How is a psychiatrist different than a psychologist
psychologist has a medical degree and can prescribe medication
What is free will and which psychologist is most involved with it?
caused by choices made freely by a person
What are the components of the scientific method?
1) Identify questions of interest
2) Formulate an explanation
3) Carry out research
4) Communicate the findings
What is diffusion of responsibility?
A person is less likely to respond to a situation when other people are present
Responsibility is diffused to other people
What are correlation coefficients
relationship that shows strength and direction between two variables
What is perception?
What brain makes of sensation;
sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs
What is adaptation?
Adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to stimuli;
Accomadation to stimuli
How is narcolepsy different from insomnia?
Insomnia - difficulty sleeping
Narcolepsy - uncontrollable sleeping that occurs while someone is awake
What is seasonal affect disorder?
Depression in which feelings of despair and loneliness increase during the winter time
What are daydreams and on what do they usually focus?
Fantasies constructed while awake
Focus on events relevant to person's life
What was significant about the 1920 research using Little Albert?
showed that fear could be learned/taught
What is generalization?
Process that makes stimuli similar to the original stimuli produce the same response
What is operant conditioning?
Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on favorable or unfavorable consequences;
Learning voluntary actions to produce a desirable outcome
What is the law of effect?
Responses leading to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated
What schedules of reinforcement are there and when do they occur?
Continuous, partial, fixed ratio, variable ratio
What is a disadvantage of using punishment to change behavior?
Ineffective if not done immediantly after the bad behavior
What is the difference between a positive reinforcer and a negative one?
pr= adding somethi.g
Nr= taking something away
What is stimulus control?
A behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus but not in its absence
What does behavior modification seek to accomplish?
Increase favorable behaviors and decrease unwanted ones
What is the difference between ionic and echoic memories?
iconic memory is visual while echoic is auditory
What is the difference between heuristic and an algorithm?
an algorithm guarantees a solution while a heuristic has the possibility of a solution
What is an availability heuristic?
judging the probability of something based off of how easy it is to recall it from memory
What are the 3 types of problems that cognitive psychologists have identified?
arrangement problems, problems of inducing structure, and transformation problems
What is means-end analysis?
repeated testing for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists
What does it mean to be functionally fixed?
the tendency to think of something only in terms of it's typical use
What is a confirmation bias?
the tendency to favor information that supports one's initial hypothesis and ignore contradictory information that supports alternate hypothesis or solutions
What is over generalization?
the phenomenon by which children apply language rules even when application is done with error
What is the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence?
Fluid intelligence reflects one's abilities while crystallized intelligence is gained through life experiences
What are some uses of intelligence tests?
identifying students with special needs in school, diagnosing cognitive difficulties, and helping people make optimal education/vocational choices
What is emotional intelligence?
the set of skills that underline the accurate assessment , evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions
What is the difference between intelligence tests and achievement tests?
intelligence tests test the potential of the person while the achievement tests test what someone can do
What is the most common cause of cognitive impairment (metal retardation)?
Fetal alcohol syndrome, genetics
What is the instinct approach concerning motivation?
motivation controlled is by instincts (inborn patterns of behavior)
What is the drive- reduction approach to motivation?
motivation is caused by the need to fulfill biological requirements
What is the arousal approach?
The belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity, increasing or reducing as necessary
What is the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards?
intrinsic = enjoyment
extrinsic = money, prizes, etc.
What is the sequence of Maslow's hierarchy of needs
physiological needs, safety, love/belongingness, esteem, self-actualization
What is the difference between anorexia and bullimia?
anorexia is when you eat little or nothing while bulimia is that you purge what you eat
What kinds of classes would a student with a strong need for achievement choose in regards to the difficulty level?
medium difficulty classes
If a client is asked to write about pictures what projective is he completing?
Thematic Appression Test
What is the Cannon-Bard Theory?
The beliefe that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the nerve stimulus
What is the Schachter-Singer Theory?
The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues
What was the finding of the 1974 Dutton and Aaoron experiment?
emotional experiences are a joint function of physiological arousal and the labeling of that arousal
What is the pleasure principle?
the goal is immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction
What is the reality principle?
instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society
What the main conflict in each stage?
anal: toilet training
phallic: oedipal conflict
genital: finding a mate/ adult sexuality
What is the Oedipal conflict?
being interested in the mother and wanting the father dead/out of the picture and vice versa
Who took issue with his theory and what replaced the original in her theory?
Karen Horney, power envy
What is displacement?
expression of an unwanted feeling is redirected from a more threatening, powerful person to a weaker one
What is an archetype
universal symbolic representation of a particular person, object, or experience
What does Hans Eysenck feel are the dimensions of personality?
extraversion, nueroticism, and psychotism
What is the social cognitive approach to how we learn behaviors?
theorists that emphasize the influence of a person's cognitions, as well as observation of other's behavior, in determining personality
What is the difference between self-esteem and self-efficacy?
self esteem is a component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self evaluations while self efficacy is the belief in one's personal capabilities
What is unconditional positive regard?
an attitude of acceptance and respect on te part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does
What do health psychologists feel is the relation between mind and body?
a healthy mind = a healthy body
What is psychoneuroimmunology?
the study of the relationship among physiological factors, the immune system, and the brain
What is the difference between emotion-focused and problem focused coping?
emotion focused coping uses emotions to cope while problem focused uses rational though
When would you be more apt to use each?
emotion focused is used more for situations like death and problem focused is used more for stressful or everyday situations
Reconstructing a threat as a _________ is a good coping technique when you can control the situation. True or False
One criticism of psychoanalytic theory is that it views abnormal behavior as ______________
One criticism of the behavioral perspective of abnormalcy is that it does not emphasize the role of ________________________________
thoughts, attitudes, and emotions that may contribute
To what does the humanistic perspective attribute abnormal behavior?
psychological disorders/ mental illnesses
What is anxiety disorder?
occurrence of anxiety without any obvious external cause that effects daily functioning
What is the difference between a panic disorder and a phobic disorder?
panic disorder have panic attacks with out a cause and phobic disorder has a clear cause
What is the difference between a compulsion and an obssession?
compulsion = urge to carry out an act repeatedly
obsession = thought that keeps reoccurring
What does the word eclectic mean and how does it apply to psychological treatments of disorders?
Using a variety of techniques, integrating several perspectives, to treat a person's problems
What is the goal of systematic desensitization therapy?
achieve a state of calmness to eliminate anxiety
What is peripheral processing and when would we be most likely to use it?
Message interpretation characterized by consideration of the source and related genral info rather than the message itself, advertising
What is schema and for what would one use it?
schema are organized bodies of information stored in the memory and they are used for learning
What is attribution theory?
seeks to explain what the specific causes of behavior, to give reasons behind behaviors
What is cognitive dissonance?
The conflist that occurs when. Person holds a contradictory attitudes or thoughts
What is the halo effect?
initial understanding that a person has positive traits is used to infer other positive traits
What is self-serving bias?
a tendency to attribute success to persona factors and failure to outside factors
What psychologist was responsible for the theory of eight stages of development during which specific conflicts were resolved?
Which psychologist felt that we learn most through watching others and imitating their behavior?
What is the new subfield of psychology that explains psychological disorders in terms of biological factors?
This occurs when the brain organizes, interprets, and analyzes information from the environment
If an emplyoee figures out that staying late at work will increase his changes of getting a raise, his behavior can be explained by this approach to psychology.
This trait theorist said that there were 3 categories: cardinal, central, and secondary.
The idea that people learn behaviors by watching and imitating others is known as what approach to psychology?
He thought that there was a positive correlation between mental well being and unconditional positive regard
What psychological perspective does not believe that behavior is beyond people's control?
This field of psychology is growing in part because people are now suffering mostly from chronic, incurable diseases
Using the ___________________ psychologists identify questions, develop a theory and conduct research
_______________ ________________ explains disorders in terms of biological factors
_____________ psychologists study how the brain organizes numerous pieces of sensory information into a single holistic perception
______ _______ was not only the daughter of a famous psychologist, she also improved the treatment of patients thought to be abnormal
The "let someone else help" attitude is reflected in the __________ ______ theory
Diffusion of responcibility
The strength and direction of the relationship between two variables is shown through c__________ c_________
When participants get a sugar pill instead of the drug that sugar pill is known as the _________
________ are the most basic elements of the nervous system and they communicate with each other through ______________________
Hypnotized people are open to suggestion but will not be more honest or reveal secrets or behave in ways contrary to their beliefs. T/F
________ is the most common depressant while ______ is the most common hallucinogen
A drug used to treat heroine addicts. However, critics say that it is just changing one dependence for another
When a conditioned response no longer occurs it is said to have been _______ while its sudden reappearance is known as _________ _________
__________ conditioning takes place when learning is based on positive and negative consequences of behavior
The law of effect states that behaviors with positive outcomes are likely to be _____ and when this happens __________ reinforcement has occurred
When a person's behavior increases because an unpleasant stimulus has been removed than ________ reinforcement has occurred
Decreasing the probability of a behavior's reoccurance can be accomplished through the use of ____________. However, it is not effective in the long run in changing one's behavior.
When a child is always rewarded for good behavior, he is on a _______ schedule of reinforcement but when the reward is an annual event as in one's birthday the schedule of reinforcement would be a ________
Deciding whether or not to wear sunglasses is an example of behavior that is under ___________ __________
___________ ________ is used by teachers to increase postive behaviors while decreasing negative ones
Important decisions should rely on a _________ while cognitive shortcuts can be had through the use of a __________
Overestimating the number of people who die from homicide because we see those stories on TV is an example of
Three types of problems are ______ , ____, and ______
Srrangment, transformation, of inducing structure
When we consider how we can get what we want or need we are engaged in a _______-______ _______
means end analysis
_________ ________ are old patterns of problem solving that can get in the way of our ability to solve new problems
Only allowing yourself to hear your own point of view will lead to a ______________ _____
Creativity is found in those involved in ________ thinking, while __________ thinking rely on logic and knowledge.