feeling fulfilled by realizing one's highest potential
What is the difference between anorexia and bullimia?
anorexia is when you eat little or nothing while bulimia is that you purge what you eat
What kinds of classes would a student with a strong need for achievement choose in regards to the difficulty level?
medium difficulty classes
If a client is asked to write about pictures what projective is he completing?
Thematic Appression Test
What is the Cannon-Bard Theory?
The beliefe that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the nerve stimulus
What is the Schachter-Singer Theory?
The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues
What was the finding of the 1974 Dutton and Aaoron experiment?
emotional experiences are a joint function of physiological arousal and the labeling of that arousal
What does a developmental psychologist study?
patterns of growth and changes that occur
Who was the founder of psychoanalytic theory?
What kind of psychologist studies a person's characteristics?
What are the three parts of personality according to Freud?
ID, Ego, and Superego
What is the pleasure principle?
the goal is immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction
What is the reality principle?
instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society
What are the stages of development in Freud's theory?
oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
What the main conflict in each stage?
oral: weaning anal: toilet training phallic: oedipal conflict latency: none genital: finding a mate/ adult sexuality
What is the Oedipal conflict?
being interested in the mother and wanting the father dead/out of the picture and vice versa
What do girls envy according to Freud?
Who took issue with his theory and what replaced the original in her theory?
Karen Horney, power envy
The basis for many of our problems is due to what according to Freud?
The onset of neurosis is caused by what according to Freud?
What does it mean to be in denial?
refusing to accept an anxiety producing piece of information
What is displacement?
expression of an unwanted feeling is redirected from a more threatening, powerful person to a weaker one
What is regression?
people behave in an earlier stage of development than their chronicle age
What is projection?
people attribute unwanted feelings to someone else
Who has taught us about our collective unconscious?
What is an archetype
universal symbolic representation of a particular person, object, or experience
Who is responsible for the superiority complex?
How did Karen Horney think personality was shaped?
social & cultural factors
What were Gordon Alport's categories of traits?
cardinal central secondary
What does Hans Eysenck feel are the dimensions of personality?
extraversion, nueroticism, and psychotism
What is the humanistic view of personality?
innate goodness, we strive to be all that we can be
What is the social cognitive approach to how we learn behaviors?
theorists that emphasize the influence of a person's cognitions, as well as observation of other's behavior, in determining personality
What is the difference between self-esteem and self-efficacy?
self esteem is a component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self evaluations while self efficacy is the belief in one's personal capabilities
Who was responsible for the term "maximizing human potentials"?
Carl Rodgers Abraham Maslow
What is unconditional positive regard?
an attitude of acceptance and respect on te part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does
What do health psychologists feel is the relation between mind and body?
a healthy mind = a healthy body
What is psychoneuroimmunology?
the study of the relationship among physiological factors, the immune system, and the brain
What is the difference between emotion-focused and problem focused coping?
emotion focused coping uses emotions to cope while problem focused uses rational though
When would you be more apt to use each?
emotion focused is used more for situations like death and problem focused is used more for stressful or everyday situations
Reconstructing a threat as a _________ is a good coping technique when you can control the situation. True or False
The term insanity is a legal, psychological, medical or psychiatric one?
One criticism of psychoanalytic theory is that it views abnormal behavior as ______________
One criticism of the behavioral perspective of abnormalcy is that it does not emphasize the role of ________________________________
thoughts, attitudes, and emotions that may contribute
Which persepctive believes that abnormal behavior is within our control
To what does the humanistic perspective attribute abnormal behavior?
psychological disorders/ mental illnesses
What is anxiety disorder?
occurrence of anxiety without any obvious external cause that effects daily functioning
What is dissociative disorder?
separation of the different sets of a person's personality
What is the difference between a panic disorder and a phobic disorder?
panic disorder have panic attacks with out a cause and phobic disorder has a clear cause
What is the difference between a compulsion and an obssession?
compulsion = urge to carry out an act repeatedly obsession = thought that keeps reoccurring
What does the word eclectic mean and how does it apply to psychological treatments of disorders?
Using a variety of techniques, integrating several perspectives, to treat a person's problems
A version therapy is based on what type of conditioning?
What is the goal of systematic desensitization therapy?
achieve a state of calmness to eliminate anxiety
Who developed cognitive therapy?
The theory that irrational thoughts trigger negative emotions was developed by
What is peripheral processing and when would we be most likely to use it?
Message interpretation characterized by consideration of the source and related genral info rather than the message itself, advertising
What is schema and for what would one use it?
schema are organized bodies of information stored in the memory and they are used for learning
What is attribution theory?
seeks to explain what the specific causes of behavior, to give reasons behind behaviors
What is cognitive dissonance?
The conflist that occurs when. Person holds a contradictory attitudes or thoughts
What is the halo effect?
initial understanding that a person has positive traits is used to infer other positive traits
What is an assumed- similarity bias?
a tendency to think of people as being similar to you
What is self-serving bias?
a tendency to attribute success to persona factors and failure to outside factors
What psychologist was responsible for the hierarchy of needs?
What psychologist was responsible for the theory of eight stages of development during which specific conflicts were resolved?
What psychologist is most well known for examining children's development
Which psychologist felt that we learn most through watching others and imitating their behavior?
Which psychologist is linked with Emotional Intelligence?
Which psychologist is linked with the theory of multiple intelligence?
Which psychologist is linked with three stages of moral development?
Which psychologist is linked with classical conditioning?
What is the new subfield of psychology that explains psychological disorders in terms of biological factors?
This occurs when the brain organizes, interprets, and analyzes information from the environment
Tests that measure what they claim to measure are said to have this.
If an emplyoee figures out that staying late at work will increase his changes of getting a raise, his behavior can be explained by this approach to psychology.
Schacter and Singer said that comparing ourselves with others helps us to do this
This trait theorist said that there were 3 categories: cardinal, central, and secondary.
The idea that people learn behaviors by watching and imitating others is known as what approach to psychology?
He thought that there was a positive correlation between mental well being and unconditional positive regard
What psychological perspective does not believe that behavior is beyond people's control?
This field of psychology is growing in part because people are now suffering mostly from chronic, incurable diseases
Psychology is the scientific study of ______ and __________
behavior metal processes
Phenomena of interest to psychologists: ___________ and ____________
Perception and personality
Using the ___________________ psychologists identify questions, develop a theory and conduct research
___________ psychologists study whether people are introverted or extroverted
___________ psychologists study the way abilities change as a child ages
___________ psycholgists study stress related symptoms
___________ psychologists study the effects that others have on our behaviors
___________ psychologists study differences in people from other parts of the world
_______________ ________________ explains disorders in terms of biological factors
Psycholgostis are unlike psychiatrists in that they do not have __________ degrees
_____________ psychologists study how the brain organizes numerous pieces of sensory information into a single holistic perception
______ _______ was not only the daughter of a famous psychologist, she also improved the treatment of patients thought to be abnormal
__________ is to behaviorism as free will is to humanism
N______ is to genetic factors as N______ is to lifestyle
Human behavior is influenced by both n____ and n_____ most psychologists agree
The "let someone else help" attitude is reflected in the __________ ______ theory
Diffusion of responcibility
The strength and direction of the relationship between two variables is shown through c__________ c_________
Participants not receiving treatment are called the _________ group
When participants get a sugar pill instead of the drug that sugar pill is known as the _________
________ are the most basic elements of the nervous system and they communicate with each other through ______________________
The _________ is the space between neurons
A runner's "high" is caused by
The brain and the spinal cord make up the _______________
central nervous system
The _____________nervous system helps our bodies prepare for flight or fight
The study of how heredity affects behavior is known as
The pancreas and adrenal glands regulate _______ and ___________
Being able to control heart rate can be done through the use of _____________
When our sense organs receive information from the environment we have a
When the brain organizes, interprets, and analyzes the info we have a
When we first hear the volume the music is at the point of
Adjusting to the environment is known as
In REM sleep we usually
Sigmund Freud believed that dreams were ___________ _____ and _______
unfulfilled wishes desires
When we cannot fall asleep and wake up often during the night we suffer from
When one stops breathing for part of sleeping the person has
Despair during winter is known as _________ ________
Seasonal affect disorder
Most day dreams are about ordinary events T/F
Hypnotized people are open to suggestion but will not be more honest or reveal secrets or behave in ways contrary to their beliefs. T/F
Nicotine, heroine, and caffeine are addictive T/F
These increase energy and confidence while reducing fatigue and appetite
________ is the most common depressant while ______ is the most common hallucinogen
A drug used to treat heroine addicts. However, critics say that it is just changing one dependence for another
_______ use increases empathy but decreases memory
______ use may result in flashbacks later in life
When behavior changes as a result of experience ______ has occured
In 1920 research using little Albert showed that _____ can be learned
When a conditioned response no longer occurs it is said to have been _______ while its sudden reappearance is known as _________ _________
extinct spontaneous recovery
When similar stimuli produce the same response _______ has occurred
__________ conditioning takes place when learning is based on positive and negative consequences of behavior
The law of effect states that behaviors with positive outcomes are likely to be _____ and when this happens __________ reinforcement has occurred
The man most linked to this kind of conditioning
When a person's behavior increases because an unpleasant stimulus has been removed than ________ reinforcement has occurred
Decreasing the probability of a behavior's reoccurance can be accomplished through the use of ____________. However, it is not effective in the long run in changing one's behavior.
When a child is always rewarded for good behavior, he is on a _______ schedule of reinforcement but when the reward is an annual event as in one's birthday the schedule of reinforcement would be a ________
Deciding whether or not to wear sunglasses is an example of behavior that is under ___________ __________
When one learns a complex task step by step has learned through
___________ ________ is used by teachers to increase postive behaviors while decreasing negative ones
When giving directions to your home you visualize using a ________ map
Process of recording info
Process of maintaining info
Process of recalling info
_________ memory has to do with sight while ____ has to do with hearing
Psychology that involves the study of thinking, language, reasoning, and judging
A _______is a mental image of the most typical example of a concept
Important decisions should rely on a _________ while cognitive shortcuts can be had through the use of a __________
Overestimating the number of people who die from homicide because we see those stories on TV is an example of
Three types of problems are ______ , ____, and ______
Srrangment, transformation, of inducing structure
When we consider how we can get what we want or need we are engaged in a _______-______ _______
means end analysis
A __________ _________ person only sees objects in terms of their typical use
_________ ________ are old patterns of problem solving that can get in the way of our ability to solve new problems
Only allowing yourself to hear your own point of view will lead to a ______________ _____
Creativity is found in those involved in ________ thinking, while __________ thinking rely on logic and knowledge.
The system of rules that govern our communications is known as
The smallest unit of speech is a
The order of word sin a sentence
Babies usually begin to babble at ___ months of age
Children understand language before they are able to produce it. T/F
The belief that all the world's lanugages share a common grammar was held by
a person's culture appears to have an effect on ___________ intelligence