Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration

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All organisms need ________ to carry out life processes
energy
_____ is a portable form of energy "currency" inside cells.
ATP
Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two __________.
pyruvates
Glycolysis occurs during the ________ stage of cellular respiration.
First
Glycolysis is an _________ process.
anaerobic
During aerobic respiration, the breakdown of a molecule of glucose yields a net of up to _______ molecules of
ATP.
34
Fermentation takes place in absence of _____________.
Oxygen
Lactic acid fermentation is an ____________ process.
anaerobic
Animals get energy from food through the process of ___________________.
Cellular Respiration
When a phosphate group is removed from an ATP molecule, energy is __________.
Released.
_______ is the organic molecule that is the main energy source for cell processes and is made with the energy
released from the breakdown of glucose.
ATP
Where do autotrophs get their energy?
The sun
Where do heterotrophs get their energy?
Consuming other organisms
ATP is composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and __________________
Three phosphate groups
When cells break down food molecules, energy is ____________
stored in ATP
What occurs in glycolysis?
Glucose is split forming pyruvates
What is the net gain of ATP molecules in glycolysis?
2 ATP
What are the two stages of cellular respiration?
Glycolysis and Aerobic Respiration
What are the three steps of cellular respiration?
Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain
Water is an end product in which process?
Electron Transport Chain
What is formed from the Kreb's cycle?
ATP, NADH, FADH2, and CO2
What is the name of the process that takes place when glucose is broken down in the absence of oxygen?
Fermentation
What does anaerobic mean?
No oxygen
Do cells produce ATP more efficiently in fermenation or cellular respiration?
Cellular respiration
In what parts of organic compounds is energy stored and available for use?
Their bonds
What two inputs are needed for cellular respiration?
Glucose and Oxygen
Food is broken down to form...
ATP
Where does glycolysis take place?
Cytoplasm
What are the products of glycolysis?
ATP, NADH, pyruvates
What molecule determines whether an organism will undergo aerobic or anaerobic respiration?
oxygen
Where does the second stage of aerobic respiration take place?
Mitochondria
What are the two types of fermentation?
lactic and alcoholic
____________________ is the anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvates.
glycolysis
In the absence of oxygen, instead of aerobic respiration following glycolysis, glycolysis is followed by
____________________.
fermentation
During the first stage of cellular respiration, one six-carbon glucose molecule is converted to two three-carbon
____________________.
pyruvates
During fermentation, either ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide or ____________________ is formed.
lactic acid
When a phosphate group is removed from an ATP molecule, a(n) ____________________ molecule is
formed.
ADP
Energy is taken in energy carriers from glycolysis and the kreb's cycle to the electron transport chain by
which molecule(s)?
NADH and FADH2