201 terms

Nutrition Final

The development of chronic diseases
can be reduced by food choices along with lifestlye choices
organic nutrients
Fats, minerals, carbohydrates
Department of Health and Human Services
Nutrition related health objectives for the nation have been published by the...
Effects of physical activity on the body
Reduced risk of cardiovascualr diseases, faster wound healing, and increased body tissue.
protein and fat
energy yeilding nutrients
the most energy rich of the nutriends
Carbohydrate and protein each contain ___ calories in a gram.
Foods that have been subjected to any process such as addition of additives, milling, or cooking are called ___ foods.
the convenience of meals that require little or no preparation
factor that influences food choices by individuals
scientific journals
the source of valid nutrition information
collect information and learn about your current behaviors
best action to take in the precontemplation stage of change
we have been successful in reducing the number of deaths from heart disease and stroke
When evaluating the effectiveness of the nutrition and physical activity objectives in Healthy People 2010, public health officials have found that___
___do not yield usable energy.
determine what the nutrients and dietary intakes of the population in our country are
The main purpose of the national research projects, NHANES and CSFII, is to___
intervention study
Scientists have developed a new type of margarine containing plant ingredients they think will lower blood cholesterol levels in people who use the margarine. They want to test this by having some people use the new margarine for a while and then compare their cholesterol leverls with those of a group of people who use regular margarine. This is an example of what type of research desgin?
wait to apply the findings until they have been repeated and confirmed by scientists
You see a new finding about nutrition reported in your local newspaper. Based on this information you would___
minimum requirements, not recommendations
It is NOT true that the DRI are___
insufficient data exists to establish a value
If a nutrient does not have a Tolerable Upper Intake Level, this means that___
The DRI Committee recommended a diet that contains ___% of its calories from carbohydrates.
2,000- 2,500
The Daily Values reflect the needs of an average person consuming between ____ calories a day.
fruits and veggies, whole grains, and milk products
A major guideline for healthy people is to limit calorie intakes and obtain more and varied selections of___
numbers and sizes of servings to choose each day
Food group plans primarily dictate___
Discrentionary calorie allowance
___ may be spent on nutrient- dense foods, may be affected by physical activity level, and may be spent on added sugars.
more, greater
the ___ physically active you are, the ___ your discretionary calorie allowance
My Pyramid
This educational tool has been designed to help diet-planning individuals to create a diet more closely following the USDA Food Guide
calorie control
Exchange systems help primarily with___
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
If you are using nutrient supplements, you should become familiar with this nutrient intake recommendations.
the recommended amounts will vary, depending on age, physical activity, and gender
When determining the amounts of food to eat from each group in the USDA Food Guide each day, you need to remember that___
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are intended for healthy adults and children ages ___ and older.
health maintenance, disease prevention
What are the DRI designed for?
self- contained living entities
determines the nature of the cell's work
3 days
Cells lining the digestive tract replace themselves every___
brain cells
This type of cells do NOT reproduce and if damaged by injury or disease are lost forever
blood and lymph
the body's circulating fluids
The blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide in the ___
When the pancreas detects a high concentration of the blood's sugar, glucose, it releases___
secrete and release hormones into the body
stress response
Muscles tense up, liver pours forth glucose from its stores, and fat cells release fat. These are all apart of ___
The digestive tract needs ___, which provides bulk against which the muscles of the colon can work.
The stomach's main function is the digestion of what nutrient?
villi and microvilli
In the intestinal tract, these trap the nutrient particles and absorb them into the cells.
This organ excretes wastes from the body in urine.
This system reacts by releasing stored glucose from the liver suring the fight-or-flight response.
large intestine
As food moves through the digestive tract is spends the most time here.
What digestive issue would you consume foods with adequate fiber and drink enough water?
You should drink liquids an hour before and after meals and eat smaller meals to help with this condition.
Nutrients are delivered from the intestines through the circulatory system to the cells by transport through the blood to the ___ for chemical altering to make them better suited for use by the tissues.
preference for sweet tastes
Why would most people select cookies when given the choice between cookies, potato chips, and pickles?
monosaccharide responsible for the sweet taste of fruit
sucrose, maltose, lactose
fiber, gylcogen, starch
complex carbohydrates
the most used monosaccharide inside the body
forms gels
Soluble fiber is "viscous" because___
control total calories
The best way to lose fat, maintain lean body tissues, and maintain the health of the body is to ___
Prevents constipation and hemorrhoids, reduces the risks of heart and artery disease, and prevents appendicitis and diverticulosis. All are effects of ___
Dehydration and limited absorption of iron are the harmful effects of too much ___
According to the American Dietetic Association, a desirable intake of fiber is ___ grams daily.
Digestion of most starch begins in the___
Which nutrient is NOT required by law to add to refined grain products?
whole grain
Which term would you look for on a bread label to choose the most nutritious product?
ketone bodies
Products of the incomplete breakdown of fat that occurs when carbohydrates are not available are called ___
Approximately ___ grams a day of carbohydrates are needed to ensure complete sparing of body protein in an average- size person.
the first organ to respond when the blood glucose level rises after a meal
glycemic index
The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose level and elicits an insulin response as compared with pure glucose can be measured and ranked on a scaled called the___
Blurred vision, cravings for sweets, weakness, and excessive thirst and urination are symptoms suggestive of___
a family of organic compounds soluble in organic solvents but not in water
Cholesterol is the best known of the ___
Protecting the body from temperature extremes, cushioning the internal organs from physical shock, and providing the major material from which cell membranes are made are fuctions of ___ in the body.
Consist of three fatty acids and glyercol
saturated fat
If the fat in a container is solid at room temperature, what type of fat is it?
high saturated and trans fat intake
The main dietary factor associated with elevated blood cholesterol is ___
high LDL
NOT a desirable blood lipid value
Consuming ___ fatty fish meals a week will result in the right balance between omega-3 and omega- 6 intakes.
To protect yourself from consuming too much ___, you would limit your consumption of swordfish, king mackerel, and shark.
prevent them from becoming rancid and retard the oxidation process
Cooking oils should be stored in tightly covered containers in order to___
essential fatty acids
These are polunsaturated fatty acids that must be supplied by the diet.
The major storage form of fats in our body
reduce the intake of saturated and trans fat in your diet to lower LDL levels in the blood
What is the best dietary advice for someone who needs to lower her blood cholesterol levels?
This is found in protein but not in carbohydrate or fat
the side chain
The accounts for the differences among the various amino acids.
A ___ bond is formed between the amine group end of one amino acid and the acid group end of the next amino acid in a protein.
bases, alcohol, heat, salts
These denature proteins
a coat of mucus
The stomach lining is protected from the very strong acid of the stomach by___
protein turnover
eating food sources of amino acids every day to grow new cells and replace worn out ones
maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
Proteins attract water and hold it within blood vessels, preventing it from freely flowing into the spaces between cells. This is an example of how protein is used for ___
amino acids
If ___ are oversupplied, the body stores them until they are needed and the body removes and excretes their amine groups.
The DRI for protein for healthy adults is ___ grams per kilogram of body weight.
a surgery patient
Negative nitrogen balance occurs in ___.
accumulate fat in the liver and edema
What are characteristics of kwashiorkor?
enlarged kidneys in animals, worsening of existing kidney problems, and high fat foods that contribute to obesity
These are associated with an excess of protein.
milk and meat
These food groups of the USDA Food Guide contribute an abundance of high- quality protein.
The heavy use of soy products in place of meat can inhibit ___ absorption.
Additional protein for recovery should be as ___ protein because the digestive system can handle this form better.
the body has no place to store extra amino acids and amino acid residues are stored as fat
An athlete consumes large amounts of meat in an effort to build extra muscle tissue. This practice does not work because___
digestion and absorption
Cells in the small intestine preferentially absorb different types of amino acids, which causes competition by amino acids at the absorption sites. This is comparing___ and ___.
swollen belly, fluid buildup, brittle hair, irritability are symptoms of ___
calcium, vitamin B12, and zinc
Poorly- planned vegetarian diets usually lack___
an organic compound, indispensible to body fuction, needed in minute amounts
fat soluble vitamins
maintenance of body lining and reproduction
Vitamin A plays an important role in___ and ___.
bright yellow skin
What is one symptom of a beta- carotene toxicity?
The vitamin D deficiency disease in adults is known as ___
Vitamin E serves as an ___
intestinal bacteria
A non- food source from which vitamin K can be obtained is ___
citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli
Good sources of vitamin C
The B vitamins act as part of ___
The thiamin deficiency disease
Niacin deficiency disease
The B vitamin especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects
vitamin B12
An ununiformed strict vegetarian is at special risk for ___ deficiency.
Select a wide variety of foods to get a wide variety of ____
USP symbol
This, on the label of vitamin supplements, means that it contains the ingredients as listed on the label and that it will dissolve in the digestive tract.
Any disease that produces ___ malabsorption can bring about deficiences of vitamins A,D, E, K.
Which of the following makes up about 60 percent of the body's weight?
___ dissolves amino acids, glucose, and minerals, it is a universal solvent, and it acts as a lubricant around joints.
the first sign of dehydration
thirst and satiety
Water intake is governed by ___ and ___
brain and kidneys
Water excretion is regulated by the ___ and ___
calcium and magnesium
Hard water has high concentrations of ___ and ___
the most abundant mineral in the body
animal protein
the best source of phosphorus
Over half if the body's magnesium is stored in the ___
the chief ion used to maintain the volume of fluid outside cells
the principal positively charged ion inside body cells
the principal food source of chloride
What must be available for thyroxine to be synthesized?
tea and phytates
impair iron absorption
this food provides the highest amount of zinc
What mineral hardens and stabilizes the crystals of teeth and makes the enamel resistant to decay?
hemoglobin and collagen
Copper is an essential nutrient because of its role in helping to form ___ and ___
formation of dense bones during youth
Bone strength in later life depends on ___
Dying first during a famine or siege, disadvantage in the hospital after surgery, and a person with cancer can die of starvation rather than the cancer. These are all risks from being ___
cancer and gallbladder disease
Excess body fatness is associated with an increased risk of ___ and ___.
visceral fatness
Waist circumference reflects the degree of ___ in proportion to body fatness.
A body mass index of 25-29.9 in an adult indicates ___.
central abdominal area
Excess fat around the ___ represents a greater risk to health than excess fat elsewhere on the body.
stress, fever, youth
factors associated with a higher basal metabolic rate
the hormone produced by adipose tissue in response to body fat production that helps control obesity
the psychological desire to eat
fiber and protein
Foods high in ___ and ___ sustain satiety longer than other foods.
the built environment
one "outside of the body" fact that contributes to obesity
increase in lean muscle tissue, which burns more energy
one of the major benefits of physical activity for weight management
Participating in physical activity and eating more frequently will help a person ___ weight.
dehydration, infection, nausea
complications immediately following obesity surgery
portion sizes
Remember to choose smaller plates, glasses, and utensils and eat just until satisfied and then stop, are valid recommendations for managing ____.
Bulimia nervosa is characterized by ___
aerobic physical activity
activity in which the body's large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time; also called endurance fitness and improved cardiorespiratory fitness
brisk walking, running, swimming, bicycling
examples of aerobic physical activity
At this level of intensity, breathing and/or heart rate has little to no increase, <5 perceived exertion, able to sing, <3.5 kcal/min energy expenditure, and <3 mph walking pace.
At this level of intensity, breathing and/or heart rate has some increase, 5 or 6 perceived exertion, able to have a conversation, 3.5- 7 kcal/min energy expenditure, and 3- 4.5 (100 steps per min) mph walking pace.
At this level of intensity, breathing and/or heart rate has large increase, 7 or 8 perceived exertion, conversation is difficult, >7 kcal/min energy expenditure, and >4.5 mph walking pace.
According to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, sedentary activity to happen ___.
2 or more days per week
According to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, strength activities should happen ___
5 or more days per week
According to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, moderate or vigorous aerobic activities should happen ___
According to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, flexibility activities should happen ___
flexibility, muscle strength and endurance, and cardiorespiratory endurance
components of fitness
Muscle cells and tissues respond to an overload of physical activity by gaining strength and size, a response called ___
muscles strengthen and firm, greater energy expenditure
benefits of weight/ resistance training
cardiorespiratory training
enhances the capacity of the heart, lungs, and blood to deliver oxygen to, and removes waste from, the body's cells
elevate heart rate, sustained for longer than 20 minutes, use most of the large- muscle groups of the body
characteristics of cardiorespiratory training
</= 50
resting pulse rate in active people
glucose, fatty acids, amino acids
fuels that support physical activity
glucose, lactate
During anaerobic metabolism, the body spends ___ rapidly and accumulates ___.
ways to delay glucose depletion
eating a high carb diet on a daily basis, take in some glucose during the activity, consuming carb- rich foods within a couple hours after exercise
first 10 mintues
In the ___ of an activity, the active muscles rely almost entirely on their own stores of glycogen for glucose.
physically active young women (runners)
group more prone to iron deficiency
low blood hemoglobin
sports anemia
glucose helps maintain hydration and contribute to blood glucose; sodium and other electrolytes are replenished
benefits of sports drinks over water
risk factors for CVD
increasing age, male gender, genetic inheritance, high blood LDL, low blood HDL, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, saturated fat diet
metabolic syndrome
a combination of characteristic factors- high fasting blood glucose or insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, low blood HDL cholesterol, and elevated blood triglycerides- that greatly increase a person's risk of developing CVD.
atherogenic diet
a diet high in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol- increases LDL levels
dieatary strategies to reduce risk of CVD
limit saturated and trans fats, choose soluble fibers, choose potassium and sodium, minimize added sugars, choose omega-3, choose added plant sterols, choose soy, limit alcohol
cruciferous vegetables
broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, turnips
this increases risk for breast cancer
___ plays a central role in all stages of atherosclerosis, and a blood test for compounds released during inflammation can help idenitfy people at high or very high risk of CVD before a life- threatening event occurs.
foodborne illness
illness transmitted to humans through food and water
foodborne intoxication
a poisonous substance arising from microbial toxins, poisonous chemicals, or other harmful substances
MAP (modified atmosphere packaging
a preservation technique in which perishable food is packages in a gas-impermeable container from which air has been removed or to which another gas mixture has been added
added to meats and meat products help to preserve their color and inhibit rancidity and thwart bacterial growth
Which artificial sweetener should not be given to individuals with phenylketonuria?
a noncaloris artificial fat made from sucrose and fatty acids; formerly called sucrose polyester; binds to fat- soluble vitamins
cross contamination
Keeping the raw foods and their juices away from ready- to- eat foods prevents ___
MSG system complex
the acute, temporary, and self- limiting reactions, including burning sensations or flushing of the skin with pain and headache, experienced by sensitive people upon ingesting a large dose of MSG
a supply depot and a waste- removal system for the fetus
central nervous system, a beating heart, a fully formed digestive system, well defined fingers and toes, and the beginning of facial features
the fetus at 8 weeks
340-450 more cals per day
calorie needs for a pregnant woman
milk, cheese, yogurt, and other calcium rich foods
For pregnant women to meet their calcium needs, they should consume more___
FASD (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders)
a spectrum of physical, behavioral, and cognitive disabilities caused by prenatal alcohol exposure
FAS (fetal alcohol syndrom)
the cluster of symptoms including brain damage, growth retardation, mental retardation, and facial abnormalities seen in an infant or child whose mother consumed alcohol during her pregnancy
gestational diabetes
What are these risk factors for? Age 25+, BMI >/= 25, complications in previous pregnancies, prediabetes, family history of diabetes, african american, asian american, hispanic american, native american, pacific islander
a milklike secretion from the breasts during the first day or so after delivery before milk appears; rich in protective factors
after the first birthday
When does a child's appetite fluctuate?
10 micrograms (400 IU) per day
the amount of vitamin D children should receive
7-10 mg per day
the amount of iron children should receive
To prevent ___, encourage the child to sit when eating, avoid/ cut up round foods (grapes, nuts, hard candies, hot dogs), and be aware of meat chunks, popcorn, chips, and peanut butter eaten by the spoonful.
sweet fruits mild- flavored veggies
foods prefered by children
anaphylactic shock
a life- threatening whole- body allergic reaction to an offending substance
peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, wheat soybeans, fish, shellfish
foods most likely to cause anaphylactic shock
offering new foods at the beginning of the meal when the child in hungry and setting a parental example
best ways to introduce new foods into a toddler's diet
food recovery
collecting wholesome surplus food for distribution to low-income people who are hungry