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118 terms

Research Methods

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hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 020)
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 024)
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 024)
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 026)
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 027)
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)
population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 029)
correlation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to 1. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 030)
scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 031)
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 033)
experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 036)
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
placebo [pluh-SEE-bo] effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)
mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 043)
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 045)
hindsight bias
tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
theory
set of assumptions used to explain phenomena & offered for scientific study
hypothesis
testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
statement of procedures used to define research variables which helps to enable replication
replication
repeating of research study to determine if its finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
descriptive research technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
survey
research method in which info is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
population
all cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
random sample
sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
naturalistic observation
descriptive research that involves observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
correlation
measure of the extent to which two factors vary together which can be positive or negative or non
scatterplot
graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.
illusory correlation
perception of a correlation between variables where none exists.
experiment
research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors (IV) to observe effect on some behavior or mental process (DV)
control condition
condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
double-blind procedure
experimental procedure in which both research participants and research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
experimental condition
condition of experiment that exposes participants to treatment, that is, to one version of the IV
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
dependent variable
variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV (what is measured)
independent variable
experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied.
mean
arithmetic average of a distribution,
median
middle score in a distribution; half scores are above it and half are below it.
mode
most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.
range
difference between highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
standard deviation
computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
statistical significance
statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance - expressed as p or sig.
null hypothesis
hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data making it opposite of the research hypothesis
single-blind procedure
procedure in which info that could introduce bias the result is withheld from participants, but experimenter will be in full possession of facts
extraneous variables
any variables other than IV variable that seem likely to influence the DV
confounding of variables
when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.
quasi-experiment
researchers takes subjects & conditions as they naturally occur, with little if any control over what happens.
cross-sectional research
people of different ages are compared to one another at a single point in time
longitudinal research
research in which the same people are re-studied and re-tested over a long period
reliability
extent to which a test yields consistent results - a measure is repeatable
validity
extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to - test accuracy
test-retest reliability
if you take the same test 2x's & you get the same results it shows ______ reliability
alternate form reliability
A type of reliability, where different versions of same instrument are used and scores are compared
split half reliability
A test is divided into 2 halves and scores on the halves are compared to see if test is consistent within itself. Ex. compare odds & evens
inter-rater reliability
More than one individual scores same test, regardless of who rates test - scores should be the same for _____ reliability
construct validity
Extent to which scores suggest that a test is actually measuring an ABSTRACT theoretical idea (such as anxiety, personality, introversion, etc.).
content validity
degree to which test is representative of total domain its supposed to cover.
criterion validity
form of validity in which a psychological measure is able to predict some future behavior or is meaningfully related to some other measure
face validity
measures whether a test looks like it tests what it is supposed to test as determined by a quick look or evaluation by a non expert
nominal data
data of categories only. Data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme. (Gender, Race, Religion)
ordinal data
data exists in categories that are ordered but differences cannot be determined or they are meaningless. (Example: 1st, 2nd, 3rd)
interval data
differences between values can be found, but is NO absolute ZERO. Examples: temperature F, time
ratio data
data with an absolute 0. Ratios are meaningful. (Length, Width, Weight, Distance)
Hawthorne Effect
change in subject's behavior caused simply by awareness of being studied
positive correlation
correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in same direction.
negative correlation
association between increases in one variable and decreases in another
correlational study
research project designed to discover degree to which two variables are related to each other
z score
in a normal distribution it tells you how far a number is above or below mean in terms of standard deviations.
positive (right) skew
skewed distribution where data has many more scores toward the lower end of the distribution
negative (left) skew
skewed distribution with many more scores on the higher end of the distribution
operational definition
statement that describes how to measure a particular variable or define a particular term specifically in a study
social desirability bias
tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
random assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups.
stratified sample
sample drawn in such a way that known subgroups within a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in general population
experimenter bias
expectations by researcher that might influence results of experiment or its interpretation
frequency histogram
bar graph that shows frequency distributions
frequency polygon
type of line graph that shows frequency distributions
ANOVA
statistical method for making simultaneous comparisons between two or more means
correlation coefficient
statistical measure of strength of association between two variables ranging from -1.0 to 1.0
illusory correlation
perception of relationship where none exists.
r
Symbol used for Pearson Correlation Coefficient ranges from -1.0 to +1.0
Type I error
Error of rejecting null hypothesis when in fact it is true (also called a "false positive"). You think you found a cause effect relationship but ONE IS NOT THERE
Type II error
error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when in fact it is false (also called a "false negative"). You think there is NO CAUSE EFFECT but THERE IS
cohort effects
Effects of being born and raised in a particular time or situation where all other members of your group has similar experiences makes your group unique from others
debriefing
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed needed for deception
deception
method by which participants are misinformed or misled about study's methods and purposes - must be told truth about this in debriefing
confederates
"fake subjects" that look & behave like real subjects in study.
n
Symbol used to represent the total number of subjects in a research study
p<.05
results of experiment are SIGNIFICANT - they are not likely caused by chance
percentile rank
Percentage of scores falling at or below a specific score.
normal distribution
bell-shaped curve that results when values of a trait in a population are plotted against their frequency
empiricism
view that science flourishes through observation and experiment.
scientific method
series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
overconfidence effect
we overestimate our accuracy and our changes of success and ability to predict and explain
random selection
procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate
wording effects
when a specific word used in a question affects how respondents answer the question or the order of the questions
meta analysis
procedure for statistically combining results of many different research studies
quasi experiment
a research method that looks like an experiment BUT subjects are not randomly assigned to control and experimental groups (no cause and effect can be drawn)
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
case study
in-depth, intensive investigation of individual or small group of people which involves interviews and personal interpretations by researcher. It may also be supplemented with psychological or medical tests
psychological test
measuring device or procedure designed to measure psychology-related variables. A measurement that results in a score or result that is standardized
wording effects
occur when the questions asked on a sample survey are confusing or leading
controls
factors in an experiment that are unchanged for both the control group and the experimental group