to homicide, from rape to white-collar-crime.
Group differences reflect cultural, social influences
intelligence tests are also very culturally based. low PI scores have some association with delinquency and adult offending
Hate Crime Statistics Act
In 1990 U.S congress passed this act requiring the collection of reported instances to law enforcement of crimes committed against an individual that were wholly or in part based on the victims race, religion, ethnicity or sexual orientation., The ____ act requires the attorney general to collect and publish data regarding the extent to which crimes are grounded in prejudicial attitudes.
stipulates that when a number of offences have been committed during a series, only the more serious offense is included in the UCR dataThe Hierarchy Rule, which requires counting only the highest offense and ignoring all others, applies only to the crime reporting process and does not affect the number of charges for which the defendant may be prosecuted in the courts.
identical twins (monozygotic twins)
develop from one egg. always the same sex and share the same genes
(also called modeling or observational learning) The behavioral pattern exists in our repertoires even if we have never received direct reinforcement for acquiring it. Doing something by watching others do it.. like shooting a gun. We may have never held a real gun or shot one before, but we know that you hold it and pull the trigger.
considered to be "indicators" of the crime problem in the US, however distinction found misleading
product of a long, possibly intense series of frustrations resulting from unmet needs.
insecure avoidant parents
(operant conditioning) the learner must do something in the environment in order to obtain a reward or, in some cases, to avoid punishment
Eysenck and Gudjonsson proposed that criminal behavior is the result of interaction between certain environmental conditions and features of the nervous system
Intimate Partner Violence
Intentional physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, or intimidation via threats of physical or sexual abuse, typically between partners or spouses, but including other intimate family relations
between IQ square and delinquency
IQ / adult offenders
low IQ scores (mental disability low) are of concern. Conditions are related to criminal behavior.
vary among racial and ethnic groups ex: african americans generally score lower but gap is decreasing
an attribution error; based on the assumption that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people; jumping to conclusions than give full weight to the situational factors that may have been responsible shown to favor capital punishment and to be politically conservative "i usually get what i deserve"
Lack of empathy
considered characteristic of aggressive and antisocial individuals and related to violence. significant inability to pain of their victims
Broad term for a variety of problems in expressing or understanding language problems expressing or understanding language, and some research has traced these problems as far back as very early childhood
parents who aren't aware to what is problematic behavior. Much mal activity slips by without disciplinary actions.PARENTAL style that does not respond sufficiently to problematic or antisocial behaviour in children. but rather, allows it to occur w/o disciplinary action (opposite of Enmeshed style, similar to permissive) lax parents are not sufficiently attuned to what constitutes problematic or anti social behavior in children. They allow much of it to slip by without disciplinary actions. they fail to recognize or accept the fact that their children are involved in deviant, antisocial, or even violent actions
sees humans as born neutral (neither inherently conforming nor unruly). Argues that humans learn virtually all of their behaviors, beliefs, and tendencies from the social environment Learning Perspective A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions; it includes behaviorism and social- cognitive learning theories..
significant persons in the social environment that provide cues for how to do something
Monitoring The Future
a national self-report survey on drug use that has been conducted since 1975, One of the most important sources of self-report data is the __________________ study. The data from this survey indicates that the number of people who break the law is far greater than the number projected by official statistics.
explains why people do immoral or heinous acts against their own moral judgment when ordered to do so by some higher authority or under high pressure
National Incident- BasedReporting System (NIBRS)
A blue print for the future of the uniform crime reporting system. these recommendations formed the basis of the NIBRS under the Uniform Federal Crime Reporting Act. In this act, congress required all federal law enforcement agencies, including those agencies withing the department of defense to collect and report data to the FBI on two categories of offenses
National Crime Victimization Survey--largest victimization survey in the world, conducted by Justice Department and Census Bureau (conducted with over 100,000 people each year), This report does not measure criminal homicide, arson or crimes against businesses National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Main source of victimization data on crime.
avoid an unpleasant event or stimulus as a consequence of certain behavior (goal) increases a desired behavior (action) removal of aversive stimulus following a desired behavior
Detached and unengaged parental style. neglecting style parents demonstrate detachment and very little involvement in their childrens lives or activities. They are neither demanding nor responsive. They do not structure or monitor and are not supportive, but may be actively rejecting or else neglect their child-rearing responsibilities altogether
represents functions of the peripheral nervous system. The neuroticism continuum runs from the polar ends of neuroticism to stability, with no middle label
chemicals manufactured in the brain that are intimately involved in biochemical activity and transmission of messages in the nervous system
National Incident Based Reporting System, a form of crime data collection created by the FBI requiring local police agencies to provide at least a brief account of each incident and arrest within 22 crime patterns.
assumes that human beings are basically undisciplined creatures who, without the constraints of the rules and regulations of a given society, would flout society's conventions and commit crime indiscriminately, the theoretical perspective that humans will naturally try to get away with anything they can, including illegal conduct, unless social controls are imposed
or Part 2 crimes
include living experiences that are different from each twin, such as being raised in a different home environment, participating in different activities or even attending different schools
observational learning (modeling)
Bandura contends that much of our behavior is initially acquired by watching others
educated attempt to provide investigative agencies with specific information as to the type of individual who committed a certain crime
learning to either make or withhold a particular response because of its consequences. It is a fundamental learning process that is acquired by the consequences that follow the behavior
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
A behavior disorder of childhood characterized by frequent disobedience and hostile behavior toward authority figures. Oppositional Defiant Disorder negative, hostile, defiant child lasting for at least 6 months persistent patterns of angry outbursts, arguments, disobedience assumed that ODD is always present in children who have CD
research shows that the amount and quality is a predictor of antisocial behavior during later childhood Supervision by parents of their children's activities. Poor parental monitoring is a strong risk factor for delinquency.
strategies employed by parents to achieve specific academic, social, or athletic goals across different context and situations
Parental psychopathology -
factors that increase the chances of a child engaging in antisocial behavior, having poor cognitive development, and emotional dis-regulation Depression in mothers parental alcoholism Lack of attachment
parent-child interactions characterized by parental attitudes toward the child and the emotional climate of the parent-child relationship
Part 1 Crimes
include illegal acts considered to be particularly serious that occur with sufficient frequency to provide an adequate basis for comparison crimes include: homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft and arson
Part 2 crimes
simple assaults, forgery and counterfeiting, fraud, embezzlement, stolen property, offense against family and children, sex offenses, drug abuse violations, gambling, vandalism all other crimes, aside from the 8 Part I crimes, included in the UCR arrest data; they include 1)drug offenses, 2)sex crimes, 3)vandalism, etc.
pavlovian conditioning (classical conditioning)
animals or persons have no control over the situation, even over what happens to themselves. the animal is "forced" to take the consequences
display tolerant, non-punitive, accepting attitudes toward their children`s behavior, including expressions of aggressive and sexual impulses Permissive style A relaxed parenting style characterized by few demands, controls,or limits.
PI not same as intelligence
IQ is simply a standardized score of one particular test. Its broad, all encompassing ability that doesn't have a straightforward definition or mode of measurement.
both structure and function are affected by experience, a phenomenon known as plasticity, the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
we gain something we desire as a consequence of certain behavior. (goal) increases a desired behavior (Action) introduction of a pleasant stimulus follow a desired behavior
The belief that delinquents are the victims of society. Proponents of this view advocate rehabilitation of the offender., Theory developed at the turn of the century by Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso that sees criminals as victims of society and of their own biological, sociological, cultural and physical environments. closely aligned with the idea of determinism. theory that antecedents- determine present behavior. according to this theory, human behavior if governed by casual laws, and free will is undermined.
theories that are derived from the medical sciences, including neurology, and that, like other psychological theories, focus on the individual as the unit of analysis. Psychiatric theories form the basis of psychiatric criminology, far more diverse, increasingly research based, and considerably less steeped in the traditional belief that criminals are acting out their uncontrolled, animalistic, unconscious, or biological urges Psychiatric criminology far more diverse, increasingly research based, and considerably less steeped in the traditional belief that criminals are acting out their uncontrolled, animalistic, unconscious, or biological urges
is the science of the behavior and mental processes of the person who commits crime. While sociological criminology focuses primarily on groups and society as a whole, and how they influence criminal activity, psychological criminology focuses on individual criminal behavior—how it is acquired, evoked, maintained, and modified. In the psychology of crime, both social and personality influences on criminal behavior are considered, along with the mental processes that mediate that behavior
psychological risk factors
lack of empathy, cognitive/language deficiences, intelligence & delinquency, ADHD, conduct disorder
where IQ originated from. looks for differences in people through psychological testsThe research tradition that spawned standardized tests of intelligence and that views intelligence as a trait that can be measured; varies person to person. Psychometric approach The perspective that human characteristics, attributes, and traits can be measured and quantified.
the measurement of mental abilities, traits, and processes
study of the dynamic interactions between behavior and the autonomic nervous system
runs from tough mindedness (high psychoticism) to tender-mindedness (low psychoticism) also with no label for the middle majority
(goal) decreases undesired behavior (action) introduction of aversive stimulus following undesired behavior
complex human behavior being broken down into more simple behavior. Complicated behavior can be best understood by examining the simplest stimulus-response chains of behavior
anything that increase the probability of future responding. May be positive or negative
normal. happy, cries when leaves, happy upon return
securely attached parents
sensitive, affectionate, and responsive
The ability to control one's behavior in accordance with internal cognitive standards.
we tend to attribute good things about ourselves to dispositional factors, and bad things to events and forces outside ourselves
neurotransmitter. plays most significant role in aggression and violence
include prenatal and life experiences affecting both twins in the same way
Older siblings reinforce behavior if siblings have close relationship. If not, it is common for the opposite to occur
belief that all behavior is at the mercy of stimuli in the environment, and individuals have virtually no control or self-determination
psychologists who conclude that 2 parenting styles (lax and enmeshed) contribute directly or indirectly to delinquency. These styles are similar to authoritarian and permissive styles.
Social Control Theory
The view that most people do not violate the law because of their social bonds to family, peer group, school, and other institutions. If these bonds are weakened or absent, they become free to commit crime.
more complex than either classical conditioning or instrumental learning, because it involves learning from watching others and organizing social experiences in the brain
social learning theory
to understand criminal behavior we must examine perception, thoughts, expectancies, competencies. and values
they offend because they have learned to, or expect rewards, as a result of their interactions with the social environment
examines the relationships of demographic and group variables to crime. It probes the situational or environmental factors that are most conducive to criminal action, such as the time, place, kind of weapons used, and the circumstances surrounding the crime. A major contribution of sociological criminology is the attention it directs to topics that reflect unequal distribution of power in society.Approach to criminology, based on the work of Quetelet and Durkheim, that focuses on the relationship between social factors and crime.
Acts that are considered inappropriate when done by juveniles but are not crimes if committed by adults (e.g., running away, being truant, being out of parental control, having sexual intercourse, and drinking alcohol)
person, object, or event that elicits behavior
If a person cannot get something they will do whatever it takes in order to get the item they wish to possess. by Robert Merton, A Sociological theory crime occurs is the result of frustration from those that can't reach their goals through legitimate ways so they engage in criminal behavior Strain theory example of conformity perspective. argues that humans are fundamentally conforming beings who are strongly influenced by values and attitudes of the society in which they live
defined as a "natural" mood disposition determined largely by genetics and biological influences- may offer important clues about criminal behavior.
A process whereby a scientific theory is tested through observation and analysis. Of the process falsifies the theory, the theory must be revised to account for the observed events
process of theory testing
dispositions (see dispositions def)
Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR)
publishes annual document containing accounts of crimes known to police and information on arrests received on a voluntary basis from local and state law enforcement agencies throughout the US
Uniform Crime Reports
Statistical summary of crimes reported to the police based on voluntary reports to the FBI by local, state, and federal agencies. Broken into Part I and Part II offenses
an entity or behavior that can be measured.
the scientific study of the causes, circumstances, individual characteristics, and social context of become a victim of crim
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