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Henry Cabot Lodge

Senator who destroyed Wilson's work in Versailles

Ben Franklin

1st postmaster general

Strict Interpretation

Favors states' rights, Jefferson

Liberal/Loose Interpretation

favor broad use of expressed and implied powers, Hamilton

Expressed Powers

Act I, Section 8, Clause 1-17; 13 total, directly listed


Tax on imports

16th Amendment

1913, income tax

Direct Tax

you pay to government, distributed among states by population

Indirect Tax

on product, must be levied at same rate, not paid by you

Gibbon v. Ogden

1824, declared fed power over commerce, over ferry service in NY harbor, Ogden= state license monopoly, Gibbon= fed license

Internal Tariffs

Not allowed in US, commerce tax over state lines

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy

keep business open

Chapter 7 Bankruptcy

take everything

League of Nations

Article 10 of Treaty of Versailles, Woodrow Wilson fails to bring involvement of Congress, plans torn up by Henry Cabot Lodge

War Powers Act of 1793

Congress can restrict use of military forces in combat, needed after Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, limit war-making ability of president

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1967, LBJ, expanded powers of president over war, limited by War Powers Act of 1973


Federal government provides framework for all to have path to citizenship, states can modify and carry out


Last life of author + 50 years


Last 17 years, renewal possible, especially renewed by pharmaceutical companies

Seward's Folly

purchasing of Alaska, 2 cents/acre, example of power over territories

Implied Powers

Article I, Section 8, Clause 18, can only allocate power based on Clause 1-17

Non-Legislative Powers


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