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Psych Mod 1
Terms in this set (67)
The Greek naturalist and philosopher _______ developed early theories about learning, _____, _____, emotion, ____, and personality. nature or nurture?
Learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception, and personality.
what is structuralism? who was is promoted by? used ____ to reveal the structure of the ____ mind
early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.
Functionalism. Who promoted it and who influenced it? it explored how ___ and _____ processes function. How they enable the organism to ____, survive, and ____.
early school of thought promted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Behaviorism. should be an ___ science. and should study behavior w/o reference to ____ process.
the view that psychology 1)should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologist today agree with 1 but not with 2.
humanistic psychology is a perspective that emphasized the ___ potential of ____ ppl
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy ppl
cognitive neuroscience. study of the ___ linked with cognition. (including _____, thinking, ____, and language.)
the interdisciplinary study of the brain actively linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
psychology is the science of ___ and ____ process
science of behavior and mental process
controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experiences make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
nurture- experience, external view (Aristotle's view)
nature - inherited, your genes etc. (Plato's view)
three levels of analysis
the differing complementary views from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any giving phenomenon.
an integrated approach
that incorporates biological, psychological and social- cultural levels of analysis.
basic research is a ____ science that aims to ___ psychology's knowledge base.
pure science that aims to increase psychology's knowledge base
applied research scientific study that aims to do what?
scienctific study that aims to solves problems
counseling psychology help ppl with what kind of problems and help in achieving greater ___ - ___.
assists ppl with problems in living (often related to school, work, or relationships) and in achieving greater well-being.
clinical psychology studies ___, and ___ ppl with ____ disorders
studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practices by physicians who sometimes proved medical treatments as well as psychological therapry
positive psychology is a scientific study of human functioning with a goal of what?
scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities thrive.
The first psychological lab was founded in 1879 by Wilhelm ____. His student _____ introduced the school of ___ which explored the basic elements of mind using the method of ___. This method proved unreliable or reliable?
Under the influence of evolutionary theorist Charles Darwin, philosopher-psychologist ____ ____ assumed that thinking developed because it was _______. As a ____ he focused on how mental and behavioral processes enable the organism to adapt and survive. In 1890, he published the first psychology textbook.
The first female president of the American psychological association was ____. The first women to receive a Ph. D in psychology was ____ who was the second female APA president and author of The Animal Mind.
Mary Whiton Calkins
Margaret floy Washburn
In its earliest years, psychology was defined as the science of ____ life. From the 1920s into the 1960s, psychology in America was redefined by John B. _____and BF _____ as the science of _____ behavior
John B. Watson
The other major force was Freudian psychology, which emphasized the ways our ____ thought process and our ___ responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior.
As a response to Freudian psychology and to _______, which they considered too limiting, pioneers ___ Rogers and Abraham ____ forged ____ psychology. The new perspective emphasized the ways the current environmental influences can nurture or limit our ___ potential and the importance of having our needs for ___ and acceptance.
During the 1960s, psychology underwent a ___ revolution as it began to recapture interest in how our ___ processes and retains information. The study of brain actively linked with mental activity is call ___ ____.
The text author defines psychology as the scientific study of ____ and ____ processes. In this definition, "behavior" refers to anyy acton that we _____ and ___, and "mental processes" refers to the internal, ____ _____ we ____ from behavior.
Behavior and mental
observe and record
subjective experiences we infer
As a science, psychology is less a set of finding than a way of _____ ____
Psychology is defined as the "science of behavior and mental processes." Wilhelm Wundt would have omitted which of the following words from this definition?
(how and why they do things. how do they relate to one another)
Jawan believes that psychologists should go back to using introspection as a research tool. This technique is base on ___-____ of ____ process.
self-examination of mental processes
Dharma's term paper on the history of American psychology notes that
psychology began as the science of mental life
From the 1920s into the 1960s, psychology was defined as the scientific study of observable behavior.
contemporary psychologists study both overt behavior and convert thoughts
During his presentation on the history of psychology, Sanjay notes that Darwin's theory led most directly to the development of school of ________.
The psychological views of William James are to those of Edward Titchener as _____ is to _______.
The historical roots of psychology include the fields of _____ and ______. Some early psychologist included Ivan Pavlov, who pioneered the study of _____ ; the personality theorist ____ Feud ; Jean Piaget, who studied ____, and William James, an American Philosopher.
philosophy and biology
Worldwide, the number of psychologist is ____. Thanks to international publications and meetings, psychological science is also ______.
The nature-nuture issue is the controversy over the relative contribuations of _____ and _____.
The greek Philosopher who assumed that character and intelligence are inheritied is ______. The Greek philospher who argued that all knowledge comes from sensory experience is _____.
In 1859, naturalist _____ Darwin explained species variation by proposing the process of ____, which works through the principle of _____ selection.
Although the debate continues, we will see that ___ works on what ______ endows and that every ____ event is simultaneously a ______ event.
nature works on what nurtures endows
The philosophical views of Aristotle are to those of plato as ____ is to _____.
Aristotle believed in nurture - learning by experience or shaped by experience etc.
Plato believed nature - which you inherited those things.
Each person is a complex ____ that is part of a
larger ____ system and at the same time composed of smaller systems. For this reason, psychologists work from three main ____ of ____ - biological, psychological, and ____- ___ - which together form an integrated _____ approach to the study of behavior and mental processes.
levels of analysis
physiological and social-cultural
Psychologists who study how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences are working from the ____ perspective.
Psychologist who study how natural selection influences behavior tendencies are working from _____ perspective, whereas those concerned with the relative influences of genes and environment on individuals differences are working from ___ ____ perspective.
behavior genetic perspective.
Psychologists who believe that behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts are working from the ______ persepctive
Psychologist who study how we learn observable responses are working from the _____ perspecitve
The ____ perspective explores how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
Psychologists who study how thinking and behavior vary in different situations are working from the _____- ____ perspective.
The different perspectives on big issues ___ on another.
who pioneered neuroscience?
Aristotle (preception, emotion) WUNDT
Who pioneered evolutionary?
Darwin and Freud
who pioneered behavior genetics
who pioneered psychodynamic
Aristotle (personality) Freud
who pioneered behavioral?
Aristotle (learning) Pavlov, watson, skinner
who pioneered cognitive?
Aristotle (memory) Wundt (quantifying mental processes) Piaget
who pioneered social-culutral?
Piaget, Rogers, Maslow
Professor Gutierrez, who believes that human emotions are best understood as being jointly determined by heredity, learning, and the individuals social and culutral contexts, is evidently a proponent of wht approach?
in concluding her report on the "nature-nurture issue in contemporary psychology," Karen notes that ______ works on what ______ endows.
Dr. Waung investigates how a persons interpretation of a situation affects his or her reaction. Dr. Waung is working form the _____ perspective.
The psychological perspective that places MOST emphasis on how observable responses are learne is the ____ perspective.
cognitive perspective emphasizes ______ whereas the behavioral perspective emphasizes _______
concerning the major psychological perspective on behavior, the text suggest that
the different perspecives often complement one another; together they proved a fuller understanding of behavior than proveded by any single perspective.
psychologists may be involved in conducting _______ research, which builds psychology's knowledge base, or ______ research which seeks solutions to practical problems.
psychologist who help ppl cope with problems in living are called _____ psychologists
psychologist who study, asses, and treat troubled ppl are called_______ psychologist
medical doctors who provide psychotherapy and treat physical causes of psychological disorders are called ______.
the sub-field of ______ psychology scientifically explores human strengths and human flourishing.
what is the testing affect?
repeated self-testing and rehersal of perviously studied material which improves retention.
to master any subject, you must ____ process it
SQ3R stands for
four additional study tips
distribute study time
learn how to think critically
process class info
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