36 terms

Statistics

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Statistics
Numerical facts or data that can be put together or tabulated to present information about a given subject.
Statistical Question
A question that anticipates there will be different answers in the data.
Numerical Data
data that can be counted or measured (Also called quantitative data)
Observation
What is seen or measured
Data Set
A group of related numbers used to analyze statistical information.
Frequency
How often something happens in a given time. The number of times an event, action, value, or characteristic occurs.
Frequency Table
A display organizing categorical or numerical data and how often each occurs.
Histogram
A special kind of bar graph that shows how frequently data occurs. The data are usually collected in a frequency table and then put into graph form. In a histogram, the adjacent bars are touching.
Dot Plot
A method of visually displaying a distribution of data values where each data value is shown as a dot or mark above a number line. Also known as a dot plot.
Box and Whiskers Plot
A diagram that summarizes data using median, the upper quartile and lower quartiles, and the extreme values. A box is drawn around the quartile values and whiskers extend from each quartile to the extreme data points.
Median
The number that would fall in the middle if the results were arranged in order from least to greatest (smallest to largest).
Quartile
Division of data into 4 equal parts
Upper Quartile
The median of the upper half of a set of data.
Lower Quartile
The median of the lower half of a set of data.
Interquartile Range
The difference between the upper and lower quartiles.
Range
The difference between the smallest number and the largest number in the sample.
Mean
The average value of a set of numbers.
Mode
The number that occurs most frequently in a set of information. When collecting data or information, it's the number of which there is the most.
Distribution
The frequency or occurrence of something
Center
The middle of the data (median, Q2)
Spread
distribution of the data
Measure of Central Tendency
Plotting data in a frequency distribution shows the general shape of the distribution and gives a general sense of how the numbers are bunched. Several statistics can be used to represent the "center" of the distribution.
Deviation
measure of how spread out numbers are
Skew
When the data is more towards one number/side
Outlier
Data value that is far from the other values in that particular set
Variance
The average of the squared differences from the Mean.
Measure of Variablity
Measures to describe the amount of variability or spread in a set of data. The most common measures of variability are the range, the interquartile range (IQR), variance, and standard deviation.
Cluster
When data seems to be "gathered" around a particular value.
Mean Absolute Deviation
the average distance of each data value from the mean. The MAD is a gauge of "on average" how different the data values are form the mean value.
Likert Scale
indication of the extent to which a respondent agrees or disagrees with a statement
Average
A number that represents the middle or most normal of a set of numbers. Also called the mean or arithmetic mean.
Data
Facts or Figures from which conclusions can be formed; Factual information
Line Plot
A line plot is a method for organizing data along a number line; it is used to show frequency. Often an "x" or other mark is used to represent each bit of data.
Survey
A way to gather data or opinions from a sample.
Tally Mark
A set of five lines used to keep track of the number of something when counting.
Interval
the difference between two numbers on the scale