the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 020)
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 024)
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 024)
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 026)
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 027)
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 029)
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to 1. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 030)
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 031)
the perception of a relationship where none exists. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 033)
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 036)
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
placebo [pluh-SEE-bo] effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 043)
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 045)
statement of procedures used to define research variables which helps to enable replication
repeating of research study to determine if its finding extends to other participants and circumstances
descriptive research technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
research method in which info is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
descriptive research that involves observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
measure of the extent to which two factors vary together which can be positive or negative or non
graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.
research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors (IV) to observe effect on some behavior or mental process (DV)
condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
experimental procedure in which both research participants and research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
condition of experiment that exposes participants to treatment, that is, to one version of the IV
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV (what is measured)
experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied.
statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance - expressed as p or sig.
hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data making it opposite of the research hypothesis
procedure in which info that could introduce bias the result is withheld from participants, but experimenter will be in full possession of facts
confounding of variables
when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.
researchers takes subjects & conditions as they naturally occur, with little if any control over what happens.
people of different ages are compared to one another at a single point in time
research in which the same people are re-studied and re-tested over a long period
if you take the same test 2x's & you get the same results it shows ______ reliability
alternate form reliability
A type of reliability, where different versions of same instrument are used and scores are compared
split half reliability
A test is divided into 2 halves and scores on the halves are compared to see if test is consistent within itself. Ex. compare odds & evens
More than one individual scores same test, regardless of who rates test - scores should be the same for _____ reliability
Extent to which scores suggest that a test is actually measuring an ABSTRACT theoretical idea (such as anxiety, personality, introversion, etc.).
form of validity in which a psychological measure is able to predict some future behavior or is meaningfully related to some other measure
measures whether a test looks like it tests what it is supposed to test as determined by a quick look or evaluation by a non expert
data of categories only. Data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme. (Gender, Race, Religion)
data exists in categories that are ordered but differences cannot be determined or they are meaningless. (Example: 1st, 2nd, 3rd)
differences between values can be found, but is NO absolute ZERO. Examples: temperature F, time
correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in same direction.
research project designed to discover degree to which two variables are related to each other
in a normal distribution it tells you how far a number is above or below mean in terms of standard deviations.
positive (right) skew
skewed distribution where data has many more scores toward the lower end of the distribution
negative (left) skew
skewed distribution with many more scores on the higher end of the distribution
statement that describes how to measure a particular variable or define a particular term specifically in a study
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups.
sample drawn in such a way that known subgroups within a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in general population
expectations by researcher that might influence results of experiment or its interpretation
statistical measure of strength of association between two variables ranging from -1.0 to 1.0
Type I error
Error of rejecting null hypothesis when in fact it is true (also called a "false positive"). You think you found a cause effect relationship but ONE IS NOT THERE
Type II error
error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when in fact it is false (also called a "false negative"). You think there is NO CAUSE EFFECT but THERE IS
Effects of being born and raised in a particular time or situation where all other members of your group has similar experiences makes your group unique from others
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed needed for deception
method by which participants are misinformed or misled about study's methods and purposes - must be told truth about this in debriefing
bell-shaped curve that results when values of a trait in a population are plotted against their frequency
series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
we overestimate our accuracy and our changes of success and ability to predict and explain
procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate
when a specific word used in a question affects how respondents answer the question or the order of the questions
a research method that looks like an experiment BUT subjects are not randomly assigned to control and experimental groups (no cause and effect can be drawn)
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
in-depth, intensive investigation of individual or small group of people which involves interviews and personal interpretations by researcher. It may also be supplemented with psychological or medical tests
measuring device or procedure designed to measure psychology-related variables. A measurement that results in a score or result that is standardized