Q2 APUSH key terms and people Ch. EIGHTEEN
Terms in this set (13)
Notion advanced before the Civil War that the sovereign people of a given territory should decide whether to allow slavery. Seemingly a compromise, it was largely opposed by northern abolitionists, who feared it would promote the spread of slavery to the territories.
Free Soil party
Antislavery party in the 1848 and 1852 elections that opposed the extension of slavery into the territories, arguing that the presence of slavery would limit opportunities for free laborers.
Informal network of volunteers that helped runaway slaves escape from the South and reach free-soil Canada. Seeking to halt the flow of runaway slaves to the North, southern planters and congressmen pushed for a stronger fugitive slave law.
Seventh of March speech
Daniel Webster's impassioned address urging the North to support the Compromise of 1850. Webster argued that topography and climate would keep slavery from becoming entrenched in Mexican Cession territory and urged northerners to make all reasonable concessions to prevent disunion.
Compromise of 1850
Admitted California as a free state, opened New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade (but not slavery itself) in Washington, D.C., and introduced a more stringent fugitive slave law. Widely opposed in both the North and South, it did little to settle the escalating dispute over slavery.
Fugitive Slave Law
Passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, it set high penalties for anyone who aided escaped slaves and compelled all law enforcement officers to participate in retrieving runaways. Strengthened the antislavery cause in the North.
Secret Franklin Pierce administration proposal to purchase or, that failing, to wrest militarily Cuba from Spain. Once leaked, it was quickly abandoned due to vehement opposition from the North.
Proposed that the issue of slavery be decided by popular sovereignty in the Kansas and Nebraska Territories, thus revoking the 1820 Missouri Compromise. Introduced by Stephen Douglas in an effort to bring Nebraska into the Union and pave the way for a northern transcontinental railroad.
War veteran, diplomat, and U.S. senator, he ran as the Democratic candidate in the 1848 election and lost to Zachary Taylor. he is best known as the father of "popular sovereignty," the notion that the sovereign people of a territory should decide for themselves the issue of slavery.
Military general and twelfth U.S. president, he emerged as a popular war hero after defeating Santa Anna's forces at Buena Vista in the war with Mexico. As president, he, a Louisiana slave owner, sought to avoid a sectional confrontation over slavery, though he opposed the Compromise of 1850.
Famed conductor on the Underground Railroad, she helped rescue more than three hundred slaves from bondage. Born into slavery, she fled to the North in 1849 but returned to the South nineteen times to guide slaves to freedom. After the Civil War, she worked to give freedpeople access to education in North Carolina.
New York congressman and vice president under Taylor, he took over the presidency after Taylor's death in 1850. A practical politician, he threw his support behind the Compromise of 1850, ensuring its passage. He was passed over for the Whig nomination in 1852 when the party chose to select the legendary war hero Winfield Scott.
Matthew C. Perry
American naval officer sent by Millard Fillmore to negotiate a trade deal with Japan. Backed by an impressive naval fleet, he showered Japanese negotiators with lavish gifts. Combining military bravado with diplomatic finesse, he negotiated the landmark Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854, which ended Japan's two centuries of isolation.