40 terms

chapter 8 political parties

ap us government
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blanket primaries
nomination contests where voters are presented with a list of candidates from all the parties and allows them to pick candidates from all parties.
closed primaries
nomination contests where only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote
coalition
a set of individuals and groups supporting a political party.
coalition governments
governments where smaller parties combine with larger parties to control half of the seats in the legislature
congressional campaign committee
a party committee in Congress that provides funds to members and would-be members
critical election
an election where each party's coalition of support begins to break up and a new coalition of forces is formed for each party
ideological party
a party that values principled stands on issues above all else
linkage institutions
institutions such as parties, elections, interest groups, and the media translate inputs from the public into outputs from policymakers
mugwumps (or progressives)
Republican Party faction of the 1890s to the 1910s composed of reformers who opposed patronage
national chairperson
the person responsible for taking care of the day-to-day activities and daily duties of the party
national committee
a coalition of representatives from the states and territories charged with maintaining the party between elections
national convention
the supreme power within each party which meets every four years, writes the party platform, and nominates candidates for president and vice president
New Deal coalition
the new coalition of forces (urban, unions, Catholics, Jews, the poor, southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals) in the Democratic party that was forged as a result of national economic crisis associated with the Great Depression
open primaries
nomination contests where voters can decide on election day whether they want to participate in the Democratic of Republican contests
party competition
the battle between two dominant parties in the American system
party dealignment
when voters move away from both parties
party eras
periods during which there has been a dominant majority party for long periods of time
party identification
the self-proclaimed preference for one or the other party
party image
what voters know or think they know about what each party stands for
party machine
a particular kind of party organization that depends on both specific and material inducements for rewarding loyal party members
party realignment
process whereby the major political parties form new support coalitions that endure for a long period.
patronage
one of the key inducements used by machines whereby jobs are given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone
personal following
the political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personal popularity and networks
political party
a team of men and women seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election.
plurality system
an electoral system in which the winner is that person who gets the most votes, even if they do not receive a majority; used in almost all American elections.
political machine
a party organization that recruits members by dispensing patronage
political party
a group that seeks to elect candidates to public office
proportional representation
an electoral system where legislative seats are allocated on the basis of each party's percentage of the national vote
rational-choice theory
a theory that seeks to explain political processes and outcomes as consequences of purposive behavior, where political actors are assumed to pursue those goals rationally
responsible party model
an ideal model of party organization recommending that parties provide district programs, encourage candidates to be committed to the party platform, intend to implement their programs, and accept responsibility for the performance of government
runoff primary
a second primary election held when no candidate gets a majority of the votes in the first primary
solidary incentive
the social rewards that lead people to join political organizations.
split ticket
voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
sponsored party
a local or state political party that is largely supported by another organization in the community
straight ticket
voting for candidates who are all of the same party
superdelegates
party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries of caucuses
third parties
minor parties which either promote narrow ideological issues or are splinter groups from the major parties
ticket-splitting
voting with one party for one office and another for other offices
two-party system
an electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections
winner-take-all system
an electoral system where whoever gets the most votes wins the election