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An example of particulate radiation is

Cathode rays

The cathode and anode are parts of an x-ray tube. The anode is negatively charged. (which is correct or incorrect?)

The first statement is correct. The second statement is wrong

One of the following types of radiation has high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and hence the potential for more radiation related tissue damage

Alpha rays

In the construction of an x-ray tube, the function of a step- down transformer is to

convert the line current of 110 volts to less than 10 milli amperes

In the radiographic principle, "SLOB rule, "same side movement of the object is ______ and the opposite side movement of the object is ______. What are the missing words in the same sequence.

lingual and buccal

70 kilovolts equals how many volts?

70,000 volts

The "rotating anode" design in an x-ray tube limits the amount of

heat production at anode

An example of an electro-magnetic radiation is

Gamma rays

The sharpness of the image is determined to a large extent by the

focal spot size

The "p" in kVp stands for


"Gray" is to rad as _______ is to rem


The harmful effects of radiation on human tissues are


The protective lead apron must be impregnated with how much lead?

0.25 mm

You have a patient who has read articles describing the hazards of medical/dental radiation and is not sure about letting you take X-rays on her. Based on what you now know, how could you explain the procedure in a way that would be reassuring?

You are using a lead apron and lead thyroid shield, you are using the long cone paralleling technique, and You take radiographs only when a need is indicated by clinical examination, not based on an arbitrary time schedule

What do filters do in the X-ray beam?

reduce patient radiation dose and remove the long waves

The X-ray photons generated by the dental X-ray machine have

many different wavelengths

What is the recommended collimation of the radiation beam at the patient's skin surface?

2.75 inches

What does the ALARA concept stand for?

as low as reasonably achievable

Which of the following devices is an example of personnel monitoring?
a. film badge

b. pocket dosimeter

c. film ring

d. both a and c

e. a, b, and c


The transfer of energy as it passes through matter is called


What is it called when a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the X-ray beam?


Which molecular changes occur in a living organism being struck by photons?
a. Molecules break into smaller pieces.

b. New bonds form within molecules.

c. Molecular bonds are disrupted.

d. New bonds form between new molecules.

e. all of the above


What is the correct vertical angulation used when taking a bitewing radiograph?

+10 degrees

In the bisecting the angle technique, where is the vertical angle of the central beam directed?

perpendicular to the line bisecting the angle made by the long axis of the tooth and the film

What is true of a full-mouth X-ray series?

a. always has periapical and bitewing films

b. has a minimum of 20 films

c. can be replaced by a panoramic film

d. varies in need and number of films according to selection criteria and mouth size

e. both a and d


In dental radiography, what infection control procedures are included?

a. sterilization

b. disinfection

c. antiseptic agents

d. both a and b

e. all of the above


What is the safest position for an operator while exposing an intraoral film?

behind a lead barrier

What does immersing the contaminated exposed film packet in a disinfecting solution do?

destroys the image

What needs to happen when exposing a full-mouth set of radiographs?

The exposure button should be covered with a plastic barrier.

Where in the X-ray head does thermionic emission take place?

tungsten filament

Which radiographic technique records the most accurate image of crowns, roots, and supporting structures of a selected area of the oral cavity?

periapical film

The bicuspid/premolar bitewing radiograph should be placed to include which of the following anatomic structures?

a. all of the mandibular cuspid

b. the distal half of the mandibular cuspid

c. the distal half of the maxillary cuspid

d. the mesial half of the maxillary first premolar

e. the distal half of the mandibular first molar


What is the primary diagnostic use of a bitewing radiograph?

Check for interproximal decay and crestal bone levels.

The size-1 film would most likely be used to radiograph which of the following areas on an adult patient?

a. incisors and cuspids

b. maxillary bicuspids

c. mandibular bicuspids if the floor of the mouth is too shallow

d. mandibular bicuspids

e. both a and c

incisors and cuspids

What causes a herringbone pattern across a film with low density?

the film packet placed backwards

What determines the speed of the film?

the size of the silver halide crystals

Which of the following sequences represents the correct developing and processing procedure for manual processing?

a. develop, rinse, fix, wash

b. develop, wash, fix, rinse

c. fix, wash, develop, rinse

d. develop, fix, wash, rinse

e. wash, develop, fix, rinse


What is the name of the chemical in the fixer that clears the unexposed silver halide crystals?

ammonium thiosulfate

What chemical-reducing agent is present in the developer and is responsible for building the black and gray tones on a film?

metol and hydroquinone

What does the term radiographic density describe?

degree of darkness or blackness on the film

A double exposure occurs when

the same film is exposed to radiation twice.

Which term describes the loss of electrons from a substance?
a. braking radiation

b. scatter radiation

c. ionization

d. background radiation

e. both a and c


Which of the following materials is most resistant to the penetration of ionizing radiation?

a. aluminum

b. copper

c. lead

d. hard plastic

e. silicon


What percentage of the energy generated by the collision between electrons from the cathode and the anode is actually converted to heat?


If there are no teeth to serve as guides, which of the following landmarks indicates a maxillary molar area radiograph?

a. incisive foramen

b. mental foramen and corner of the mouth

c. internal oblique ridge

d. tuberosity and near the outer corner of the eye

e. retromolar pad


What is the most likely cause of black spots on a set of bitewings?

fluoride solution on a glove transferred to the film

Which of the following appears radiolucent on a radiograph?

a. enamel

b. implant

c. dental pulp

d. amalgam

e. gold


What causes light films?

underdeveloping, underexposure and not enough mA or kV

How does a structure that is radiolucent appear on the radiograph?


Which restorative materials appear radiopaque on a radiograph?

amalgam and gold crown

Which of the following is a helpful hint for mounting a full-mouth set of radiographs?

a. Maxillary teeth usually have smaller crowns and shorter roots than mandibular teeth.

b. The longer side of the film is usually vertical for posterior teeth and horizontal for anterior teeth.

c. Maxillary molars usually have two roots, and mandibular molars usually have three roots.

d. The overall appearance of the radiographic survey will have an upward curve like a smile.

e. both a and d


What will too much vertical angulation (either positively or negatively) cause?


What is the primary use for occlusal dental radiographs?

locate foreign bodies

What do intensifying screens do?

contain phosphors that emit blue or green light

While taking a panoramic extraoral X-ray, where should the assistant instruct the patient to place his or her tongue?

on the roof of the mouth (palate)

Which of the following is not classified as a developmental dental abnormality?

a. dens in dente

b. taurodont

c. periapical abscess

d. mesiodens

e. both b and c


A charged coupling device (CCD) is primarily made of what substance?


If a patient is positioned in a panoramic unit with his or her chin too low, which of the following images might be seen on the resultant radiograph?
a. wide blurry anterior teeth

b. molars on one side more magnified than on the other side

c. flattened curve of Spee

d. exaggerated curve of Spee

e. both a and d


What technique is best when exposing intraoral films prior to placing an implant?

panoramic technique

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