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Psychology Exam

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Psychology is the study of what two things?
behavior & mental processes
What phenomena do psychologists study?
sensation perception & cognition
On what do they rely to answer their question?
scientific method
What different kinds of psychologists are there?
pg 7
What kinds of behaviors/thought processes would each study?
pg 7
What new subfield of psychology involves the study of biology?
Clinical Neuropyschology
How is a psychiatrist different than a psychologist
psychologist has a medical degree and can prescribe medication
What does gestalt mean?
perception organized in the mind
Who was Anna Freud?
bettered conditions in mental asylums
What is determinism?
idea that people's behavior is determined by outside factors
What is free will and which psychologist is most involved with it?
caused by choices made freely by a person
What do most psychologists believe concerning nature vs. nurture?
both
What is meant by nature vs. nurture?
nature- decided since birth
nurture- decided by environment
What are the components of the scientific method?
1) Identify questions of interest
2) Formulate an explanation
3) Carry out research
4) Communicate the findings
What is diffusion of responsibility?
A person is less likely to respond to a situation when other people are present
Responsibility is diffused to other people
What are correlation coefficients
relationship that shows strength and direction between two variables
What is the control group?
receives no treatment
What is a placebo?
sugar pill given to control group
false treatment
What is a neuron?
nerve cells
What is the name of the space between neurons called?
synapse
How do neurons communicate?
neurotransmitters
What is produced when runners get their "high"?
endorphins
Of what are the brain and spinal cord a part of?
the CNS
What is the function of the sympathetic nervous system?
prepare body for stressful situations
What does one study in the field of behavioral genetics?
Effects of heredity on behavior
What do the adrenal glands and pancreas regulate?
regulates insulin, glucagon and metabolism
What is biofeedback?
learned control through conscious thinking
What is sensation?
activation of the sense organs by a source of physical activity
What is perception?
What brain makes of sensation;
sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs
What is absolute threshold?
smallest detection of stimulus
What is adaptation?
Adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to stimuli;
Accomadation to stimuli
What usually takes place during REM sleep?
dreaming
What did Sigmund Freud believe dreams to be?
unfulfilled wishes and desires
How is narcolepsy different from insomnia?
Insomnia - difficulty sleeping
Narcolepsy - uncontrollable sleeping that occurs while someone is awake
What is sleep apnea?
condition in which person has difficulty breathing during sleep
What is seasonal affect disorder?
Depression in which feelings of despair and loneliness increase during the winter time
What are daydreams and on what do they usually focus?
Fantasies constructed while awake
Focus on events relevant to person's life
What is the state of being more receptive to the suggestions of others?
Hypnosis
What do nicotine, caffeine, and heroine have in common?
all addictive
What is an amphetamine and what effects does it have on the taker?
stimulates NS energy alertness
What is the most common depressant?
alcohol
Heroine addiction is often treated with which drug?
methadone
What is the criticism of that treatment for heroine addiction?
users become addicted to methodone
What is the most common hallucinogen?
marijuana
What are the effects of ecstasy use?
peacefulness and calm
What drug is associated with flashbacks?
LSD
What is learning
acquisition of knowledge through study
What was significant about the 1920 research using Little Albert?
showed that fear could be learned/taught
When a conditioned response no longer occurs he behavior has been
extinct
The sudden reappearance of a response is known as
spontaneous recoil
What is generalization?
Process that makes stimuli similar to the original stimuli produce the same response
What is operant conditioning?
Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on favorable or unfavorable consequences;
Learning voluntary actions to produce a desirable outcome
Who is most closely associated with operant conditioning?
B.F. Skinner
What is the law of effect?
Responses leading to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated
What is reinforcement?
strengthening a response
What schedules of reinforcement are there and when do they occur?
Continuous, partial, fixed ratio, variable ratio
What is a disadvantage of using punishment to change behavior?
Ineffective if not done immediantly after the bad behavior
What is used to decrease the probability of a behavior occurring again?
Punishment
What is the difference between a positive reinforcer and a negative one?
pr= adding somethi.g
Nr= taking something away
What is stimulus control?
A behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus but not in its absence
What is shaping?
Teaching complex behavior step by step with rewards
What does behavior modification seek to accomplish?
Increase favorable behaviors and decrease unwanted ones
What is a cognitive map?
Seeing a map inside your mind
Who most closely associated with learning through observation?
Albert Bandura
What is recording information so that is usable later called?
Encoding
The maintenance of information is known as
Storage
What is the difference between ionic and echoic memories?
iconic memory is visual while echoic is auditory
What branch of psychology studies thinking, language, reasoning and judging?
Cognitive Psychology
What is a prototype?
a typical, highly representative samples of a concept
What is the difference between heuristic and an algorithm?
an algorithm guarantees a solution while a heuristic has the possibility of a solution
What is an availability heuristic?
judging the probability of something based off of how easy it is to recall it from memory
What are the 3 types of problems that cognitive psychologists have identified?
arrangement problems, problems of inducing structure, and transformation problems
What is means-end analysis?
repeated testing for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists
What does it mean to be functionally fixed?
the tendency to think of something only in terms of it's typical use
What are mental sets?
the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist
What kind of thinking is linked with creativity?
Divergent
Dependence on logic and knowledge for answers is known as what kind of thinking?
Convergent
What is a confirmation bias?
the tendency to favor information that supports one's initial hypothesis and ignore contradictory information that supports alternate hypothesis or solutions
What is self-fulfilling prophecy?
Thinking about something so much it happens
What is the name of the system of rules that helps us express our thoughts?
grammar
What is the smallest unit of speech that affects meaning?
phonemes
Why is creative thinking helpful?
Helps generate unusual responces, "think outside the box"
What is syntax?
ways in which words are formed into sentences
At what age does the average baby begin to babble?
3 months
What is telegraphic speech?
sentences in which not critical words are left out
What is over generalization?
the phenomenon by which children apply language rules even when application is done with error
Who believed that all world's languages shared a common grammar
Noam Chomsky
What is the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence?
Fluid intelligence reflects one's abilities while crystallized intelligence is gained through life experiences
Who is responsible for the theory of multiple intelligence?
Howard Gardner
Who created the first intelligence test?
Alfred Binet
What are some uses of intelligence tests?
identifying students with special needs in school, diagnosing cognitive difficulties, and helping people make optimal education/vocational choices
What is emotional intelligence?
the set of skills that underline the accurate assessment , evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions
What is kinesthetic intelligence?
Ability to do physical action
Speed of information retrieval increases with intelligence in most cases. True or false?
true
What is the difference between intelligence tests and achievement tests?
intelligence tests test the potential of the person while the achievement tests test what someone can do
What is test reliability?
a test's ability to measure consistently
What type of test has norms that allow comparisons among test-takers?
standardized tests
What is down syndrome?
mental retardation caused by an extra chromosome
What causes sudden infant death syndrome?
the cause is unknown
Most people who are cognitively impaired have IQs between what two numbers?
55-65
What is the most common cause of cognitive impairment (metal retardation)?
Fetal alcohol syndrome, genetics
Socially how are most intellectually gifted people?
very normal
When we study what forces drive human behavior what are we studying?
motivation
Are emotions connected to motivation?
yes
What is the instinct approach concerning motivation?
motivation controlled is by instincts (inborn patterns of behavior)
List some primary drives.
sleep, hunger, sex, thirst
What is the drive- reduction approach to motivation?
motivation is caused by the need to fulfill biological requirements
What is the arousal approach?
The belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity, increasing or reducing as necessary
What is homeostasis?
the bodies tendency to maintain it's internal state
What is the incentive approach?
goals/desires to obtain external goals motivates us
What is the cognitive approach?
our thoughts, emotions, etc. motivates us
What is the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards?
intrinsic = enjoyment
extrinsic = money, prizes, etc.
What is the sequence of Maslow's hierarchy of needs
physiological needs, safety, love/belongingness, esteem, self-actualization
What does it mean to be self-actualizing?
feeling fulfilled by realizing one's highest potential
What is the difference between anorexia and bullimia?
anorexia is when you eat little or nothing while bulimia is that you purge what you eat
What kinds of classes would a student with a strong need for achievement choose in regards to the difficulty level?
medium difficulty classes
If a client is asked to write about pictures what projective is he completing?
Thematic Appression Test
What is the Cannon-Bard Theory?
The beliefe that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the nerve stimulus
What is the Schachter-Singer Theory?
The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues
What was the finding of the 1974 Dutton and Aaoron experiment?
emotional experiences are a joint function of physiological arousal and the labeling of that arousal
What does a developmental psychologist study?
patterns of growth and changes that occur
Who was the founder of psychoanalytic theory?
Sigmund Frued
What kind of psychologist studies a person's characteristics?
Personality Psychology
What are the three parts of personality according to Freud?
ID, Ego, and Superego
What is the pleasure principle?
the goal is immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction
What is the reality principle?
instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society
What are the stages of development in Freud's theory?
oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
What the main conflict in each stage?
oral: weaning
anal: toilet training
phallic: oedipal conflict
latency: none
genital: finding a mate/ adult sexuality
What is the Oedipal conflict?
being interested in the mother and wanting the father dead/out of the picture and vice versa
What do girls envy according to Freud?
penis
Who took issue with his theory and what replaced the original in her theory?
Karen Horney, power envy
The basis for many of our problems is due to what according to Freud?
fixation
The onset of neurosis is caused by what according to Freud?
anxiety
What does it mean to be in denial?
refusing to accept an anxiety producing piece of information
What is displacement?
expression of an unwanted feeling is redirected from a more threatening, powerful person to a weaker one
What is regression?
people behave in an earlier stage of development than their chronicle age
What is projection?
people attribute unwanted feelings to someone else
Who has taught us about our collective unconscious?
Carl Jung
What is an archetype
universal symbolic representation of a particular person, object, or experience
Who is responsible for the superiority complex?
Alfred Adler
How did Karen Horney think personality was shaped?
social & cultural factors
What were Gordon Alport's categories of traits?
cardinal
central
secondary
What does Hans Eysenck feel are the dimensions of personality?
extraversion, nueroticism, and psychotism
What is the humanistic view of personality?
innate goodness, we strive to be all that we can be
What is the social cognitive approach to how we learn behaviors?
theorists that emphasize the influence of a person's cognitions, as well as observation of other's behavior, in determining personality
What is the difference between self-esteem and self-efficacy?
self esteem is a component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self evaluations while self efficacy is the belief in one's personal capabilities
Who was responsible for the term "maximizing human potentials"?
Carl Rodgers
Abraham Maslow
What is unconditional positive regard?
an attitude of acceptance and respect on te part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does
What do health psychologists feel is the relation between mind and body?
a healthy mind = a healthy body
What is psychoneuroimmunology?
the study of the relationship among physiological factors, the immune system, and the brain
What is the difference between emotion-focused and problem focused coping?
emotion focused coping uses emotions to cope while problem focused uses rational though
When would you be more apt to use each?
emotion focused is used more for situations like death and problem focused is used more for stressful or everyday situations
Reconstructing a threat as a _________ is a good coping technique when you can control the situation. True or False
challenge
The term insanity is a legal, psychological, medical or psychiatric one?
legal
One criticism of psychoanalytic theory is that it views abnormal behavior as ______________
uncontrolled
One criticism of the behavioral perspective of abnormalcy is that it does not emphasize the role of ________________________________
thoughts, attitudes, and emotions that may contribute
Which persepctive believes that abnormal behavior is within our control
humanistic
To what does the humanistic perspective attribute abnormal behavior?
psychological disorders/ mental illnesses
What is anxiety disorder?
occurrence of anxiety without any obvious external cause that effects daily functioning
What is dissociative disorder?
separation of the different sets of a person's personality
What is the difference between a panic disorder and a phobic disorder?
panic disorder have panic attacks with out a cause and phobic disorder has a clear cause
What is the difference between a compulsion and an obssession?
compulsion = urge to carry out an act repeatedly
obsession = thought that keeps reoccurring
What does the word eclectic mean and how does it apply to psychological treatments of disorders?
Using a variety of techniques, integrating several perspectives, to treat a person's problems
A version therapy is based on what type of conditioning?
classical
What is the goal of systematic desensitization therapy?
achieve a state of calmness to eliminate anxiety
Who developed cognitive therapy?
Beck
The theory that irrational thoughts trigger negative emotions was developed by
Ellis
What is peripheral processing and when would we be most likely to use it?
Message interpretation characterized by consideration of the source and related genral info rather than the message itself, advertising
What is schema and for what would one use it?
schema are organized bodies of information stored in the memory and they are used for learning
What is attribution theory?
seeks to explain what the specific causes of behavior, to give reasons behind behaviors
What is cognitive dissonance?
The conflist that occurs when. Person holds a contradictory attitudes or thoughts
What is the halo effect?
initial understanding that a person has positive traits is used to infer other positive traits
What is an assumed- similarity bias?
a tendency to think of people as being similar to you
What is self-serving bias?
a tendency to attribute success to persona factors and failure to outside factors
What psychologist was responsible for the hierarchy of needs?
Abraham Maslow
What psychologist was responsible for the theory of eight stages of development during which specific conflicts were resolved?
Erik Erickson
What psychologist is most well known for examining children's development
Jean Piaget
Which psychologist felt that we learn most through watching others and imitating their behavior?
Bandura
Which psychologist is linked with Emotional Intelligence?
Daniel Goleman
Which psychologist is linked with the theory of multiple intelligence?
Howard Gardener
Which psychologist is linked with three stages of moral development?
Lawrence Kohlberg
Which psychologist is linked with classical conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov
What is the new subfield of psychology that explains psychological disorders in terms of biological factors?
clinical neuropsychology
This occurs when the brain organizes, interprets, and analyzes information from the environment
Perception
Tests that measure what they claim to measure are said to have this.
...
If an emplyoee figures out that staying late at work will increase his changes of getting a raise, his behavior can be explained by this approach to psychology.
cognitive
Schacter and Singer said that comparing ourselves with others helps us to do this
...
This trait theorist said that there were 3 categories: cardinal, central, and secondary.
Gordon Alport
The idea that people learn behaviors by watching and imitating others is known as what approach to psychology?
Behavioral
He thought that there was a positive correlation between mental well being and unconditional positive regard
Jung
What psychological perspective does not believe that behavior is beyond people's control?
Humanistic
This field of psychology is growing in part because people are now suffering mostly from chronic, incurable diseases
...
Psychology is the scientific study of ______ and __________
behavior
metal processes
Phenomena of interest to psychologists: ___________ and ____________
Perception and personality
Using the ___________________ psychologists identify questions, develop a theory and conduct research
scientific method
___________ psychologists study whether people are introverted or extroverted
personality
___________ psychologists study the way abilities change as a child ages
developmental
___________ psycholgists study stress related symptoms
Health
___________ psychologists study the effects that others have on our behaviors
social
___________ psychologists study differences in people from other parts of the world
cross-cultural
_______________ ________________ explains disorders in terms of biological factors
clinical neuropsychology
Psycholgostis are unlike psychiatrists in that they do not have __________ degrees
medical
_____________ psychologists study how the brain organizes numerous pieces of sensory information into a single holistic perception
Gestalt
______ _______ was not only the daughter of a famous psychologist, she also improved the treatment of patients thought to be abnormal
Anna Freud
__________ is to behaviorism as free will is to humanism
Determinism
N______ is to genetic factors as N______ is to lifestyle
Nature nurture
Human behavior is influenced by both n____ and n_____ most psychologists agree
nature, nurture
The "let someone else help" attitude is reflected in the __________ ______ theory
Diffusion of responcibility
The strength and direction of the relationship between two variables is shown through c__________ c_________
correlation coefficient
Participants not receiving treatment are called the _________ group
control
When participants get a sugar pill instead of the drug that sugar pill is known as the _________
placebo
________ are the most basic elements of the nervous system and they communicate with each other through ______________________
neurons
neurotransmitters
The _________ is the space between neurons
synapse
A runner's "high" is caused by
endorphins
The brain and the spinal cord make up the _______________
central nervous system
The _____________nervous system helps our bodies prepare for flight or fight
Sympathetic
The study of how heredity affects behavior is known as
behavioral genetics
The pancreas and adrenal glands regulate _______ and ___________
insulin
glucagon
Being able to control heart rate can be done through the use of _____________
biofeedback
When our sense organs receive information from the environment we have a
sensation
When the brain organizes, interprets, and analyzes the info we have a
Perception
When we first hear the volume the music is at the point of
absolute threshold
Adjusting to the environment is known as
adaptation
In REM sleep we usually
Dream
Sigmund Freud believed that dreams were ___________ _____ and _______
unfulfilled wishes
desires
When we cannot fall asleep and wake up often during the night we suffer from
Insomnia
When one stops breathing for part of sleeping the person has
sleep apnea
Despair during winter is known as _________ ________
Seasonal affect disorder
Most day dreams are about ordinary events T/F
True
Hypnotized people are open to suggestion but will not be more honest or reveal secrets or behave in ways contrary to their beliefs. T/F
True
Nicotine, heroine, and caffeine are addictive T/F
True
These increase energy and confidence while reducing fatigue and appetite
stimulants
________ is the most common depressant while ______ is the most common hallucinogen
Alchol, marijuna
A drug used to treat heroine addicts. However, critics say that it is just changing one dependence for another
Methodone
_______ use increases empathy but decreases memory
Ecstasy
______ use may result in flashbacks later in life
Lsd
When behavior changes as a result of experience ______ has occured
learning
In 1920 research using little Albert showed that _____ can be learned
fear
When a conditioned response no longer occurs it is said to have been _______ while its sudden reappearance is known as _________ _________
extinct
spontaneous recovery
When similar stimuli produce the same response _______ has occurred
...
__________ conditioning takes place when learning is based on positive and negative consequences of behavior
operant
The law of effect states that behaviors with positive outcomes are likely to be _____ and when this happens __________ reinforcement has occurred
Increased, positive
The man most linked to this kind of conditioning
B.F. Skinner
When a person's behavior increases because an unpleasant stimulus has been removed than ________ reinforcement has occurred
Negative
Decreasing the probability of a behavior's reoccurance can be accomplished through the use of ____________. However, it is not effective in the long run in changing one's behavior.
Punishment
When a child is always rewarded for good behavior, he is on a _______ schedule of reinforcement but when the reward is an annual event as in one's birthday the schedule of reinforcement would be a ________
Continuous, fixed
Deciding whether or not to wear sunglasses is an example of behavior that is under ___________ __________
Stimulus control
When one learns a complex task step by step has learned through
shaping
___________ ________ is used by teachers to increase postive behaviors while decreasing negative ones
Beavior modification
When giving directions to your home you visualize using a ________ map
cognitive
Process of recording info
Encoing
Process of maintaining info
Storage
Process of recalling info
retrieval
_________ memory has to do with sight while ____ has to do with hearing
Iconic, echoic
Psychology that involves the study of thinking, language, reasoning, and judging
Cognitive
A _______is a mental image of the most typical example of a concept
Prototype
Important decisions should rely on a _________ while cognitive shortcuts can be had through the use of a __________
Algoriths, hueristic
Overestimating the number of people who die from homicide because we see those stories on TV is an example of
availability hueristic
Three types of problems are ______ , ____, and ______
Srrangment, transformation, of inducing structure
When we consider how we can get what we want or need we are engaged in a _______-______ _______
means end analysis
A __________ _________ person only sees objects in terms of their typical use
Functional fixated
_________ ________ are old patterns of problem solving that can get in the way of our ability to solve new problems
Mental say
Only allowing yourself to hear your own point of view will lead to a ______________ _____
Confirmation bias
Creativity is found in those involved in ________ thinking, while __________ thinking rely on logic and knowledge.
divergent
convergent
The system of rules that govern our communications is known as
grammar
The smallest unit of speech is a
phoneme
The order of word sin a sentence
syntax
Babies usually begin to babble at ___ months of age
3
Children understand language before they are able to produce it. T/F
true
The belief that all the world's lanugages share a common grammar was held by
Noam chomsky
a person's culture appears to have an effect on ___________ intelligence
crystallized