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In the earliest, ancient Mediterranean civilizations wine was the first drink of the common citizen
Scholars who have studied the origins of alcohol abuse agree that the Americans pattern of prohibiting exposure to alcoholic beverages until age 21 is one of the most effective ways to prevent alcohol abuse
Demographic studies have shown that wine drinkers are better educated and earn more than non-wine drinkers
Although wine has a 4000-year history of therapeutic use it is not considered useful in today's hospital setting in the U.S.
The people who should be most concerned about sulfites in wines are sulfite-sensitive, steroid-dependent asthmatics.
Medical researches define moderate alcohol consumption as about how many four ounce glasses of wine daily?
The research reviewed by Dr. Keith Marton showed that cardiovascular mortality increased with heavy alcohol use and that moderate drinkers have a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-drinkers.
Boffetta's and Garfinkel's study showed that at three or more drinks per day there is an increased risk of death for drinkers compared to non-drinkers, particularly for liver cirrhosis
Although Dr. Marton's review of the research literature showed a 50% increase in breast cancer for moderate drinkers compared to non-drinkers, there are a number of reasons why our understanding of the relationship between moderate drinking and breast cancer is less certain than it is for cardiovascular disease.
About 90% of women who are active alcoholics during pregnancy will deliver a child who clearly suffers from Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
White varietal wine whose grapes predominate in the vineyards of the Rhine and Mosel valleys of Germany
White (Johannesburg) Riesling
White varietal wine whose neutral-flavored grapes are highly susceptible to Botrytis cinerea.
White varietal wine whose grapes are used to make Champagne and White Burgundy wines in France
Aroma and flavor descriptors for this white varietal wine include bell pepper, green olive, and herbaceous.
White varietal wine blended with Semillon to make Sauternes-style, Botrytis-affected late-harvest wines.
Grapes for this white varietal wine rank with French Colombard as one of the most commonly planted varieties in California.
You would have to pay the highest price per ton for grapes to make this white varietal wine.
White varietal wine who's wines acquire "subtle, oily scents" as they age.
White (Johannesburg) Riesling
Under appearance, the bubble display of sparking wines is evaluated and tasters look for small bubbles that evolve from the wine over a long time and form a smooth, white foam on the surface of the wine.
Because they're called Blanc de Noirs, we expect all sparkling wines made from red grapes to be white, that is a very pale straw yellow to yellow color.
When the sparkling wine aroma wheel is compared to the more general wine aroma wheel, we find more spicy floral, and fruity odors suggested for sparkling wines and fewer vegetative and herbaceous odors.
Which spice would you not expect to find in sparkling wines but would be anticipated in (red) table wines?
Descriptive terms for champagne bouquet would be found in all but which one of these categories on the sparkling wine aroma wheel?
If you come upon a group of winetasters uttering the descriptive terms "fresh bread, sour cream, burnt chocolate, cocoa, hazelnut, and toasted grains," you have probably stumbled onto a tasting of tank-fermented sparkling wines.
Among the positive structural organoleptic elements of sparkling wines are tart acidity, soft finish, freshness, and dryness.
Perception refers to an organism's immediate neurological Response to a stimulus in the environment.
The smallest concentration of a wine component required for a taster to name it " By jove, that's sweet! Is called the
Refer to the label De Loach Vineyards Estate Bottles Russian River Valley Gewurztraminer 1987 Early Harvest. Given that "residual sugar 1.2% by wt" is about 1.2 grams per 100 ml, this wine would taste sweet to.
About 50% of people
Wine sensory components such as color which evoke pleasure in and of themselves are said to have a hedonic quality
What sensory quality would not be expected from the clue " A white wine is very pale and nearly colorless"?
Intense fruit aromas
Flavors are actually odors—or "in-mouth smells"—that reach our olfactory epithelium when we hold the wine in our mouths.
The sensory organ for the sense of smell is located at the top and rear of the nasal cavity and about 5-10% of the air reaches it in normal breathing.
We can only smell volatile molecules that can evaporate from the surface of a wine at the range of temperatures at which it is customarily served.
Which of the winetasting activities listed below is not done to enhance a taster's ability to experience the wine's odors
Hold the wine against a white background
Winetasters may find that a wine's odors are stronger and more pleasant when they are experienced in the mouth as flavors rather than as odors entering the olfactory area in inhaled air
We should question the accuracy of the taste bud map of the tongue because we don't taste sweet or sour or bitter or salty in just one place.
When the stimulus alcohol is present in high amounts in a wine, you can expect to experience both a taste and a tactile sensation. These sensations are
Adaptation is a change in sensitivity that occurs in response to different levels of stimulation. Winetasters learn to work with olfactory adaptation by resting 15-45 seconds between sniffs when evaluating wines.
Refer to the label William Hill 1989 Willamette Valley Oregon Dry White Riesling. Which statement below is an accurate prediction of how you would expect this wine to taste and smell to most people?
Without perceptible sweetness and with an aroma, which has an eminent, that is like roses.
PTC tasting is a well-documented example of how dramatically people can vary in their abilities to taste something bitter and it accurately predicts a person's sensitivity to bitterness in wines.
Anosmia can refer to the loss of a person's ability to smell all odors and the term "specific anosmia" is used when someone cannot detect a particular scent but otherwise has a normal sense of smell
You just served two glasses of De Loach Vineyards Estate Bottled Russian River Valley Gewurztraminer 1987 Early Harvest to a friend. One glass is colder and the other is warmer. When she tastes them, the warmer wine will seem
The NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC smell survey found that olfactory sensitivity is reduced during pregnancy and that odor perception declines during aging.
Blind tastings—in which the wines are identified only by a letter or numerical code—are designed to eliminate stimulus errors which occur when irrelevant criteria are used to judge wines.
Our ability to recall wine odors can be reduced by giving the odor a verbal structure, such as our associations with the odor and dictionary-style definitions
The wine aroma wheel was designed to enhance the accuracy of communication about wine odors among member of the wine industry
The higher the alcohol content of a wine, the thicker the streams produced when the wine falls back down the side of the glass after it is swirled.
In white table wines, this color is a sign that the wine has been exposed to too much air in production or has been bottle aged too long
Within the normal color range for white table wines, darker colors are associated with oak barrel aging and/or later harvests.
Among red wines, a purple hue is associated with older, bottle-aged wines and the brick red hue
Because their detection and prevention is of central concern to wine makers, a very large number of off odors have been linked to particular diagnostic chemicals—such as acetic acid and ethyl acetate—which can be found by laboratory as well as sensory analysis
In wine usage ______ refers to the odors which come from the grape and _______ is used for smells that come from fermentation and aging in oak and bottle.
For a wine to have perceptible varietal aromas requires a particular grape variety, proper growing conditions, and carful winemaking
The term "flavor components" is used for the chemicals responsible for a wine's taste and tactile sensations
What sensation would you expect in your mouth when the stimulus tannin in the wine is low or absent?
You are tasting two White Riesling wines. They are identical except for sugar content. Wine A has 3 times as much sugar as wine B. When you taste the two wines, you expect wine A to have more body than wine B.
Great wines are distinguished from ordinary wines by their greater complexity, harmony, and the power to stimulate the emotions.
Serious wine tasters do not smoke during tastings and do not come to them wearing perfume, after-shave, or with recently-brushed teeth.
This group of wines is served at the coldest temperature both in the restaurant and tasting laboratory
Sparkling and sweet wine.
To inspect a wine for color, hold it up to a bright source of light such as a clear light bulb or candle.
Winetasters begin the olfactory stage of evaluating a wine by swirling the wine in the glass 6 or 8quick revolutions and putting their noses into the glass and taking 4 or 5 deep sniffs.
Winetasters draw some air through the wine so that all their taste buds can come into contact with the wine and the tactile receptors in their mouths can sense its sweetness and tartness
A winetaste who is evaluating the quality of a wine will take time to notice—among other things—if the wine has a lot of odors and flavors or just a few, how well the individual parts fit together, and if it pleases him or her.
A clone is a subgroup of a grape species and is distinguished from other clones by economically important hereditary traits such as its climatic adaptation
Varietal wines are made mainly from a single variety of grapes that should impart a characteristic aroma and flavor to the wine.
The wine type refers to a winemaker's characteristic way of combining and balancing the sensory features that distinguish a particular wine to create an individualistic expression of that wine.
You would expect a warmer glass of a wine to have more intense aromas compared to a colder glass of the same wine.
Which grape variety below would be most consistently used for premium wines rather than jug wines?
Weather refers to the generally prevailing weather conditions in a region—temperature, wind speed, rainfall, etc. -averaged over a series of years
The degree to which a grapevine's foliage and fruit are exposed to light can determine the amount of distinctive flavor compounds in its grapes.
If the amounts of the chemicals responsible for the celery/fresh vegetable, herbaceous, or grassy character of Sauvignon Blanc are reduced, fruity flavors of grape-fruit, pineapple, melon, and fig emerge.
According to the grape growers surveyed, which vineyard factor below does not promote grassiness in Sauvignon Blanc?
When grapes ripen, they get bigger and softer, their green color fades, aromatic compounds increase, sugars increase, and both total acid concentration and acid strength increase.
The amount of sugar in grape juice is estimated by measuring its density in units called "degrees Brix", which correspond to the percentage by weight of sugar in the juice.
If you were buying Chardonnay grapes for your winery, what composition listed below would you like them to have?
22.9 degrees Brix, .80 total acid
The weakening of acid strength during ripening is more important for wine quality than is the decrease in the total amount of acid, because wines with stronger acid strengths have brighter colors, require smaller amounts of sulfur dioxide to protect them, and more easily resist spoilage
Refractometers are used to estimate degrees Brix of a properly collected vineyard sample and can also be used to measure the disappearance of sugars during fermentation.
This winemaking step ideally involves only breaking the skins of the grape berries to allow the juice to flow out without any damage to the seeds or stems.
The mixture of skins, seeds, stems, juice, and pulp produced when the skin of a grape is broken and the juice flows out is called
Sulfur dioxide is added at the crusher to slow down the growth of microbes that can spoil wines and to protect the juice from reactions with oxygen that can lead to both browning of pigments and deterioration of aroma and flavor.
For premium white varietal wine production skin contact means that the chilled must is pumped into a tank to sit for several hours.
Free-run juice has more sugar and less acid and tannin than press-run juice because press juice is extracted at higher pressures from must containing a higher proportion of stems, skins, and seeds
Modern premium winemaking equipment allows the extraction of about 135-185 gallons of juice per ton of grapes. This is made up of about 3 times as much press-run juice as free-run juice.
A juice with about 20 degrees Brix will yield a wine with about 10% alcohol through fermentation by yeasts, primarily from the genus Saccharomyces.
Because carbon dioxide gas is produced during fermentation, fermentation tanks are equipped with one way valves that allow CO2 to escape while preventing air from entering.
Wild yeasts are not used by most wineries because they can produce off odors and typically will stop fermenting at around 6-9% alcohol.
Which procedure listed below would you not expect to be done before fermentation of Chardonnay?
A probable fermentation temperature for premium quality white table wines would be about ___ degrees Fahrenheit
Wines of 2-3% residual sugar can be made by slowing down their fermentations before all the sugar has been used up by chilling them at about 4-8 Brix and then centrifuging to remove the cold-inactivated yeast.
The malolactic fermentation reduces the acidity in the fermenting grape juice and finished wine because it converts the malic acid from the grape juice to lactic acid, which is less tart.
The malolactic fermentation is most often used to reduce the acidity of warm region or warm to hot season grape juices
It is critical for winemakers to control the timing of the MLF to be sure that is it completed before bottling
Because most of the worlds white table wines emphasize the aroma of the grapes and the MLF reduces fruitiness, most winemakers take precautions to prevent the MLF altogether in these wines.
The process of transferring wine from one vat containing lees to another vat which is clean is called
In filtering, the wine is forced through media that vary in tightness from those that trap and remove just the very largest particles (chunks of grape skins) to those that take out tiny mololactic bacteria.
Fining is a clarification process that is uses as much to alter other important organoleptic properties of wines as to clarify them.
Fining agents (such as gelatin and egg albumen) react with the specific wine components (tannins in this case) that are to be removed and form particles that can be removed.
A wine is neither heat nor cold-stable if it becomes cloudy when exposed to high temperatures and it forms crystals when subjected to temperatures around 32 degrees F.
Making sure wines are microbiologically stable is designed to prevent gassiness and the development of off odors and flavors from bacteria and yeast growth during barrel aging.
Sterile filtration followed by aseptic bottling are key strategies in creating microbiological stability
Because vinegar bacteria can spoil wine only in the presence of oxygen, winemakers minimize air contact with wines in bulk storage.
Because nearly all white table wines are valued principally for their youthful, fruity characteristics, the vast majority of white wines are aged in neutral containers only for as long as it takes to clarify and stabilize them. Only a tiny minority of the world's white wines are candidates for aging in oak containers.
American oak barrels will impart more oak or vanilla flavor to wines than will European oak barrels.
Under which aging conditions will the components of the wine in a barrel become concentrated?
The barrels are stored in a relatively dry environment such as an above-ground warehouse in California
Many California wineries have found that oak chips or oak structures added to wines in stainless steel tanks can satisfactorily duplicate all aspects of the barrel aging process and are much cheaper
There are certain conventions based on flavor and structural compatibility that are followed by many producers when making varietal blends. For example, Chardonnay and Chenin Blanc are often blended
The bottle shape and color are chosen for a particular wine based on the traditional shapes and colors used in the European wine. Clear Bordeaux bottles are often used for Sauvignon Blanc and Semillion varietal wines.
The date that bottles in the case were filled is stamped on the box. This is useful for estimating the approximate drinkability of wines without vintage dates.
You have been hired by Chateau Prestigious Wine Cellars to project their cash flows in the first year of operation. Based on your extensive knowledge of the white wine making process, you calculate that the first income from the sale of their oak-aged Chardonnay wines could come at about ____ months after the harvest.
You lost your job when Chirrau Prestigious Wine Cellars folded because its first year cash flows were gobbled up by the owners high living son in law. Luckily, you have been hired by the neighboring wine cellar, Chateau Very Ordinary, and asked to project their cash flows. Based on your extensive knowledge of the white wine making process, you calculate that they could expect to first earn income from the sale of their Jus' Plains Mountain Chablis witness about ______ months after the harvest.
California's coastal wineries store bottles wines an average of four months at the winery until they are released for sale.
Which item on the list is not a part of the best possible aging conditions for bottled wines?
For premium white varietal grapes grown in California, cooler growing regions produce wines with greater aging potential
California wineries use sensory evaluation in quality control and the average tasting situation involved fives tasters examining no more than 10 to 30 wines per day.
Cooler growing conditions produce red wines with more pleasing colors because their juices are of a stronger acidity—that is lower in pH—than hot region juices.
One thing a grower or winemaker does not have to worry about in Pinot Noir production is using the right clone.
In general, the results of canopy management studies for Cabernet Sauvignon have shown results like those for Savignon Blanc.
In California red grapes for varietal table wine making are harvested at higher "degrees Brix" and lower total acids than are white grapes for varietal table wine making.
During red wine fermentation the ____ on the fermenting must be kept wet by "punching down" or "pumping over" in order to prevent the growth of undesirable microorganisms and to promote _____ from the skins.
Pumping over circulates about 1% of the volume of juice over the solid on the top of the fermentation about once a week.
The longer the extraction goes on during fermentation, the more varietal flavor, color, and tannins from the skins end up in the juice.
The average maceration time for California Napa Gamay is about four days and for Cabernet Sauvignon is 7-8 days. This means that the average ___________ _____________ is intended for more aging that the average _________ _________
CABERNET SAUVIGNON / NAPA GAMAY.
Pinot Noir has naturally low concentrations of lighter pigments and is low in tannins, so California winemakers commonly collect the stems at the crusher and add them to Pinot Noir fermentations to product premium wines.
One simple, straightforward rule that can be states for red table wine making is that the longer the skins are in contact with the wine, the harsher and more bitter and more astringent the wine will be.
The malolactic fermentation is both more common and more crucial in premium red table wine production than in premium white table wine production.
The amount of tannin in a red wine can be reduced by adding ____ to the wine which removes tannin
On the average, the overall process of making red wines from grape to bottle takes longer than the overall process of making white wines
Intensely fruity red wines can be produced by creating an anaerobic environment that modifies the metabolism of the grape cells so that they form alcohol without the need for yeasts. This process is called
The conventional, yeast-catalyzed alcoholic fermentation plays no role in the carbonic maceration method of winemaking
In the carbonic maceration method of winemaking, free-run juice is often used for higher quality wines than press-run juice
Pinot Noir wines are fermented at the lowest temperatures for red table wines, 60-65 degrees F.
Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in the bottle bouquet of a fine, well aged 1978 Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon?
Tobacco, coffee, chocolate, soy
Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a fine bottle of 1992 Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon?
Bell pepper, eucalyptus, mint, maybe berries, cassis.
Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a bottle of Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon that was spoiled by vinegar bacteria?
Acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate
A California wine made from Pinot Noir grapes with warmer fermentation temperatures and oak aging would be?
A Burgundian style wine.
Which red table wine on the list below would you predict would have the darkest color and most tannin? It also can have an aroma of fresh ground black pepper. All are from the same vintage.
Which sensory change on the list below would you not expect as a fine bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon ages?
The total acid content increases
Which is the most common method of producing sparking wines?
Trap the CO2 from a second alcoholic fermentation.
You have just inherited a vineyard of Grenache grapes—a red variety which has been used for mass-market blush varietal wines by some producers—and you want to make an inexpensive, fresh, fruity sparkling wine. You hire a consulting enologist who recommends you build a winery for the __________________________process.
According to the legend, the method champenoise was discovered by ___________________ sometime during the period ________ to _______
Dom Perignon /1668 / 1715
The term "champagne" may be used on the label for a wine made in any part of France as long as the precise steps that are prescribed by the French law for the method champenoise process are followed
Which grape variety below is not likely to be used for method champenoise sparkling wine production in France or California?
To emulate the characteristics of grapes produced under conditions in France's Champagne District _________ grape growing regions are preferred and the grapes are harvested __________ wherever method champenoise wines are made.
Cool / Early
Recognizable varietal aroma is not usually sought in grapes to be used for the method champenoise
Pressing whole clusters is one fruit handling procedure which was originally developed to minimize color extraction from dark skinned Pinot Noir Grapes.
The term for drawing off the cuvee with its yeast, sugar, and nutrients into bottles for the second fermentation is
Because the conditions are so different—low sugar, high alcohol, increasing CO2 pressure—from those of the first alcoholic fermentation, yeast for the prise de mousse are often of a different strain or species.
After the yeast cells are collected, the bottles may be stored neck down until the yeast cells are removed during
The sugar is adjusted in the method champenoise after the yeast is removed. The step is called
The neck of the bottles are frozen in the ____________ step in order to __________________ collected by _______________.
Disgorging / trap the yeast / Riddling
You should wait 6-9 months after the yeast removal and sugar addition steps to drink method champenoise wines. This period is recommended to allow the added sugar to become integrated into the wine.
After the re-corking that follows the removal of the yeast and adjustment of sugar, sparkling wines develop in the bottle in much the same way as do white table wines.
Most method champenoise sparkling wines are best if drunk within _____________ after they are released.
Sparkling wines made by the Charmat process reflect the fruity, youthful characteristics of the grapes they are made from because the process can be completed relatively quickly.
Charmat process wines have __________ yeast character compared to method champenoise wines.
One of the great advantages of tank fermentation for sparkling wines is low production costs. This is one important basis for the fact that about 75% of U.S. sparkling wine is made by this method by about ______ large scale producers.
An example of a sparkling wine made up by trapping the CO2 from only one alcoholic fermentation is
A Brut Charmat Process wine will probably be drier than a Brut sparkling wine made by the method champenoise
Scrupulous rinsing of glasses is important to avoid accelerated bubble dissipation while tasting sparkling wines.
To fully enjoy a sparkling wine it should be served in a flute so its bubbles will be displayed properly, and, unlike table wine, the glasses would be filled nearly all the way to the brim.
Dessert wines are all sweet and the category includes still and sparkling natural wines as well as fortified wines.
Botrytis Cinerea is a widely-occurring destructive disease organism that can attack grapevines and many other plants.
A typical disease cycle of Botrytis begins with the germination of spores that have overwintered in _____________ following ____________ and can produce shoots and leaves that look like thy have been scorched.
plant debris / spring rain
Because they contain plenty of nutrients, the ________________ are the best site for Botrytis to multiply.
A Botrytis infection cannot develop in the fruit unless the skins of the grapes are first cracked or broken by some other agent.
Which item on the list below is not a general vineyard condition or cultural practice that would encourage Botrytis growth on grape berries?
Removal of leaves to aerate the canopy.
The difference between a normal Botrytis disease cycle in which a grower could lose a large proportion of his crop and a limited infection that produces fruit suitable for making exquisite sweet wines is determined in part by ___________ but hinges upon ________________________.
soils / proper pattern of fall weather
A successful Botrytis infection requires limited fall ____________ or a series of foggy days to initiate the germination of spores.
When Botrtis grows on the surface of a grape it penetrates the skin enabling water to evaporate during a period of ________________ weather.
A successful Botrytis infection—from the point of view of the winemakers, if not the mold—is one in which the disease cycle is interrupted before the berries are broken and secondary infection develop
Which grape varieties are most susceptible and which are the least susceptible to Botrytis?
Merlot 4, Chenin Blanc 1, Sauvignon Blanc 6, Zinfandel 3, White Riesling 2, Cabernet Sauvignon 5
The change in sugar and acid composition following a Botrytis infection differs from the changes of normal grape ripening because acid and sugar both increase in concentration.
Both growers and wineries feel that for Botrytis-infected fruit, the higher the sugar, the better.
The water evaporation that occurs in a vineyard successfully infected with Botrytis can reduce yields to as little as 1/3 to ½ normal.
Even though vineyard yields are reduced by a Botrytis infection, in the winery, the juice yield per ton of grapes is the same as for non-infected fruit.
Fermentations of the high-sugar juices of Botrytis-affected fruit are hard to start and slow to progress.
Botrytis-affected wines made from _________________ + ________________ are more likely to be aged in small oak barrels.
Sauvignon Blanc + Semillon
Although the cultivation of a vineyard can be modified to encourage or discourage the growth of Botrytis, a successful infection cycle has never been completed on harvested fruit.
For ordinary fortified wines hot growing regions are beneficial for both high vineyard yields and high sugar content grapes.
About ½ the fruit for dessert wine production goes to produce the alcohol for fortification, making the per ton yield of finished wine __________ gallons.
More distinctive grape varieties—many from Portugal—and cooler growing regions are associated with the group of fortified dessert wines.
Port production from Portoguese grape varieties is being done on a small scale in California—only a little over 200 tons of the most-utilized variety were crushed in 1990.
In California, ruby and vintage ports are aged in ____________ barrels that do not contribute much wood flavor.
Light brown sherries made with flor yeast and ranging from dry to medium sugar are called by their Spanish name..
Oxidation without flor by ___________ rather than aging for long periods in barrels is a common procedure for low-priced sherries and inexpensive fortified wine products called Malage, Marsala, and Madeira.
The system for blending a new vintage of sherry with older wines so that variations from year to year are minimized is called a
A key factor that seperates premium wine grape vineyards from mediocre vineyards is
Thick canopies adversely affect
All of the Above (Grape compensation, Next year's crop, Grape berry health)
An increase in light intensity is accompanied by a proportional increase in the rate of photosynthesis.
The curve describing the relationship between light intensity and photosynthesis rate plateaus when the light is
50% as intense as full sunlight on a clear summer day
The intensity of light per unit area of leaf is greatest if the leaf is perpendicular to the light rays.
Because the essence of grape growing is converting sunlight into wine, it follows that grape growers should maximize their vines' interception of sunlight
If canopy height remains constant, then increasing between- row spacing
Decreases light interception by the vineyard
The curtains of the Bordeaux and Burgundy vineyards are shorter and closer together than those of most New World vineyards
Dividing a thick, single curtain canopy doubles the number of curtains and decreases canopy thickness.
If shoot spacing along cordons remains constant, then dividing a canopy curtain into two fruiting tiers doubles the number of shoots per curtain.
Removing leaves from around grape clusters
All of the Above (Decreases grape rots, Lowers grape potassium, Lowers grape pH)
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