test 1, chapters 1-4
Terms in this set (176)
a description of observation about living human cultures
identifying human remains using dental records, x-rays, and other indices of gender,height, and ethnicity
physical shape and appearance
physical anthropologists might examine
molecular structure of diseases
primate growth and development
in the scientific method, theories can be considered
explanations grounded in evidence
the study of humankind from multiple perspectives and time periods including Mayan temples, coming of age rituals in the south pacific and human skulls from south africa
You are walking through a forest in the Central African Republic and you notice a twig that has had its bark removed and is stuck in a hole in a termite mound. The twig is an example of
the study of the behavior and materiel culture of past human societies
anthropology includes traveling to exciting places, as well as studying
the use and social context of language
unlike other animals, human beings depend on (blank) for survival
was an english naturalists in the 1800s
how is a theory different from a hypothesis
a theory is an explanation relying on careful examination and testing of evidence
is a social science
is a biological science
recent studies in human origins have
refuted Darwin's hypothesis the the earliest hominids originated in the grasslands
the bicultural approach in anthropology is
the study of the relationship between human biology and culture
the scientific method
involves empirical data collection and hypothesis testing
how are modern humans distinguished from their earliest ancestors?
hunting, speech, and dependence on domesticated foods
anthropology includes the study of
.the use and social context of language.
fossil humans and their closest relatives.
prehistoric societies and artifacts.
You and your team uncover fossilized finger and toe bones. You notice that while these bones are not as curved as modern-day ape bones, they are not as straight as modern-day human bones. These bones are slightly curved. What kind of environment did this individual live in?
Physical anthropology as a discipline is concerned with
fossilized human remains.
How is biocultural anthropology different from cultural anthropology?
It examines the interaction between genetics and culture in shaping human biology
One of the ways scientists gain information about the human evolutionary past is through
observations of living primates
Bipedalism is considered one of the hallmarks of hominid evolution because
it was the first evolutionary development that clearly distinguished us from other animals.
An archaeological field school is announced in your anthropology course. The description says that you will be able to travel to Belize to learn about the lives of the ancient Mayans. What do you expect to learn during this field school?
how to excavate and study material culture
The hypothesis that the origin of human bipedalism was linked to a shift from life in the trees to life on the ground in the grasslands of Africa
has been rejected recently subsequent to new fossil evidence.
Primatologists record a new series of owl monkey vocalizations in the wild. After rigorous analysis and playback experiments they determine that the sounds could not be argued to represent a language because they are random, unrelated, and elicit no response from other individuals. The primatologists determine this because they know that language is
a set of symbols that refer to things other than themselves.
In your lab quiz you are provided with a hominid skull and asked to describe its unique characteristics and what they may tell you about the behavior of the individual. You notice that the gap typically seen between the canine and the third premolar on the lower jaw of living ape species is not present. On your answer sheet you note the following:
This hominid skull belongs to an individual dated after the development of tools for food processing.
Your friend Susan explains to you that she recently saw a televised debate regarding the presence of material culture in nonhuman animals. Susan agreed with the individual who claimed that objects used to manipulate environments were one of the defining characteristics of humans. When asked what your opinion is as an anthropologist, you say:
While material culture is important for humans, it has recently been argued to be present in chimpanzee societies.
You overhear a debate among anthropology graduate students regarding whether anthropology should be categorized as a biological or social science. You have learned in your introductory courses that it is both. Why is it both?
Anthropologists study biology within the context of culture and behavior.
is an attempt to explain observations and predict future scientific results.
You spend a year of your life living with and studying crab fishermen. At the end of this time you document everything that you have learned. This is called a(n)
An online news story suggests a connection between a chemical dye found in foods and the development of mouth ulcers. As a budding young scientist, you refer to the journal in which the original research was published to see whether or not the research followed the scientific method. You are looking for which of the following four requirements?
determine problem, develop a hypothesis, collect data from observations, and test your hypothesis
Physical anthropology does not include
Chimpanzees in the wild have been observed to
use two rocks as a hammer and anvil to crack open nuts.
use stick tools to scoop termites from nests.
How is culture defined?
Culture is a learned behavior transmitted from person to person.
Science is considered self-correcting because
theories can be modified or replaced in response to new findings.
hypotheses are built on meticulous observation.
hypothesis-testing can result in rejection of previous hypotheses.
A recent news article reports on findings from a dig in Mesopotamia. The researchers report that skeletal populations indicate a decline in stature and likely overall health at this period in time. This reminds you of another study you have read about, the populations of St. Catherines Island. What could be the reasons for the changes in skeletons?
Health and stature declined with the adoption of agriculture.
Darwin observed that bipedalism frees the hand to hold objects. This led him to hypothesize that ________ was an important selective pressure on bipedalism.
Physical anthropology includes
the study of primates.
Your professor passes around a skull and tells you that you can tell this individual lived after hominids began making and using tools for food processing. How can you tell?
a nonhoning canine
Current evidence indicates that the earliest hominids lived in Africa ________ .
5.2 to 5.8 million years ago.
The earliest stone tools discovered to date, are dated at
relies on scientific method
James Hutton's research in the mid-18th century demonstrated that the earth was
millions of years old
According to Darwin, natural selection operates at the level of
What is the only source of new genetic material?
Why is the work of Alfred Russel Wallace considered when discussing the theory of evolution?
He was an English naturalist who had arrived at many of the same conclusions as Darwin
The scientist who coined the name Homo sapiens for human beings and placed them in a higher taxonomic group (primates) was
You're watching a show on TV about the history of scientific thought in Europe prior to 1800. The narrator correctly states that at that time
all forms were thought to have been created by God and to remain constant over time.
works on preexisting variation in a population
Darwin's theory of evolution drew from all of the following scientific disciplines except
The evolutionary synthesis
accepted Darwin's theory of evolution and Mendel's theory of heredity as explaining most evolutionary change.
The geneticist who studied the workings of fruit flies' chromosomes was
Thomas Hunt Morgan.
The physical expression of an organism's genetic constitution is called its
Thomas Hunt Morgan
demonstrated that chromosomes carry genetic materiel in the form of genes
Linnaeus's taxonomic system is referred to as a "hierarchy" because
each species has a "higher level" genus and "lower level" species
________ is most powerful as an evolutionary cause when operating on small populations.
The English demographer whose work on population growth greatly influenced Darwin's thinking was
What decreases the number of genetic differences between populations?
Why are Darwin's finches considered good examples of natural selection?
they embody the idea of descent with modification
Like most of his contemporaries, Charles Darwin believed
that physical traits were passed down from each parent and then blended together in the offspring
How do Darwin's finches demonstrate the concept of adaptive radiation?
they are closely related species that have branched from one species
The scientist whose work provided the foundation for later understandings of genetics was
Mendel's discrete units responsible for the characteristics in his pea plants are now known as
Charles Darwin's book On the Origin of Species (1859) was considered an important contribution to modern science because
it synthesized information from diverse scientific fields in order to document evolutionary change.
The individual genotypes in a breeding population, taken as a whole, are the
By the mid-twentieth century, the causes of evolution were seen as all of the following except
Darwin was a crew member on ________ , a ship whose voyage informed his later theory of natural selection.
the HMS Beagle
The only possible source of new genetic material is
Darwin observed that adaptations
were physical traits that enhanced survival and reproduction
How is the concept of catastrophism different from the concept of uniformitarianism?
Catastrophism is the idea that geologic changes are the result of single cataclysmic events.
Which of the following is false regarding populations of living organisms?
Individuals in populations show little or no variation.
Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection was supported by which leading scientist of the time?
Thomas Henry Huxley
Gene flow differs from genetic drift because
it is the spread of new genetic material from one gene pool to another
In your textbook, the lesser frequency of sickle-cell anemia among present day American blacks as compared to West African blacks is attributed to
Among the first scientists to conceive of evolutionary change was
How did Lamarck contribute to the theory of evolution?
He did not but instead proposed an erroneous evolutionary mechanism known today as inheritance of acquired characteristics.
Cuvier's work on fossil elephants in France supported the then controversial notion of
All of the following are formal taxonomic categories except
How was Darwin influenced by Thomas Malthus's work on population growth?
Darwin was influenced by Malthus's work on demography and population responses to food availability.
James Hutton is associated with
Which of the following is true?
Organisms classified as two different species can still belong to the same genus.
Mendel's plant hybridization experiments demonstrated that
traits inherited from each parent remained distinct in the offspring
whose efforts helped explain how chromosomes are replicated
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
is the "recipe" for all biological characteristics and functions.
Recessive alleles will be expressed if they are inherited
from both parents
While at the gorilla exhibit at the zoo you notice that the sign reads Gorilla gorilla gorilla. You recall that this is a scientific name and is part of a naming system known as
binomial nomenclature, which was developed by Carolus Linnaeus as a classification system for plants and animals.
Different versions, or subunits, of the same gene are
The Human Genome Project (a massive collaboration to decode and study the human genome) is most likely to contribute to an understanding of which disease?
The English scientist who independently codiscovered the theory of natural selection was
Alfred Russel Wallace.
appear to function in similar ways across diverse groups of organisms.
Down syndrome can occur
because of nondisjunction, which yields an extra chromosome
In his experiments with garden peas, Mendel found that one physical unit is inherited from the father and one from the mother. This provided evidence for
Mendel's law of segregation.
Nucleotide bases in nuclear DNA include all of the following except
The gene responsible for lactose persistence among adults in Europe is a
somatic cells include all of the following except
Somatic cells are characterized by all of the following except
each contains half a copy of an organism's DNA
DNA replication produces
two identical daughter cells
mitochondrial DNA is
passed from mother to offspring
not likely to recombine during crossovers
RNA differs from DNA in that it uses
uracil instead of thymine
an individual that is homozygous at the locus that determines ABO blood type may have any of the following except
type AB blood
In mammals, the male parent's gametes determine the sex of his offspring because
the Y chromosome is present in males only
in order for traits to respond to natural selection
they must be heritable
chromosome number is reduced during
DNA differs from RNA in that
it is the "recipe" for all biological characteristics and functions.
a trait's heritability
is the proportion of its variation that is genetic
seeks complementary triplet strands of mRNA codons.
contains codons that correspond to specific amino acids.
brings amino acids together to form polypeptide chains
is the template for every aspect of an organism
human ABO blood types are
controlled by multiple alleles
occurs in the nucleus
Within the kingdom Animalia
mammals have differing number of chromosomes
In his work on pea plants, Mendel found that plant height was inherited independently of the type or color of the seed coat. This finding
applies to the law of independent assortment.
________ are organisms lacking any internal compartments
The complete set of genes in an individual cell is called
Homeotic (Hox) genes are:
responsible for the development and location of key body parts
Individuals whose blood type is A and who carry both dominant and recessive genes at this locus have a genotype of
DNA is important for protein synthesis because
it is biological code for the production of hormones and enzymes.
it serves as a template for protein production.
it provides the code to produce structural proteins.
the presence of a recessive allele
is usually masked in the phenotype
Proteins consist of
chains of amino acids
Most human nuclear DNA is coded to produce ________ .
highly individualized repetitive stretches of nuclear DNA
prokaryotes first appeared
The following are complementary bases in DNA
adenine and theymine
The two alleles that result in the expressed phenotype for hemoglobin are equally expressed. This is an example of
carry genetic information that influences the same trait
The expression of polygenic traits
is determined by genes at several loci in conjunction with environmental factors.
DNA replication takes place
prior to cell division
Meiosis results in the production of
What makes up a human karyotype?
22 autosomal chromosome pairs and one pair of sex chromosomes
Evolution can best be defined as
a change in allele frequencies in a breeding population over time.
Together, all of the alleles contained within a group of interbreeding individuals are known as a
Which African people's southern migration may have led to a significant increase in the incidence of malaria?
Familial hypercholesterolemia, an autosomal dominant disease, is five times more frequent in the Afrikaner population of South Africa than in the population of Europe or the United States. This represents an example of
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumes
no gene flow, mutation, genetic drift, or natural selection
Which of the following is not a genetic disorder that decreases susceptibility to malaria?
The ABO and MN blood-type frequencies of the Dunkers differ significantly from those of current American and German populations due to
An individual who displays the disease sickle-cell anemia must have inherited the deleterious allele from both phenotypically normal parents. This individual is therefore
Over a period of two generations, the frequency of green dung beetles in a population shifts from 75% to 71% while the frequency of brown dung beetles within this population shifts from 25% to 29%. This is an example of
The best-documented case of industrial melanism involves
When geneticists talk about the gene pool, they refer specifically to variation at a genetic
A point mutation that does not result in a change to the amino acid coded for is said to be a
Another name for the evolutionary force called gene flow is
________ is the force of evolution that is most powerful when acting on very small populations.
When individuals of the same species are reproductively isolated, genetic differences may accumulate in sufficient number so that new species could emerge. Such an event would be an example of
In certain species of nonhuman primates there are groups where only one dominant female has access to mates. The other females must wait until the opportunity to gain mate access presents itself. This will have direct impacts on "fitness," influencing which of the following?
A random change in allele frequencies over time is known as
Which of the following is key to the development of individual species?
Population geneticists refer to a reproductive population as a(n)
The mutation known as trisomy 21, in which an extra copy of chromosome 21 is present, is more commonly known as
Which of the evolutionary forces is most likely to decrease variation between populations?
Transposable elements are DNA sequences that
insert themselves into other parts of the genome
The effects of ________ have increased from 10,000 years ago to the present.
Aborigines are an endogamous society. This means that marriage and reproduction take place within the group leading to
decreased genetic diversity due to a lack of admixture.
The malarial parasite is transmitted to humans by
Fitness trade-off refers to selection favoring which genotype?
The clinal decrease in type B blood from East Asia to Western Europe is probably the result of
Mutations to which of the following cells are most likely to have significant evolutionary consequences?
sex cells (gametes)
A genetic study conducted over multiple generations found that the frequency of genotypes in the first generation were AA: 0.36, Aa: 0.48, aa: 0.16. In the second generation, genotype frequencies shifted to AA: 0.16, Aa: 0.48, aa: 0.36. According to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we can assume
gene flow has possibly shifted the gene frequencies.
mating in this population must be nonrandom mating.
Spontaneous mutation is the result of
What effect does natural selection have on population variation?
Studies of Darwin's finches have found that at certain points in time all finches on the island have either wide beaks or sharp, narrow beaks. The type of evolution that leads to this phenotype distribution is
The type of selection that favored progressively larger brain size in human evolution is
A genetic study conducted over two generations found that the frequency of genotypes in the first generation were AA: 0.36, Aa: 0.48, aa: 0.16. In the second generation, genotype frequencies remained the same. According to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we can assume
mating in this population is random
Evolution is caused by which of the following?
The absence of the A and B alleles in Native American populations is a result of
You and your friend are reading a scientific article about cheetahs that have stripes instead of spots. The article refers to this as a genetic mutation. Your friend wonders why the striped cheetahs are not referred to as a new species. You respond:
The stripes are caused by an individual mutation, and have not evolved in a reproductively isolated population.
The evolution of the modern horse with a single hoof on each limb from a dog-sized ancestor with multiple digits is an example of
Patrilocal societies are expected to display
greater mtDNA diversity than Y chromosome diversity
Spontaneous mutations are defined as
errors caused by random changes in DNA.
errors occurring during mitosis.
is the only source of new alleles
A study of Darwin's finches after a long period of drought found that all species of finch on one of the islands developed wide beaks in order to break open seeds. The type of evolution that leads to this phenotype distribution is
Which of the following is the result of a single-point mutation on chromosome 11?
Malaria is caused by
bites from infected mosquitos
While conducting research with a small population in South America you note that an overwhelming majority of individuals exhibit signs of a specific genetic abnormality. This is most likely the result of
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