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Honors Biology Chapter 12-13 Review

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Who are the 2 scientists famous for determining the structure of DNA
James Watson & Francis Crick
What did Rosalind Franklin contribute to Watson and Crick's research
Her X-ray diffraction photo showing X-shaped pattern of DNA
What are the 3 components that make up a nucleotide
1) 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
2) phosphate group
3) nitrogenous base
What is the name of the sugar present in DNA
deoxyribose (5-carbon sugar)
What are the names of the 2 "categories" of nitrogenous bases,
1) purine (double ring)
2) pyrimidine (single ring)
Purines
- double carbon ring
- adenine & guanine
Pyrimidines
- single carbon ring
- cytosine & thymine
What are the names of the 4 nitrogenous bases found in DNA
1) adenine
2) thymine
3) guanine
4) cytosine
What is the name given to the shape of the DNA molecule
double helix
What is meant by "Chargaff's rule. How does it relate to structure of DNA
- equal amount of A&T and C&G
- 1 purine always binds to 1 pyrimidine,
- structure is always 3 ring wide
What is the name given to the chemical subunits (building blocks) that make up DNA?
Nucleotides
What 2 chemical groups make up the "backbone of the DNA molecule?
1) Sugar group (deoxyribose)
2) Phosphate group
What is the chemical bond that forms between 2 nitrogenous bases in a DNA molecule?
weak hydrogen bonds
Which nitrogenous bases pair with each other and why is this the case?
- A pairs with T
- C pairs with G
- DNA has to be 3 rings wide (1 purine with 1 pyrimidine)
Hydrogen bonding of nitrogenous bases - the bases fit together in a specific manner to form a
base pair
How are chromosomes different in prokaryotes vs eukaryotes?
- Prokaryotes - 1 simple chromosomes
- Eukaryotes - has more DNA
What is nucleosome?
Beadlike structure made by DNA tightly coiled around histones
Sequence of bases of DNA is TCGAAGCTTG What is the sequence of bases on complementary strand of DNA?
AGCTTCGAAC
What is the name given to the process of synthesizing new DNA?
DNA Replication
Enzyme that breaks the hydrogen bonds between base pairs of the DNA molecule, which separate double strands to single strand
DNA Helicase
Enzyme that moves along and adds nucleotides to the unwound strands of DNA
DNA Polymerase
Describe RNA
- single (1) strand
- has ribose
- shorter than DNA
- like a "disposable copy" of genes used in protein synthesis
- Has Uracil instead of Thymine
Describe DNA
- double (2) strands
- has deoxyribose
- 1 meter long
- contains all the organism's genes
- Has A&T and C&G
What enzyme rewrites the information in DNA to RNA
RNA Polymerase
What is transcription?
Process of "re-writing" the information in DNA, thus converting it to RNA
How many strands of RNA are made during transcription of DNA?
One strand of RNA
How many strands of DNA double helix are transcribed (read by enzyme) to make RNA?
1 strand of DNA
In the DNA sequence TCGAAGCTTG, what is the complementary sequence of bases on the mRNA strand formed during transcription?
AGCUUCGAAC
The nitrogenous base ______ is not found in RNA. Instead the base _______ pairs with adenine during the transcription of DNA to RNA.
thymine, uracil
3 types of RNA
1) mRNA (messenger)
2) tRNA (transport)
3) rRNA (ribosomal)
RNA that carries the protein building instructions out of the nucleus
mRNA
RNA that delivers amino acids one by one to a ribosome during protein synthesis
tRNA
RNA that is part of ribosome that makes proteins
rRNA
Translation
The process by which mRNA is translated into proteins
Codons
Group of 3 letter sequences of nitrogenous bases on the mRNA strand that code for particular amino acids to be incorporated into a protein
Anitcodons
Group of 3 nitrogenous bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the 3 bases of a codon of mRNA strand
What is converting DNA to RNA
Transcription
What is converting RNA to proteins
Translation
Promoter
DNA sequence that binds RNA polymerase
DNA is
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Phosphate and deoxyribose in the sides of the ladder are held together by
covalent bonds
The rungs of the ladder of DNA are made of
Nitrogenous base pairs held together by weak hydrogen bonds
The copying of a DNA strand is called
replication = DNA synthesis
When does replication happen
S-phase of Interphase
What enzyme is responsible for uncoiling and unzipping the DNA (breaking the hydrogen bond)
DNA helicase
What enzyme is responsible for adding the complementary base pairs
DNA Polymerase
Why does the cell need to do transcription?
Because DNA cannot leave the nucleus
There are how many different amino acids?
20
What are the two stages in protein synthesis?
Transcription and Translation
brings amino acid from the cytoplasm to the ribosome
tRNA
When DNA copies itself, it is called
DNA synthesis